Experts and Doctors on caenorhabditis elegans in Dallas, Texas, United States


Locale: Dallas, Texas, United States
Topic: caenorhabditis elegans

Top Publications

  1. Robertson S, Lin R. The oocyte-to-embryo transition. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;757:351-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We will highlight protein degradation and translational repression, two posttranscriptional processes which play particularly critical roles in this transition. ..
  2. Huang S, Jia K, Wang Y, Zhou Z, Levine B. Autophagy genes function in apoptotic cell corpse clearance during C. elegans embryonic development. Autophagy. 2013;9:138-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that autophagy proteins play an important role in cell corpse clearance during nematode embryonic development, and likely function in parallel to known pathways involved in corpse removal. ..
  3. Suh J, Zeve D, McKay R, Seo J, Salo Z, Li R, et al. Adipose is a conserved dosage-sensitive antiobesity gene. Cell Metab. 2007;6:195-207 pubmed
    ..Thus Adp appears to be involved in an ancient pathway that regulates fat accumulation. ..
  4. Galluzzi L, Baehrecke E, Ballabio A, Boya P, Bravo San Pedro J, Cecconi F, et al. Molecular definitions of autophagy and related processes. EMBO J. 2017;36:1811-1836 pubmed publisher
    ..The ultimate objective of this collaborative exchange is to formulate recommendations that facilitate the dissemination of knowledge within and outside the field of autophagy research. ..
  5. Raizen D, Avery L. Electrical activity and behavior in the pharynx of Caenorhabditis elegans. Neuron. 1994;12:483-95 pubmed
  6. Davis M, Fleischhauer R, Dent J, Joho R, Avery L. A mutation in the C. elegans EXP-2 potassium channel that alters feeding behavior. Science. 1999;286:2501-4 pubmed
  7. Wang Z, Zhou X, Motola D, Gao X, Suino Powell K, Conneely A, et al. Identification of the nuclear receptor DAF-12 as a therapeutic target in parasitic nematodes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9138-43 pubmed publisher
    ..stercoralis DAF-12 ligand-binding domain cocrystallized with dafachronic acids. These results reveal the molecular basis for DAF-12 ligand binding and identify nuclear receptors as unique therapeutic targets in parasitic nematodes. ..
  8. Detwiler M, Reuben M, Li X, Rogers E, Lin R. Two zinc finger proteins, OMA-1 and OMA-2, are redundantly required for oocyte maturation in C. elegans. Dev Cell. 2001;1:187-99 pubmed
    ..The Oma prophase arrest is released by inactivation of a MYT-1-like kinase, suggesting that OMA-1 and OMA-2 function upstream of MYT-1 as positive regulators of prophase progression during meiotic maturation. ..
  9. McKay R, Peters J, Graff J. The casein kinase I family in Wnt signaling. Dev Biol. 2001;235:388-96 pubmed
    ..These studies advance our understanding of the mechanism of Wnt action and suggest that more than one CKI isoform is capable of transducing Wnt signals in vivo. ..

More Information


  1. You Y, Kim J, Cobb M, Avery L. Starvation activates MAP kinase through the muscarinic acetylcholine pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx. Cell Metab. 2006;3:237-45 pubmed
    ..We suggest that, during starvation, the muscarinic pathway to MAPK is activated to change the pharyngeal muscle physiology to enhance ingestion of food when food becomes available. ..
  2. Robertson S, Lo M, Odom R, Yang X, Medina J, Huang S, et al. Functional analyses of vertebrate TCF proteins in C. elegans embryos. Dev Biol. 2011;355:115-23 pubmed publisher
  3. Karakuzu O, Wang D, Cameron S. MIG-32 and SPAT-3A are PRC1 homologs that control neuronal migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. Development. 2009;136:943-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, unlike the mes mutants, mig-32 and spat-3 mutants are fertile, suggesting that PRC1 function is not absolutely required in the germline for essential functions of PRC2. ..
  4. Steger K, Shtonda B, Thacker C, Snutch T, Avery L. The C. elegans T-type calcium channel CCA-1 boosts neuromuscular transmission. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:2191-203 pubmed
    ..We also show that the pharyngeal muscle employs alternative strategies for initiating action potentials in certain cases of compromised MC motor neuron function. ..
  5. Liu Q, Rand T, Kalidas S, Du F, Kim H, Smith D, et al. R2D2, a bridge between the initiation and effector steps of the Drosophila RNAi pathway. Science. 2003;301:1921-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that R2D2 bridges the initiation and effector steps of the Drosophila RNAi pathway by facilitating siRNA passage from Dicer to RISC. ..
  6. Kramer H. The ups and downs of life in an epithelium. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:F15-8 pubmed
  7. Peng S, Crider B, Tsai S, Xie X, Stone D. Identification of a 14-kDa subunit associated with the catalytic sector of clathrin-coated vesicle H+-ATPase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:3324-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, direct sequencing of this 14-kDa component of the coated vacuolar proton pump confirmed its identity as a subunit F homologue. ..
  8. Lee R, Sawin E, Chalfie M, Horvitz H, Avery L. EAT-4, a homolog of a mammalian sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter, is necessary for glutamatergic neurotransmission in caenorhabditis elegans. J Neurosci. 1999;19:159-67 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that phosphate ions imported into glutamatergic neurons through transporters such as EAT-4 and BNPI are required specifically for glutamatergic neurotransmission. ..
  9. Kosarek J, Woodruff R, Rivera Begeman A, Guo C, D Souza S, Koonin E, et al. Comparative analysis of in vivo interactions between Rev1 protein and other Y-family DNA polymerases in animals and yeasts. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:439-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study suggest that special consideration should be exercised when making mechanistic extrapolations regarding translesion DNA synthesis from one eukaryotic system to another. ..
  10. Shtonda B, Avery L. CCA-1, EGL-19 and EXP-2 currents shape action potentials in the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:2177-90 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that EXP-2 is a potassium channel with unusual properties that uses a hyperpolarization threshold to activate a regenerative hyperpolarizing current. ..
  11. zkan E, Chia P, Wang R, Goriatcheva N, Borek D, Otwinowski Z, et al. Extracellular architecture of the SYG-1/SYG-2 adhesion complex instructs synaptogenesis. Cell. 2014;156:482-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SYG extracellular complexes do not simply act as "molecular velcro" and that their distinct structural features are important in instructing synaptogenesis. PAPERFLICK:..
  12. Guven Ozkan T, Robertson S, Nishi Y, Lin R. zif-1 translational repression defines a second, mutually exclusive OMA function in germline transcriptional repression. Development. 2010;137:3373-82 pubmed publisher
  13. Park S, Bin N, Yu B, Wong R, Sitarska E, Sugita K, et al. UNC-18 and Tomosyn Antagonistically Control Synaptic Vesicle Priming Downstream of UNC-13 in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Neurosci. 2017;37:8797-8815 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study provides novel mechanistic insights into how Munc18/UNC-18 primes synaptic vesicle release and how this protein interacts functionally with Munc13/UNC-13 and Tomosyn/TOM-1. ..
  14. Jia K, Levine B. Autophagy is required for dietary restriction-mediated life span extension in C. elegans. Autophagy. 2007;3:597-9 pubmed
    ..elegans life span. Since autophagy and longevity control are highly conserved from C. elegans to mammals, a similar role for autophagy in dietary restriction-mediated life span extension may also exist in mammals. ..
  15. Zubovych I, Straud S, Roth M. Mitochondrial dysfunction confers resistance to multiple drugs in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:956-69 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans. Using genetics, we show that this drug resistance requires pkc-1, the C. elegans ortholog of human PKCepsilon. ..
  16. Chia P, Chen B, Li P, Rosen M, Shen K. Local F-actin network links synapse formation and axon branching. Cell. 2014;156:208-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that synaptic adhesion molecules, which serve as a necessary component for both synaptogenesis and axonal branch formation, directly regulate subcellular actin cytoskeletal organization. ..
  17. Straud S, Lee I, Song B, Avery L, You Y. The jaw of the worm: GTPase-activating protein EAT-17 regulates grinder formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2013;195:115-25 pubmed publisher
    ..2. Based on the conserved function of Rab6 in vesicular transport, we propose that EAT-17 regulates the turnover rate of RAB-6.2 activity in cargo trafficking for grinder formation. ..
  18. Kang C, Avery L. Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and signal transduction: fine-tuning of autophagy in Caenorhabditis elegans homeostasis. FEBS J. 2010;277:66-73 pubmed publisher
  19. Davis M, Somerville D, Lee R, Lockery S, Avery L, Fambrough D. Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit gene, eat-6, disrupt excitable cell function. J Neurosci. 1995;15:8408-18 pubmed
    ..To explain these abnormalities, we propose that a reduction of Na,K-ATPase activity in eat-6 mutants leads to a reduction of the ion concentration gradients that power membrane potential changes. ..
  20. Peters J, McKay R, McKay J, Graff J. Casein kinase I transduces Wnt signals. Nature. 1999;401:345-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, CKI bound to and increased the phosphorylation of dishevelled, a known component of the Wnt pathway. These data indicate that CKI may be a conserved component of the Wnt pathway. ..
  21. Jia K, Hart A, Levine B. Autophagy genes protect against disease caused by polyglutamine expansion proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. Autophagy. 2007;3:21-5 pubmed
    ..These data provide in vivo genetic evidence that autophagy genes suppress the accumulation of polyQ aggregates and protect cells from disease caused by polyQ toxicity. ..
  22. Dent J, Smith M, Vassilatis D, Avery L. The genetics of ivermectin resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:2674-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the evolution of drug resistance can be slowed by targeting antibiotic drugs to several members of a multigene family. ..
  23. Oldenbroek M, Robertson S, Guven Ozkan T, Gore S, Nishi Y, Lin R. Multiple RNA-binding proteins function combinatorially to control the soma-restricted expression pattern of the E3 ligase subunit ZIF-1. Dev Biol. 2012;363:388-98 pubmed publisher
  24. Shin O, Han W, Wang Y, Sudhof T. Evolutionarily conserved multiple C2 domain proteins with two transmembrane regions (MCTPs) and unusual Ca2+ binding properties. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:1641-51 pubmed
  25. Berman K, Hutchison M, Avery L, Cobb M. kin-18, a C. elegans protein kinase involved in feeding. Gene. 2001;279:137-47 pubmed
    ..We have also identified a C. elegans gene that encodes a protein kinase similar to mammalian MAPK/ERK Kinase (MEK) 4 whose promoter is active in the pharynx. It is phosphorylated by TAO1 in vitro and physically interacts with TAO1. ..
  26. Song B, Avery L. Serotonin activates overall feeding by activating two separate neural pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Neurosci. 2012;32:1920-31 pubmed publisher
    ..2004), we propose a model that explains how the two feeding motions are separately regulated yet coupled. The feeding organ may have evolved this way to support efficient feeding. ..
  27. Keane J, Avery L. Mechanosensory inputs influence Caenorhabditis elegans pharyngeal activity via ivermectin sensitivity genes. Genetics. 2003;164:153-62 pubmed
  28. Li C, Tucker P. DNA-binding properties and secondary structural model of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 3/fork head domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:11583-7 pubmed
    ..An aromatic kink and a third amphipathic helix comprise the center of the domain. At the C terminus, two variable-length loops flank a putative 7-amino acid helix followed by a short basic region. ..
  29. Han S, Bahmanyar S, Zhang P, Grishin N, Oegema K, Crooke R, et al. Nuclear envelope phosphatase 1-regulatory subunit 1 (formerly TMEM188) is the metazoan Spo7p ortholog and functions in the lipin activation pathway. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:3123-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The nuclear fraction of lipin-1b is increased when CTDNEP1 and NEP1-R1 are co-expressed. Therefore, NEP1-R1 is functionally conserved from yeast to humans and functions in the lipin activation pathway. ..
  30. Fernandez Chacon R, Sudhof T. Novel SCAMPs lacking NPF repeats: ubiquitous and synaptic vesicle-specific forms implicate SCAMPs in multiple membrane-trafficking functions. J Neurosci. 2000;20:7941-50 pubmed
  31. Wilkie T. G proteins, chemosensory perception, and the C. elegans genome project: An attractive story. Bioessays. 1999;21:713-7 pubmed
    ..The orthologous genes are widely expressed, whereas 14 of the divergent Galpha genes are almost exclusively expressed in sensory neurons where they may regulate perception and chemotaxis. ..
  32. McKay R, McKay J, Avery L, Graff J. C elegans: a model for exploring the genetics of fat storage. Dev Cell. 2003;4:131-42 pubmed
    ..A third encodes lpd-3, whose homolog is also required for fat storage in a mammalian model. These data suggest that C. elegans is a genetically tractable model to study the mechanisms that underlie the biology of fat-storing tissues. ..
  33. Kang C, You Y, Avery L. Dual roles of autophagy in the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans during starvation. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2161-71 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that autophagy can have either prosurvival or prodeath functions in an organism, depending on its level of activation. ..
  34. Rogers E, Bishop J, Waddle J, Schumacher J, Lin R. The aurora kinase AIR-2 functions in the release of chromosome cohesion in Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:219-29 pubmed
    ..We propose that AIR-2 promotes the release of chromosome cohesion via phosphorylation of REC-8 at specific chromosomal locations and that CeGLC-7alpha/beta, directly or indirectly, antagonize AIR-2 activity. ..
  35. Robertson S, Shetty P, Lin R. Identification of lineage-specific zygotic transcripts in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Dev Biol. 2004;276:493-507 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the successful combination of single-staged embryo cDNAs, genetic mutants, and whole transcriptome microarray analysis to identify stage- and lineage-specific transcripts in early C. elegans embryos. ..
  36. Hata Y, Slaughter C, Sudhof T. Synaptic vesicle fusion complex contains unc-18 homologue bound to syntaxin. Nature. 1993;366:347-51 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that Munc-18 is a previously unidentified essential component of the synaptic vesicle fusion protein complex. ..
  37. Avery L. Caenorhabditis elegans behavioral genetics: where are the knobs?. BMC Biol. 2010;8:69 pubmed publisher
    ..I suggest a set of criteria by which some genes important in the evolution of behavior might be recognized, and identify neuropeptide signaling pathways as candidates. ..
  38. McKay J, Raizen D, Gottschalk A, Schafer W, Avery L. eat-2 and eat-18 are required for nicotinic neurotransmission in the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx. Genetics. 2004;166:161-9 pubmed
    ..In eat-18 mutants, the gross localization of EAT-2 at the MC synapse is normal, suggesting that it is not required for trafficking. These data indicate that eat-18 could be a novel component of the pharyngeal nicotinic receptor. ..
  39. Steger K, Avery L. The GAR-3 muscarinic receptor cooperates with calcium signals to regulate muscle contraction in the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx. Genetics. 2004;167:633-43 pubmed
    ..Because the effects of GAR-3 signaling on membrane depolarization and muscle contraction can be separated, we conclude that GAR-3 regulates multiple calcium-dependent processes in the C. elegans pharyngeal muscle. ..
  40. Yang X, Huang S, Lo M, Mizumoto K, Sawa H, Xu W, et al. Distinct and mutually inhibitory binding by two divergent ?-catenins coordinates TCF levels and activity in C. elegans. Development. 2011;138:4255-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies could provide novel insights into cancers arising from aberrant Wnt activation. ..
  41. Das R, Melo J, Thondamal M, Morton E, Cornwell A, Crick B, et al. The homeodomain-interacting protein kinase HPK-1 preserves protein homeostasis and longevity through master regulatory control of the HSF-1 chaperone network and TORC1-restricted autophagy in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007038 pubmed publisher
    ..HPK-1 therefore provides a promising intervention point for pharmacological agents targeting the protein homeostasis system as a means of preserving robust longevity. ..
  42. Guven Ozkan T, Nishi Y, Robertson S, Lin R. Global transcriptional repression in C. elegans germline precursors by regulated sequestration of TAF-4. Cell. 2008;135:149-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that phosphorylation by MBK-2 serves as a developmental switch, converting OMA-1/2 from oocyte to embryo regulators. ..
  43. Avery L. The genetics of feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 1993;133:897-917 pubmed and eat-12 mutants failed to relax their pharyngeal muscles properly. These pharyngeal motion defects are most easily explained as resulting from abnormal electrical excitability of the pharyngeal muscle membrane. ..
  44. Janz R, Hofmann K, Sudhof T. SVOP, an evolutionarily conserved synaptic vesicle protein, suggests novel transport functions of synaptic vesicles. J Neurosci. 1998;18:9269-81 pubmed
  45. Huang S, Shetty P, Robertson S, Lin R. Binary cell fate specification during C. elegans embryogenesis driven by reiterated reciprocal asymmetry of TCF POP-1 and its coactivator beta-catenin SYS-1. Development. 2007;134:2685-95 pubmed
    ..We propose that two genetic pathways, one increasing SYS-1 and the other decreasing POP-1 levels, robustly elevate the SYS-1-to-POP-1 ratio in the posterior cell, thereby driving A-P differential cell fates. ..
  46. Nishi Y, Lin R. DYRK2 and GSK-3 phosphorylate and promote the timely degradation of OMA-1, a key regulator of the oocyte-to-embryo transition in C. elegans. Dev Biol. 2005;288:139-49 pubmed
    ..elegans. ..
  47. Hua X, Nohturfft A, Goldstein J, Brown M. Sterol resistance in CHO cells traced to point mutation in SREBP cleavage-activating protein. Cell. 1996;87:415-26 pubmed
    ..SCAP appears to be a central regulator of cholesterol metabolism in animal cells...
  48. Oldenbroek M, Robertson S, Guven Ozkan T, Spike C, Greenstein D, Lin R. Regulation of maternal Wnt mRNA translation in C. elegans embryos. Development. 2013;140:4614-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the 3'UTR of maternal mRNAs contains a combinatorial code that determines the topography of associated RBPs, integrating positive and negative translational inputs. ..
  49. MacQueen A, Baggett J, Perumov N, Bauer R, Januszewski T, Schriefer L, et al. ACT-5 is an essential Caenorhabditis elegans actin required for intestinal microvilli formation. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3247-59 pubmed
  50. Lin R. A gain-of-function mutation in oma-1, a C. elegans gene required for oocyte maturation, results in delayed degradation of maternal proteins and embryonic lethality. Dev Biol. 2003;258:226-39 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that oma-1, in addition to its role in oocyte maturation, contributes to early embryonic development by regulating the temporal degradation of maternal proteins in early C. elegans embryos. ..
  51. Igarashi P. Overview: nonmammalian organisms for studies of kidney development and disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:296-8 pubmed
  52. Nishi Y, Rogers E, Robertson S, Lin R. Polo kinases regulate C. elegans embryonic polarity via binding to DYRK2-primed MEX-5 and MEX-6. Development. 2008;135:687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a mechanism by which MEX-5 and MEX-6 function is temporally regulated during the crucial oocyte-to-embryo transition. ..
  53. Guo Y, Chen S, Shetty P, Zheng G, Lin R, Li W. Imaging dynamic cell-cell junctional coupling in vivo using Trojan-LAMP. Nat Methods. 2008;5:835-41 pubmed publisher
    ..As dextran-CANPE-HCC is chemically and metabolically stable, Labeled worms showed very bright signal upon photoactivation after hatching, which allowed us to examine cell coupling in living worms noninvasively. ..
  54. Liu H, Strauss T, Potts M, Cameron S. Direct regulation of egl-1 and of programmed cell death by the Hox protein MAB-5 and by CEH-20, a C. elegans homolog of Pbx1. Development. 2006;133:641-50 pubmed
    ..Direct regulation of programmed cell death may be an evolutionarily ancient and conserved function of Hox genes. ..
  55. Berman K, McKay J, Avery L, Cobb M. Isolation and characterization of pmk-(1-3): three p38 homologs in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Cell Biol Res Commun. 2001;4:337-44 pubmed
    ..PMK-1 and PMK-2 phosphorylated activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2), indicating an activity similar to mammalian p38. When transfected into mammalian cells, these kinases, like p38, are stimulated by osmotic stresses. ..
  56. McKay R, McKay J, Suh J, Avery L, Graff J. Tripeptidyl peptidase II promotes fat formation in a conserved fashion. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:1183-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that TPPII has central and peripheral roles in regulating metabolism and that TPPII actions in fat-storing tissues might be an ancient function carried out in a protease-independent manner. ..
  57. Yu S, Avery L, Baude E, Garbers D. Guanylyl cyclase expression in specific sensory neurons: a new family of chemosensory receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3384-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the guanylyl cyclases represent an unexpectedly large and new family of sensory neuron receptors that may complement the 7-transmembrane family of odorant/pheromone receptors. ..
  58. Eberhart C, Wasserman S. The pelota locus encodes a protein required for meiotic cell division: an analysis of G2/M arrest in Drosophila spermatogenesis. Development. 1995;121:3477-86 pubmed
    ..pelota is also required for patterning in the eye and mitotic divisions in the ovary. We have cloned the pelota locus and show it encodes a 44 x 10(3) M(r) protein with yeast, plant, worm and human homologs. ..
  59. Lo M, Gay F, Odom R, Shi Y, Lin R. Phosphorylation by the beta-catenin/MAPK complex promotes 14-3-3-mediated nuclear export of TCF/POP-1 in signal-responsive cells in C. elegans. Cell. 2004;117:95-106 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a model whereby Wnt/MAPK signaling downregulates POP-1 levels in responsive cells, in part by increasing nuclear LIT-1 levels, thereby increasing POP-1 phosphorylation and PAR-5-mediated nuclear export. ..
  60. Motola D, Cummins C, Rottiers V, Sharma K, Li T, Li Y, et al. Identification of ligands for DAF-12 that govern dauer formation and reproduction in C. elegans. Cell. 2006;124:1209-23 pubmed
  61. Jia K, Thomas C, Akbar M, Sun Q, Adams Huet B, Gilpin C, et al. Autophagy genes protect against Salmonella typhimurium infection and mediate insulin signaling-regulated pathogen resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, autophagy genes play an essential role in host defense in vivo against an intracellular bacterial pathogen and mediate pathogen resistance in long-lived mutant nematodes. ..
  62. You Y, Kim J, Raizen D, Avery L. Insulin, cGMP, and TGF-beta signals regulate food intake and quiescence in C. elegans: a model for satiety. Cell Metab. 2008;7:249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The EGL-4 cGMP-dependent protein kinase functions downstream of insulin and TGF-beta in sensory neurons including ASI to control quiescence in response to food intake. ..
  63. Shetty P, Lo M, Robertson S, Lin R. C. elegans TCF protein, POP-1, converts from repressor to activator as a result of Wnt-induced lowering of nuclear levels. Dev Biol. 2005;285:584-92 pubmed
    ..We propose that the balance between TCF/LEF and coactivator(s), achieved by elevating coactivator levels (the canonical pathway) and/or reducing TCF/LEF levels (worm endoderm), determines Wnt signal strength. ..