Genomes and Genes
Experts and Doctors on meiosis in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Locale: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
- Bugreev D, Golub E, Stasiak A, Stasiak A, Mazin A. Activation of human meiosis-specific recombinase Dmc1 by Ca2+. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26886-95 pubmed..single-stranded DNA complexes. Our results demonstrate a universal role of Ca2+ in stimulation of mammalian DNA strand exchange proteins and reveal diversity in the mechanisms of this stimulation. ..
- Wang P, Pan J. The role of spermatogonially expressed germ cell-specific genes in mammalian meiosis. Chromosome Res. 2007;15:623-32 pubmed..In particular, we cite previously unpublished studies demonstrating that the NXF2 protein, an X-encoded factor, is present in early spermatocytes. ..
- Cooper K, Mallory M, Egeland D, Jarnik M, Strich R. Ama1p is a meiosis-specific regulator of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:14548-53 pubmed..The requirement of Ama1p only for meiosis I and spore morphogenesis suggests a function for APC/C(Ama1) specifically adapted to germ cell development. ..
- Brouha B, Meischl C, Ostertag E, de Boer M, Zhang Y, Neijens H, et al. Evidence consistent with human L1 retrotransposition in maternal meiosis I. Am J Hum Genet. 2002;71:327-36 pubmed..Since the mother carries a potential precursor allele and the insertion was on the patient's maternal X chromosome, it is highly likely that the insertion originated during maternal meiosis I. ..
- Syed V, Hecht N. Selective loss of Sertoli cell and germ cell function leads to a disruption in sertoli cell-germ cell communication during aging in the Brown Norway rat. Biol Reprod. 2001;64:107-12 pubmed..Such disruptions in communication between Sertoli cells and germ cells likely contribute to germ cell loss during aging. ..
- Brown R, Ord T, Moss S, Williams C. A-kinase anchor proteins as potential regulators of protein kinase A function in oocytes. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:981-7 pubmed..AKAP140 was shown to be a dual-specific AKAP, having the ability to bind both RI and RII. By compartmentalizing PKA, AKAP140 and/or other AKAPs could spatially regulate PKA activity during oocyte development. ..
- Deng M, Williams C, Schultz R. Role of MAP kinase and myosin light chain kinase in chromosome-induced development of mouse egg polarity. Dev Biol. 2005;278:358-66 pubmed..These results provide new insights into how cortical reorganization occurs independently of extracellular signals to generate egg polarity. ..
- Franklin Dumont T, Chatterjee C, Wasserman S, Dinardo S. A novel eIF4G homolog, Off-schedule, couples translational control to meiosis and differentiation in Drosophila spermatocytes. Development. 2007;134:2851-61 pubmed..Based on these studies, we speculate that spermatocytes monitor G(2) growth as one means to coordinate the initiation of meiotic division and differentiation. ..
- Syed V, Gomez E, Hecht N. Messenger ribonucleic acids encoding a serotonin receptor and a novel gene are induced in Sertoli cells by a secreted factor(s) from male rat meiotic germ cells. Endocrinology. 1999;140:5754-60 pubmed..The induction of a serotonin receptor mRNA and a second novel mRNA in Sertoli cells by pachytene spermatocytes demonstrates that meiotic germ cells induce mRNA encoding an important receptor in Sertoli cells. ..
- Schindler K, Benjamin K, Martin A, Boglioli A, Herskowitz I, Winter E. The Cdk-activating kinase Cak1p promotes meiotic S phase through Ime2p. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8718-28 pubmed..These data show that Cak1p is required for the destruction of Sic1p in meiosis, as in mitosis, but in meiosis, it functions through a sporulation-specific kinase. ..
- Yang F, De La Fuente R, Leu N, Baumann C, McLaughlin K, Wang P. Mouse SYCP2 is required for synaptonemal complex assembly and chromosomal synapsis during male meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:497-507 pubmed
- Berkowitz K, Sowash A, Koenig L, Urcuyo D, Khan F, Yang F, et al. Disruption of CHTF18 causes defective meiotic recombination in male mice. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002996 pubmed publisher..These findings demonstrate essential roles for CHTF18 in mammalian spermatogenesis and meiosis, and suggest that CHTF18 may function during the double-strand break repair pathway to promote the formation of crossovers. ..
- Zhou J, McCarrey J, Wang P. A 1.1-Mb segmental deletion on the X chromosome causes meiotic failure in male mice. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:159 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate that this 1.1-Mb region contains one or more novel X-linked factors that are essential for male meiosis. ..
- Elkouby Y, Mullins M. Coordination of cellular differentiation, polarity, mitosis and meiosis - New findings from early vertebrate oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2017;430:275-287 pubmed publisher..Here, we review these advances mostly from the zebrafish and mouse. We discuss oogenesis concepts across established model organisms, and construct an inclusive paradigm for early oocyte differentiation in vertebrates. ..
- Bugreev D, Pezza R, Mazina O, Voloshin O, Camerini Otero R, Mazin A. The resistance of DMC1 D-loops to dissociation may account for the DMC1 requirement in meiosis. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:56-60 pubmed publisher..We propose that the intrinsic resistance to dissociation of DMC1 strand-invasion intermediates may account for why DMC1 is essential to ensure the proper segregation of chromosomes in meiosis. ..
- Bocker T, Barusevicius A, Snowden T, Rasio D, Guerrette S, Robbins D, et al. hMSH5: a human MutS homologue that forms a novel heterodimer with hMSH4 and is expressed during spermatogenesis. Cancer Res. 1999;59:816-22 pubmed..hMSH5 interacts specifically with hMSH4, confirming the generality of functional heterodimeric interactions in the eukaryotic MutS homologue, which also includes hMSH2-hMSH3 and hMSH2-hMSH6. ..
- Buetow K, Shiang R, Yang P, Nakamura Y, Lathrop G, White R, et al. A detailed multipoint map of human chromosome 4 provides evidence for linkage heterogeneity and position-specific recombination rates. Am J Hum Genet. 1991;48:911-25 pubmed..It additionally provides evidence for position-specific recombination frequencies in the telomeric region of 4p. ..
- Stein P. Microinjection of plasmids into meiotically incompetent mouse oocytes. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2009;2009:pdb.prot5135 pubmed publisher..Microinjected oocytes can be cultured for up to 2 d. The efficiency of knockdown by RNAi can be assayed by quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR (qPCR). ..
- Tan G, Magurno J, Cooper K. Ama1p-activated anaphase-promoting complex regulates the destruction of Cdc20p during meiosis II. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:315-26 pubmed publisher..These findings provide a mechanism to temporally down-regulate APC/C(Cdc20) activity as the cells complete meiosis II and form spores. ..
- Davydenko O, Schultz R, Lampson M. Increased CDK1 activity determines the timing of kinetochore-microtubule attachments in meiosis I. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:221-9 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that the slow increase in CDK1 activity in meiosis I acts as a timing mechanism to allow stable K-MT attachments only after bipolar spindle formation, thus preventing attachment errors. ..
- Snowden T, Shim K, Schmutte C, Acharya S, Fishel R. hMSH4-hMSH5 adenosine nucleotide processing and interactions with homologous recombination machinery. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:145-54 pubmed..These results further underline the function(s) and interactors of hMSH4-hMSH5 that ensure accurate chromosomal repair and segregation during meiosis. ..
- Schindler K, Davydenko O, Fram B, Lampson M, Schultz R. Maternally recruited Aurora C kinase is more stable than Aurora B to support mouse oocyte maturation and early development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2215-22 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest a model for the presence of AURKC in oocytes: that AURKC compensates for loss of AURKB through differences in both message recruitment and protein stability. ..
- Duncan F, Moss S, Williams C. Knockdown of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) Type Ialpha regulatory subunit in mouse oocytes disrupts meiotic arrest and results in meiotic spindle defects. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2961-8 pubmed..Furthermore, we implicate PKA as a modulator of spindle morphology and function during meiosis. ..
- Cooper K, Strich R. Saccharomyces cerevisiae C-type cyclin Ume3p/Srb11p is required for efficient induction and execution of meiotic development. Eukaryot Cell. 2002;1:66-74 pubmed..In conclusion, these findings indicate that Srb11p is required for both entry into and execution of the meiotic program, thus describing multiple roles for a C-type cyclin in the regulation of a developmental pathway. ..
- Duncan F, Chiang T, Schultz R, Lampson M. Evidence that a defective spindle assembly checkpoint is not the primary cause of maternal age-associated aneuploidy in mouse eggs. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:768-76 pubmed publisher..These findings indicate that a defective SAC is unlikely the primary cause of aneuploidy associated with maternal age. ..
- Song Y, Naumova A, Liebhaber S, Cooke N. Physical and meiotic mapping of the region of human chromosome 4q11-q13 encompassing the vitamin D binding protein DBP/Gc-globulin and albumin multigene cluster. Genome Res. 1999;9:581-7 pubmed..The ancestral DBP gene was separated from the ALB gene by >1.5 Mb. This organization and spacing establishes a foundation for ongoing functional studies in this region. ..
- Chiang T, Schultz R, Lampson M. Meiotic origins of maternal age-related aneuploidy. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:1-7 pubmed publisher..This review discusses findings in each area, and focuses especially on recent studies suggesting that deterioration of cohesion with increasing maternal age is a leading cause of age-related aneuploidy. ..
- Lindgren A, Bungard D, Pierce M, Xie J, Vershon A, Winter E. The pachytene checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the Sum1 transcriptional repressor. EMBO J. 2000;19:6489-97 pubmed
- Mallory M, Strich R. Ume1p represses meiotic gene transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through interaction with the histone deacetylase Rpd3p. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:44727-34 pubmed..In addition, these results suggest that Rpd3-Ume1p-Sin3p comprises an interdependent complex required for mediating transcriptional repression. ..
- Yang F, Skaletsky H, Wang P. Ubl4b, an X-derived retrogene, is specifically expressed in post-meiotic germ cells in mammals. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:131-6 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that evolution of Ubl4b is not due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Alternatively, origination of Ubl4b was due to MSCI, but Ubl4b eventually evolved to be restricted to post-meiotic germ cells...
- Morgan A, Gatti D, Najarian M, Keane T, Galante R, Pack A, et al. Structural Variation Shapes the Landscape of Recombination in Mouse. Genetics. 2017;206:603-619 pubmed publisher..Our findings demonstrate how multiparent populations, by bridging the gap between large-scale and fine-scale genetic mapping, can reveal new features of the recombination landscape. ..
- Schindler K, Winter E. Phosphorylation of Ime2 regulates meiotic progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18307-16 pubmed..These data suggest that Ime2p plays a role in controlling the exit from meiosis I and demonstrate that a phospho-modification pathway regulates Ime2p during the different phases of meiotic development. ..
- Latham K, Litvin J, Orth J, Patel B, Mettus R, Reddy E. Temporal patterns of A-myb and B-myb gene expression during testis development. Oncogene. 1996;13:1161-8 pubmed
- Krisak L, Strich R, Winters R, Hall J, Mallory M, Kreitzer D, et al. SMK1, a developmentally regulated MAP kinase, is required for spore wall assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2151-61 pubmed..We propose that the SMK1 MAP kinase participates in a developmentally regulated signal transduction pathway that coordinates cytodifferentiation events with the transcriptional program. ..
- Strich R, Surosky R, Steber C, Dubois E, Messenguy F, Esposito R. UME6 is a key regulator of nitrogen repression and meiotic development. Genes Dev. 1994;8:796-810 pubmed..Analyses of UME6 mRNA during both nitrogen starvation and meiotic development indicate that its transcription is constitutive, suggesting that regulation of UME6 activity occurs at a post-transcriptional level. ..
- Pardo Manuel de Villena F, de la Casa Esperon E, Williams J, Malette J, Rosa M, Sapienza C. Heritability of the maternal meiotic drive system linked to Om and high-resolution mapping of the Responder locus in mouse. Genetics. 2000;155:283-9 pubmed..In addition, analysis of the inheritance of alleles at Om among the offspring of F(1) intercrosses indicates that the effect of the sire is determined by the sperm genotype at Om or a locus linked to Om. ..
- Shuda K, Schindler K, Ma J, Schultz R, Donovan P. Aurora kinase B modulates chromosome alignment in mouse oocytes. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:1094-105 pubmed publisher..Over-expression of AURKB, but not AURKA or AURKC, rescues the chromosome alignment defect suggesting that AURKB is the primary Aurora kinase responsible for regulating chromosome dynamics during meiosis in mouse oocytes. ..
- Garrigues J, Sidoli S, Garcia B, Strome S. Defining heterochromatin in C. elegans through genome-wide analysis of the heterochromatin protein 1 homolog HPL-2. Genome Res. 2015;25:76-88 pubmed publisher..Our work defines heterochromatin in an important model organism and uncovers both shared and distinctive properties of heterochromatin relative to other systems. ..
- Zheng K, Xiol J, Reuter M, Eckardt S, Leu N, McLaughlin K, et al. Mouse MOV10L1 associates with Piwi proteins and is an essential component of the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11841-6 pubmed publisher..The Mov10l1 mutant males are sterile owing to complete meiotic arrest. This mouse mutant expresses Piwi proteins but lacks piRNAs, suggesting that MOV10L1 is required for piRNA biogenesis and/or loading to Piwi proteins...
- Snowden T, Acharya S, Butz C, Berardini M, Fishel R. hMSH4-hMSH5 recognizes Holliday Junctions and forms a meiosis-specific sliding clamp that embraces homologous chromosomes. Mol Cell. 2004;15:437-51 pubmed..Our results support the attractive possibility that hMSH4-hMSH5 stabilizes and preserves a meiotic bimolecular double-strand break repair (DSBR) intermediate. ..
- Duncan F, Moss S, Schultz R, Williams C. PAR-3 defines a central subdomain of the cortical actin cap in mouse eggs. Dev Biol. 2005;280:38-47 pubmed..This cortical PAR-3 localization depends on intact microfilaments. These results suggest a role for PAR-3 in establishing asymmetry in the egg and in defining the future site of polar body emission. ..
- Xu M, McCarrey J, Hecht N. A cytoplasmic variant of the KH-type splicing regulatory protein serves as a decay-promoting factor for phosphoglycerate kinase 2 mRNA in murine male germ cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:7157-67 pubmed publisher..We conclude that this testicular variant of the multifunctional nucleic acid-binding protein, KSRP, serves as a decay-promoting factor for Pgk2 mRNA in male germ cells. ..
- Yang F, Eckardt S, Leu N, McLaughlin K, Wang P. Mouse TEX15 is essential for DNA double-strand break repair and chromosomal synapsis during male meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:673-9 pubmed publisher..Based on these data, we propose that TEX15 regulates the loading of DNA repair proteins onto sites of DSBs and, thus, its absence causes a failure in meiotic recombination. ..
- Schaber M, Lindgren A, Schindler K, Bungard D, Kaldis P, Winter E. CAK1 promotes meiosis and spore formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a CDC28-independent fashion. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:57-68 pubmed..The early meiotic role of Cak1p, like the postmeiotic role in the Smk1p pathway, is CDC28 independent. The data indicate that Cak1p activates multiple steps in meiotic development through multiple protein kinase targets. ..
- Silverman K, Koratkar R, Siracusa L, Buchberg A. Exclusion of Madh2, Madh4, and Madh7 as candidates for the modifier of Min 2 (Mom2) locus. Mamm Genome. 2003;14:119-29 pubmed
- Nayak S, Galili N, Buck C. Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of two serine-threonine kinases in the maturing mouse testis. Mech Dev. 1998;74:171-4 pubmed
- Pan J, Eckardt S, Leu N, Buffone M, Zhou J, Gerton G, et al. Inactivation of Nxf2 causes defects in male meiosis and age-dependent depletion of spermatogonia. Dev Biol. 2009;330:167-74 pubmed publisher..These studies demonstrate that Nxf2 plays a dual function in spermatogenesis: regulation of meiosis and maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells. ..
- Anger M, Klima J, Kubelka M, Prochazka R, Motlik J, Schultz R. Timing of Plk1 and MPF activation during porcine oocyte maturation. Mol Reprod Dev. 2004;69:11-6 pubmed..We find that Plk1 is activated before MPF, which is consistent with its role in activating MPF in mammalian oocytes. ..
- Iguchi N, Xu M, Hori T, Hecht N. Noncoding RNAs of the mammalian testis: the meiotic transcripts Nct1 and Nct2 encode piRNAs. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1120:84-94 pubmed..Although the size of the primary transcript(s) encoding the piRNAs in the locus on chromosome 2 is not known, we propose that Nct1 and 2 are part of a piRNA precursor. ..
- Igarashi H, Knott J, Schultz R, Williams C. Alterations of PLCbeta1 in mouse eggs change calcium oscillatory behavior following fertilization. Dev Biol. 2007;312:321-30 pubmed..These results provide the first evidence for a role of an egg-derived PLC acting in conjunction with a sperm-derived PLCzeta in egg activation. ..
- Wan L, Pan H, Hannenhalli S, Cheng Y, Ma J, Fedoriw A, et al. Maternal depletion of CTCF reveals multiple functions during oocyte and preimplantation embryo development. Development. 2008;135:2729-38 pubmed publisher..This is the first study detailing a global and essential role for CTCF in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos. ..
- Bungard D, Reed M, Winter E. RSC1 and RSC2 are required for expression of mid-late sporulation-specific genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2004;3:910-8 pubmed..Our data suggest that Smk1 and Rsc1/2 define parallel pathways that converge to provide signaling information and the expression of gene products, respectively, that are required for spore morphogenesis. ..
- Michaut M, Williams C, Schultz R. Phosphorylated MARCKS: a novel centrosome component that also defines a peripheral subdomain of the cortical actin cap in mouse eggs. Dev Biol. 2005;280:26-37 pubmed..These results show that p-MARCKS is a novel centrosome component and also defines a previously unrecognized subdomain of the actin cap overlying the spindle. ..
- Yang J, Medvedev S, Reddi P, Schultz R, Hecht N. The DNA/RNA-binding protein MSY2 marks specific transcripts for cytoplasmic storage in mouse male germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1513-8 pubmed..We propose that MSY2 marks specific mRNAs in the nucleus for cytoplasmic storage, thereby linking transcription and mRNA storage/translational delay in meiotic and postmeiotic male germ cells of the mouse. ..
- Mtango N, Sutovsky M, Vandevoort C, Latham K, Sutovsky P. Essential role of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases UCHL1 and UCHL3 in mammalian oocyte maturation. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:2022-9 pubmed publisher..We conclude that the activity of oocyte UCHs contributes to oocyte maturation by regulating the oocyte cortex and meiotic spindle. ..
- Schindler K, Schultz R. CDC14B acts through FZR1 (CDH1) to prevent meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:795-803 pubmed publisher..Our data indicate that CDC14B is a negative regulator of meiotic resumption and may regulate MI in mouse oocytes. ..
- Schindler K, Schultz R. The CDC14A phosphatase regulates oocyte maturation in mouse. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:1090-8 pubmed..Collectively, these data suggest that CDC14A regulates oocyte maturation and functions to promote the meiosis I-to-meiosis II transition as its homolog does in budding yeast. ..
- Mallory M, Cooper K, Strich R. Meiosis-specific destruction of the Ume6p repressor by the Cdc20-directed APC/C. Mol Cell. 2007;27:951-61 pubmed..These findings demonstrate a direct connection between the transcription machinery and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis that is developmentally regulated. ..
- Miyara F, Han Z, Gao S, Vassena R, Latham K. Non-equivalence of embryonic and somatic cell nuclei affecting spindle composition in clones. Dev Biol. 2006;289:206-17 pubmed..These results reveal a striking control of SCC formation by the transplanted nucleus and provide the first identified molecular correlate of donor stage-dependent restriction in nuclear potency. ..
- Toscani A, Mettus R, Coupland R, Simpkins H, Litvin J, Orth J, et al. Arrest of spermatogenesis and defective breast development in mice lacking A-myb. Nature. 1997;386:713-7 pubmed..These results demonstrate that A-myb plays a critical role in spermatogenesis and mammary gland development. ..
- Zheng K, Yang F, Wang P. Regulation of male fertility by X-linked genes. J Androl. 2010;31:79-85 pubmed publisher..The genetic studies of X-linked, germ cell-specific genes in mice have laid a foundation for mutational analysis of their human orthologues in infertile men. ..
- Rice L, Plakas C, Nickels J. Loss of meiotic rereplication block in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells defective in Cdc28p regulation. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:55-62 pubmed..Finally, we present evidence of a possible role for a Cdc55p-dependent protein phosphatase 2A in initiating meiotic replication. ..
- Germann M, Swain E, Bergman L, Nickels J. Characterizing the sphingolipid signaling pathway that remediates defects associated with loss of the yeast amphiphysin-like orthologs, Rvs161p and Rvs167p. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4270-8 pubmed..Based on our results, we suggest that sphingolipid-dependent suppression of rvs defects may not work entirely through regulating changes in actin organization. ..
- Anger M, Stein P, Schultz R. CDC6 requirement for spindle formation during maturation of mouse oocytes. Biol Reprod. 2005;72:188-94 pubmed..The RNA interference-mediated knockdown of CDC6, however, reveals a new and unexpected function for CDC6; namely, it is essential for spindle formation in mouse oocytes. ..
- Chowdhury R, Bois P, Feingold E, Sherman S, Cheung V. Genetic analysis of variation in human meiotic recombination. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000648 pubmed publisher..Characterization of genetic variants that influence natural variation in meiotic recombination will lead to a better understanding of normal meiotic events as well as of non-disjunction, the primary cause of pregnancy loss. ..
- McDonald C, Cooper K, Winter E. The Ama1-directed anaphase-promoting complex regulates the Smk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase during meiosis in yeast. Genetics. 2005;171:901-11 pubmed..We propose that this novel mechanism for controlling MAPK activation plays a role in coupling the completion of meiosis II to gamete formation. ..
- Moore G, Ayabe T, Kopf G, Schultz R. Temporal patterns of gene expression of G1-S cyclins and cdks during the first and second mitotic cell cycles in mouse embryos. Mol Reprod Dev. 1996;45:264-75 pubmed
- Mayer A, Baran V, Sakakibara Y, Brzakova A, Ferencova I, Motlik J, et al. DNA damage response during mouse oocyte maturation. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:546-58 pubmed publisher..Compromised DNA integrity in mirin-treated oocytes indicates a role for MRE11 in chromosome integrity during meiotic maturation. ..
- Xiong M, Zhu Z, Tian S, Zhu R, Bai S, Fu K, et al. Conditional ablation of Raptor in the male germline causes infertility due to meiotic arrest and impaired inactivation of sex chromosomes. FASEB J. 2017;31:3934-3949 pubmed publisher..Tian, S., Zhu, R., Bai, S., Fu, K., Davis, J. G., Sun, Z., Baur, J. A., Zheng, K., Ye, L. Conditional ablation of Raptor in the male germline causes infertility due to meiotic arrest and impaired inactivation of sex chromosomes. ..