Experts and Doctors on apoptosis regulatory proteins in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States


Locale: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Topic: apoptosis regulatory proteins

Top Publications

  1. Liu Y, Lan Q, Shen M, Jin J, Mumford J, Ren D, et al. Aberrant gene promoter methylation in sputum from individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:2061-6 pubmed
    ..7% (55/107), p = 0.017]. Individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions in this region harbored frequent promoter methylation of these genes in their sputum and some of such alterations may be involved in lung tumor development. ..
  2. Czystowska M, Han J, Szczepanski M, Szajnik M, Quadrini K, Brandwein H, et al. IRX-2, a novel immunotherapeutic, protects human T cells from tumor-induced cell death. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:708-18 pubmed publisher
    ..IRX-2 application to future cancer biotherapies could improve their effectiveness by bolstering T-cell resistance to tumor-induced immunosuppression. ..
  3. Hou W, Han J, Lu C, Goldstein L, Rabinowich H. Autophagic degradation of active caspase-8: a crosstalk mechanism between autophagy and apoptosis. Autophagy. 2010;6:891-900 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings are the first to provide evidence for regulation of caspase activity by autophagy and thus broaden the molecular basis for the observed polarization between autophagy and apoptosis. ..
  4. Qiu W, Carson Walter E, Liu H, Epperly M, Greenberger J, Zambetti G, et al. PUMA regulates intestinal progenitor cell radiosensitivity and gastrointestinal syndrome. Cell Stem Cell. 2008;2:576-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, PUMA-mediated apoptosis in the progenitor and stem cell compartments is crucial for radiation-induced intestinal damage...
  5. Qiu W, Carson Walter E, Kuan S, Zhang L, Yu J. PUMA suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. Cancer Res. 2009;69:4999-5006 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show an essential role of PUMA-mediated apoptosis in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. ..
  6. Feng R, Ni H, Wang S, Tourkova I, Shurin M, Harada H, et al. Cyanidin-3-rutinoside, a natural polyphenol antioxidant, selectively kills leukemic cells by induction of oxidative stress. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13468-76 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that cyanidin-3-rutinoside has the potential to be used in leukemia therapy with the advantages of being widely available and selective against tumors. ..
  7. Han J, Goldstein L, Gastman B, Rabinowich H. Interrelated roles for Mcl-1 and BIM in regulation of TRAIL-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10153-63 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that Mcl-1 may serve as a direct substrate for TRAIL-activated caspases implying the existence of a novel TRAIL/caspase-8/Mcl-1/Bim communication mechanism between the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. ..
  8. Leibowitz B, Qiu W, Liu H, Cheng T, Zhang L, Yu J. Uncoupling p53 functions in radiation-induced intestinal damage via PUMA and p21. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:616-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies help to better understand p53 functions in tissue injury and regeneration and to potentially improve strategies to protect or mitigate intestinal damage induced by radiation. ..
  9. Barneda D, Planas Iglesias J, Gaspar M, Mohammadyani D, Prasannan S, Dormann D, et al. The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix. elife. 2015;4:e07485 pubmed publisher
    ..This physiological process is essential in adipocyte differentiation as well as serving to facilitate the tight coupling of lipolysis and lipogenesis in activated brown fat. ..

More Information


  1. Lee Y, Song Y, Song J, Siervo Sassi R, Kim H, Li L, et al. Reconstitution of galectin-3 alters glutathione content and potentiates TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity by dephosphorylation of Akt. Exp Cell Res. 2003;288:21-34 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that galectin-3-enhanced TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity is mediated through dephosphorylation of Akt, possibly through a redox-dependent process. ..
  2. Han J, Hou W, Lu C, Goldstein L, Stolz D, Watkins S, et al. Interaction between Her2 and Beclin-1 proteins underlies a new mechanism of reciprocal regulation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:20315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings shed new light on mechanisms involved in lapatinib-mediated autophagy in Her2-expressing breast carcinoma cell lines and in Beclin-1 signaling in these cells. ..
  3. Liu Y, Gao W, Siegfried J, Weissfeld J, Luketich J, Keohavong P. Promoter methylation of RASSF1A and DAPK and mutations of K-ras, p53, and EGFR in lung tumors from smokers and never-smokers. BMC Cancer. 2007;7:74 pubmed
  4. Kim H, Wang X, Chen Z, Lee S, Huang M, Wang Y, et al. Autophagic proteins regulate cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis: protective role of heme oxygenase-1. Autophagy. 2008;4:887-95 pubmed
    ..An understanding of the regulation of cell death pathways during smoke exposure may provide therapeutic strategies in smoke-related illness. ..
  5. Sun Q, Ming L, Thomas S, Wang Y, Chen Z, Ferris R, et al. PUMA mediates EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:2348-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that PUMA induction through p73 represents a new mechanism of EGFR inhibitor-induced apoptosis, and provide potential ways for enhancing and predicting the sensitivity to EGFR-targeted therapies in HNSCC. ..
  6. Spardy N, Duensing A, Charles D, Haines N, Nakahara T, Lambert P, et al. The human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein activates the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway and causes accelerated chromosomal instability in FA cells. J Virol. 2007;81:13265-70 pubmed
  7. Stephenson Famy A, Marks J, Suresh A, Caritis S, Simhan H, Jeyasuria P, et al. Antiapoptotic signaling via MCL1 confers resistance to caspase-3-mediated apoptotic cell death in the pregnant human uterine myocyte. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:320-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that elevated myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 levels are sufficient to confer apoptotic resistance on the human uterine myocyte despite highly elevated levels of active CASP3. ..
  8. Sun Q, Gao W, Loughran P, Shapiro R, Fan J, Billiar T, et al. Caspase 1 activation is protective against hepatocyte cell death by up-regulating beclin 1 protein and mitochondrial autophagy in the setting of redox stress. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:15947-58 pubmed publisher
  9. Yu J, Zhang L. PUMA, a potent killer with or without p53. Oncogene. 2008;27 Suppl 1:S71-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, PUMA is a general sensor of cell death stimuli and a promising drug target for cancer therapy and tissue damage. ..
  10. Han J, Goldstein L, Hou W, Gastman B, Rabinowich H. Regulation of mitochondrial apoptotic events by p53-mediated disruption of complexes between antiapoptotic Bcl-2 members and Bim. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:22473-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that mitochondrial p53 functions as a Bim derepressor by releasing Bim from sequestrating complexes with Mcl-1, Bcl-2, and Bcl-XL, and allowing its engagement in Bak/Bax activation. ..
  11. Fourcade J, Sun Z, Benallaoua M, Guillaume P, Luescher I, Sander C, et al. Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 expression is associated with tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cell dysfunction in melanoma patients. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2175-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings support the use of Tim-3-Tim-3L blockade together with PD-1-PD-L1 blockade to reverse tumor-induced T cell exhaustion/dysfunction in patients with advanced melanoma. ..
  12. Kang R, Livesey K, Zeh H, Loze M, Tang D. HMGB1: a novel Beclin 1-binding protein active in autophagy. Autophagy. 2010;6:1209-11 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that endogenous HMGB1 functions as an autophagy effector by regulation of autophagosome formation. ..
  13. Dudgeon C, Peng R, Wang P, Sebastiani A, Yu J, Zhang L. Inhibiting oncogenic signaling by sorafenib activates PUMA via GSK3? and NF-?B to suppress tumor cell growth. Oncogene. 2012;31:4848-58 pubmed publisher
    ..They provide a rationale for manipulating the apoptotic machinery to improve sensitivity and overcome resistance to the therapies that target oncogenic kinase signaling. ..
  14. Gusdon A, Zhu J, Van Houten B, Chu C. ATP13A2 regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics through macroautophagy. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;45:962-72 pubmed publisher
  15. Chen K, Tu Y, Zhang Y, Blair H, Zhang L, Wu C. PINCH-1 regulates the ERK-Bim pathway and contributes to apoptosis resistance in cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:2508-17 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate a strong dependence of multiple types of apoptosis-resistant cancer cells on PINCH-1 and provide new insights into the molecular mechanism by which cancer cells are protected from apoptosis. ..
  16. Minster R, DeKosky S, Kamboh M. No association of DAPK1 and ABCA2 SNPs on chromosome 9 with Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2009;30:1890-1 pubmed publisher
    ..We did not detect associations with AD for any variation...
  17. Lu G, Janjic B, Janjic J, Whiteside T, Storkus W, Vujanovic N. Innate direct anticancer effector function of human immature dendritic cells. II. Role of TNF, lymphotoxin-alpha(1)beta(2), Fas ligand, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. J Immunol. 2002;168:1831-9 pubmed
    ..Overall, our data demonstrate that DCs are fully equipped for an efficient direct apoptotic killing of cancer cells and suggest that this mechanism may play a critical role in both afferent and efferent anti-tumor immunity. ..
  18. Ahn J, Byeon I, Byeon C, Gronenborn A. Insight into the structural basis of pro- and antiapoptotic p53 modulation by ASPP proteins. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13812-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our detailed structural analyses of the ASPP-p53 interactions provide insight into the structural basis of the differential behavior of pro- and antiapoptotic ASPP family members. ..
  19. Fourcade J, Kudela P, Sun Z, Shen H, Land S, Lenzner D, et al. PD-1 is a regulator of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cell expansion in melanoma patients. J Immunol. 2009;182:5240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..They further support the use of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway blockade in cancer patients to partially restore NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T cell numbers and functions, increasing the likelihood of tumor regression. ..
  20. Kang R, Zeh H, Lotze M, Tang D. The Beclin 1 network regulates autophagy and apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:571-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we summarize new findings regarding the organization and function of the Beclin 1 network in cellular homeostasis, focusing on the cross-regulation between apoptosis and autophagy. ..
  21. Ramus S, Vierkant R, Johnatty S, Pike M, Van Den Berg D, Wu A, et al. Consortium analysis of 7 candidate SNPs for ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:380-388 pubmed publisher
    ..These null results for SNPs identified from relatively large initial studies shows the importance of replicating associations by a consortium approach. ..
  22. Yu J, Zhang L. No PUMA, no death: implications for p53-dependent apoptosis. Cancer Cell. 2003;4:248-9 pubmed
    ..Their results indicate that PUMA is an essential mediator of p53-dependent and -independent apoptosis in vivo. ..
  23. Kim Y, Lee Y. Time sequence of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and cisplatin treatment is responsible for a complex pattern of synergistic cytotoxicity. J Cell Biochem. 2006;98:1284-95 pubmed
    ..Taken together, FLIP(S) cleavage reflects apoptotic damage, but it does not cause apoptosis. ..
  24. Yu J, Wang P, Ming L, Wood M, Zhang L. SMAC/Diablo mediates the proapoptotic function of PUMA by regulating PUMA-induced mitochondrial events. Oncogene. 2007;26:4189-98 pubmed
  25. Kovacs J, Li C, Yang Q, Li G, Garcia I, Ju S, et al. Autophagy promotes T-cell survival through degradation of proteins of the cell death machinery. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a direct role of autophagy in inhibiting the programmed cell death through degradation of apoptosis proteins in activated T cells. ..
  26. Qiu W, Wu B, Wang X, Buchanan M, Regueiro M, Hartman D, et al. PUMA-mediated intestinal epithelial apoptosis contributes to ulcerative colitis in humans and mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1722-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PUMA induction contributes to the pathogenesis of colitis by promoting IEC apoptosis and suggest that PUMA inhibition may be an effective strategy to promote mucosal healing in patients with UC. ..
  27. Kim K, Song J, An J, Kwon Y, Lee Y. Pretreatment of acetylsalicylic acid promotes tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis by down-regulating BCL-2 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41047-56 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our studies suggested that ASA-promoted TRAIL cytotoxicity is mediated through down-regulating BCL-2 and by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential. ..
  28. Lee B, Park B, Kim S, Lee Y. Role of Bim in diallyl trisulfide-induced cytotoxicity in human cancer cells. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:118-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the cytotoxicity caused by DATS is mediated by the generation of ROS and subsequent activation of the ASK1-JNK-Bim signal transduction pathway in human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. ..
  29. Sanghera D, Manzi S, Bontempo F, Nestlerode C, Kamboh M. Role of an intronic polymorphism in the PDCD1 gene with the risk of sporadic systemic lupus erythematosus and the occurrence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Hum Genet. 2004;115:393-8 pubmed
    ..399, 95% CI: 0.19-0.82; P=0.0098) and SLE cases (OR=0.566, 95% CI: 0.32-1.01; P=0.054). Our data indicate polymorphism in intron 4 of the PDCD1 gene affects the occurrence of APA and may slightly modify the risk of sporadic SLE. ..
  30. Han J, Goldstein L, Gastman B, Froelich C, Yin X, Rabinowich H. Degradation of Mcl-1 by granzyme B: implications for Bim-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic events. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:22020-9 pubmed
    ..The findings presented herein imply that Mcl-1L degradation by either GrB or caspase-3 interferes with Bim sequestration by Mcl-1L. ..
  31. Qiu W, Leibowitz B, Zhang L, Yu J. Growth factors protect intestinal stem cells from radiation-induced apoptosis by suppressing PUMA through the PI3K/AKT/p53 axis. Oncogene. 2010;29:1622-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, inhibiting PI3K or activating p53 abrogated growth factor-mediated suppression of apoptosis and PUMA expression in the intestinal crypts and stem cells after radiation. ..
  32. Antony M, Kim S, Singh S. Critical role of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis in benzyl isothiocyanate-induced apoptotic cell death. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32267 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that Bim-independent apoptosis by BITC in cancer cells is mediated by PUMA. ..
  33. Wang P, Yu J, Zhang L. The nuclear function of p53 is required for PUMA-mediated apoptosis induced by DNA damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4054-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the binding of nuclear p53 to the specific sites within the PUMA promoter is essential for its ability to induce apoptosis and is likely to be required for its tumor suppressive capacity. ..
  34. Kaizu T, Ikeda A, Nakao A, Tsung A, Toyokawa H, Ueki S, et al. Protection of transplant-induced hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury with carbon monoxide via MEK/ERK1/2 pathway downregulation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G236-44 pubmed
    ..The possible mechanism may include the downregulation of MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway with CO. ..
  35. Tatsumi T, Huang J, Gooding W, Gambotto A, Robbins P, Vujanovic N, et al. Intratumoral delivery of dendritic cells engineered to secrete both interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 effectively treats local and distant disease in association with broadly reactive Tc1-type immunity. Cancer Res. 2003;63:6378-86 pubmed
  36. Kim S, Song X, Zhang L, Bartlett D, Lee Y. Role of Bcl-xL/Beclin-1 in interplay between apoptosis and autophagy in oxaliplatin and bortezomib-induced cell death. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014;88:178-88 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of the molecular mechanisms of crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy will support the application of combinatorial treatment to colorectal cancer. ..
  37. Narayan P, Holt B, Tosti R, Kane L. CARMA1 is required for Akt-mediated NF-kappaB activation in T cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2327-36 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in T cells, Akt impinges upon NF-kappaB signaling through at least two separate mechanisms. ..
  38. Kim K, Lee Y. Amiloride augments TRAIL-induced apoptotic death by inhibiting phosphorylation of kinases and phosphatases associated with the P13K-Akt pathway. Oncogene. 2005;24:355-66 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the present studies suggest that amiloride enhances TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting phosphorylation of the PI3K-Akt pathway-associated kinases and phosphatases. ..
  39. Premkumar D, Jane E, Agostino N, Didomenico J, Pollack I. Bortezomib-induced sensitization of malignant human glioma cells to vorinostat-induced apoptosis depends on reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial dysfunction, Noxa upregulation, Mcl-1 cleavage, and DNA damage. Mol Carcinog. 2013;52:118-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The significantly enhanced antitumor activity that results from the combination of bortezomib and HDACIs offers promise as a novel treatment for glioma patients. ..
  40. Shu S, Dirksen W, Lanigan L, Martin C, Thudi N, Werbeck J, et al. Effects of parathyroid hormone-related protein and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in Jurkat T-cells on tumor formation in vivo and expression of apoptosis regulatory genes in vitro. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012;53:688-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that PTHrP and MIP-1α exert a profound antitumor effect presumably by increasing the sensitivity to apoptotic signals through modulation of transcription and apoptosis factors in T-cells. ..
  41. Cao G, Pei W, Lan J, Stetler R, Luo Y, Nagayama T, et al. Caspase-activated DNase/DNA fragmentation factor 40 mediates apoptotic DNA fragmentation in transient cerebral ischemia and in neuronal cultures. J Neurosci. 2001;21:4678-90 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that CAD/DFF40 is the endogenous endonuclease that mediates caspase-3-dependent internucleosomal DNA degradation and related nuclear alterations in ischemic neurons. ..
  42. Li H, Wang P, Sun Q, Ding W, Yin X, Sobol R, et al. Following cytochrome c release, autophagy is inhibited during chemotherapy-induced apoptosis by caspase 8-mediated cleavage of Beclin 1. Cancer Res. 2011;71:3625-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Beclin 1 may be a useful target for inhibiting autophagy to sensitize chemotherapy. ..
  43. Dudgeon C, Wang P, Sun X, Peng R, Sun Q, Yu J, et al. PUMA induction by FoxO3a mediates the anticancer activities of the broad-range kinase inhibitor UCN-01. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:2893-902 pubmed publisher
  44. Ming L, Wang P, Bank A, Yu J, Zhang L. PUMA Dissociates Bax and Bcl-X(L) to induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16034-42 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that PUMA initiates apoptosis in part by dissociating Bax and Bcl-X(L), thereby promoting Bax multimerization and mitochondrial translocation. ..
  45. Kang R, Tang D, Schapiro N, Livesey K, Farkas A, Loughran P, et al. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) sustains autophagy and limits apoptosis, promoting pancreatic tumor cell survival. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:666-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that targeted inhibition of RAGE or its ligands may serve as novel targets to enhance current cancer therapies. ..
  46. Wang P, Qiu W, Dudgeon C, Liu H, Huang C, Zambetti G, et al. PUMA is directly activated by NF-kappaB and contributes to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrated that PUMA is a direct target of NF-kappaB and mediates TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. ..
  47. Venkatachari N, Buchanan W, Ayyavoo V. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection selectively downregulates PD-1 expression in infected cells and protects the cells from early apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Virology. 2008;376:140-53 pubmed publisher
  48. Chen D, Stetler R, Cao G, Pei W, O Horo C, Yin X, et al. Characterization of the rat DNA fragmentation factor 35/Inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (Short form). The endogenous inhibitor of caspase-dependent DNA fragmentation in neuronal apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:38508-17 pubmed
    ..These results establish that DFF35/ICAD(S) is the endogenous inhibitor of DFF40/CAD and caspase-dependent apoptotic DNA fragmentation in neurons. ..
  49. Ming L, Sakaida T, Yue W, Jha A, Zhang L, Yu J. Sp1 and p73 activate PUMA following serum starvation. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:1878-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that transcription factors Sp1 and p73 mediate p53-independent induction of PUMA following serum starvation to trigger apoptosis in human cancer cells. ..
  50. Tehranian R, Rose M, Vagni V, Pickrell A, Griffith R, Liu H, et al. Disruption of Bax protein prevents neuronal cell death but produces cognitive impairment in mice following traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2008;25:755-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is possible that Bax deficiency in the transgenic mice produces developmental behavioral effects, perhaps due to Bax's role in regulating cell death during development. ..
  51. Wu B, Qiu W, Wang P, Yu H, Cheng T, Zambetti G, et al. p53 independent induction of PUMA mediates intestinal apoptosis in response to ischaemia-reperfusion. Gut. 2007;56:645-54 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of PUMA is potentially useful for protecting against I/R induced intestinal injury and apoptosis. ..
  52. Neal M, Sodhi C, Jia H, Dyer M, Egan C, Yazji I, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 is expressed on intestinal stem cells and regulates their proliferation and apoptosis via the p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37296-308 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings illustrate that TLR4 is expressed on ISCs where it regulates their proliferation and apoptosis through activation of PUMA and that TLR4 regulation of ISCs contributes to the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis. ..
  53. Chu J, Sims Lucas S, Bushnell D, Bodnar A, Kreidberg J, Ho J. Dicer function is required in the metanephric mesenchyme for early kidney development. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;306:F764-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously undetermined requirement for miRNAs during early kidney organogenesis and indicate a crucial role for miRNAs in regulating the survival of this lineage. ..