Experts and Doctors on flame retardants in Durham, North Carolina, United States


Locale: Durham, North Carolina, United States
Topic: flame retardants

Top Publications

  1. Su G, Letcher R, Yu H, Gooden D, Stapleton H. Determination of glucuronide conjugates of hydroxyl triphenyl phosphate (OH-TPHP) metabolites in human urine and its use as a biomarker of TPHP exposure. Chemosphere. 2016;149:314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that TPHP hydroxylation and conjugation occurs in vivo in humans, and further suggests that p-OH-TPHP glucuronide can be used as a specific biomarker of TPHP exposure in humans. ..
  2. Noyes P, Kelly S, Mitchelmore C, Stapleton H. Characterizing the in vitro hepatic biotransformation of the flame retardant BDE 99 by common carp. Aquat Toxicol. 2010;97:142-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to evaluate metabolic activity in other species and tissues that contain these enzymes. ..
  3. Noyes P, Lema S, Macaulay L, Douglas N, Stapleton H. Low level exposure to the flame retardant BDE-209 reduces thyroid hormone levels and disrupts thyroid signaling in fathead minnows. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:10012-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Declines in the gonadal-somatic index (GSI) and increased mortality were also measured. Effects at the low dose were consistent with the high dose, suggesting nonlinear relationships between BDE-209 exposures and thyroid dysfunction. ..
  4. Davis E, Klosterhaus S, Stapleton H. Measurement of flame retardants and triclosan in municipal sewage sludge and biosolids. Environ Int. 2012;40:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection of these contaminants of emerging concern in biosolids suggests that these chemicals have the potential to migrate out of consumer products and enter the outdoor environment. ..
  5. Hoffman K, Daniels J, Stapleton H. Urinary metabolites of organophosphate flame retardants and their variability in pregnant women. Environ Int. 2014;63:169-72 pubmed publisher
  6. Stapleton H, Sjodin A, Jones R, Niehüser S, Zhang Y, Patterson D. Serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in foam recyclers and carpet installers working in the United States. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:3453-8 pubmed
    ..e., carpet padding), have higher body burdens of PBDEs, and thus may be at higher risk from adverse health effects associated with brominated flame retardant exposure. ..
  7. Noyes P, Hinton D, Stapleton H. Accumulation and debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) induces thyroid disruption and liver alterations. Toxicol Sci. 2011;122:265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results suggest that juvenile fish may be uniquely susceptible to thyroid disruptors like PBDEs. ..
  8. Carignan C, Mínguez Alarcón L, Butt C, Williams P, Meeker J, Stapleton H, et al. Urinary Concentrations of Organophosphate Flame Retardant Metabolites and Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization. Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125:087018 pubmed publisher
    .. ..
  9. Slotkin T, Skavicus S, Stapleton H, Seidler F. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants target different neurodevelopmental stages, characterized with embryonic neural stem cells and neuronotypic PC12 cells. Toxicology. 2017;390:32-42 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Belcher S, Cookman C, Patisaul H, Stapleton H. In vitro assessment of human nuclear hormone receptor activity and cytotoxicity of the flame retardant mixture FM 550 and its triarylphosphate and brominated components. Toxicol Lett. 2014;228:93-102 pubmed publisher
  2. Stapleton H, Klosterhaus S, Keller A, Ferguson P, Van Bergen S, Cooper E, et al. Identification of flame retardants in polyurethane foam collected from baby products. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:5323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies are therefore warranted to specifically measure infants exposure to these flame retardants from intimate contact with these products and to determine if there are any associated health concerns...
  3. Carignan C, Butt C, Stapleton H, Meeker J, Mínguez Alarcón L, Williams P, et al. Influence of storage vial material on measurement of organophosphate flame retardant metabolites in urine. Chemosphere. 2017;181:440-446 pubmed publisher
  4. Cooper E, Covaci A, van Nuijs A, Webster T, Stapleton H. Analysis of the flame retardant metabolites bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401:2123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The presented method is simple and sufficiently sensitive to detect these FR metabolites in humans and may be applied to future studies to increase our understanding of exposure to and potential health effects from FRs. ..
  5. Brown D, Van Overmeire I, Goeyens L, Denison M, De Vito M, Clark G. Analysis of Ah receptor pathway activation by brominated flame retardants. Chemosphere. 2004;55:1509-18 pubmed
    ..When tested in the CALUX assay these compounds were found to be equivalent to, or more active than their chlorinated analogues. Relative effective potency values were determined from dose response curves for these brominated HAHs...
  6. Dishaw L, Powers C, Ryde I, Roberts S, Seidler F, Slotkin T, et al. Is the PentaBDE replacement, tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a developmental neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;256:281-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants. ..
  7. Stapleton H, Klosterhaus S, Eagle S, Fuh J, Meeker J, Blum A, et al. Detection of organophosphate flame retardants in furniture foam and U.S. house dust. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:7490-5 pubmed
    ..The high prevalence of these chemicals in foam and the high concentrations measured in dust (as high as 1.8 mg/g) warrant further studies to evaluate potential health effects from dust exposure, particularly for children. ..
  8. Stapleton H, Allen J, Kelly S, Konstantinov A, Klosterhaus S, Watkins D, et al. Alternate and new brominated flame retardants detected in U.S. house dust. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:6910-6 pubmed
    ..This study highlights the fact that numerous types of brominated flame retardants are present in indoor environments, raising questions about exposure to mixtures of these contaminants. ..
  9. Stapleton H, Kelly S, Allen J, McClean M, Webster T. Measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on hand wipes: estimating exposure from hand-to-mouth contact. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:3329-34 pubmed
    ..These estimates are greater than dietary intake rates and suggest hand-to-mouth contact may be a key exposure route for PBDEs. ..
  10. Hoppe A, Carey G. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers as endocrine disruptors of adipocyte metabolism. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:2942-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These alterations, hallmark features of metabolic obesity, suggest the need for further research on the contribution of lipid-soluble, endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals to the obesity epidemic. ..