Genomes and Genes
Experts and Doctors on cell movement in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
Locale: Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
Topic: cell movement
- Luikart S, Panoskaltsis Mortari A, Hinkel T, Perri R, Gupta K, Oegema T, et al. Mactinin, a fragment of cytoskeletal alpha-actinin, is a novel inducer of heat shock protein (Hsp)-90 mediated monocyte activation. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:60 pubmed publisher..quot; Blockage of this function of mactinin may be useful in diseases where monocyte/macrophage activation and/or Hsp90 activity are detrimental. ..
- Shreiber D, Barocas V, Tranquillo R. Temporal variations in cell migration and traction during fibroblast-mediated gel compaction. Biophys J. 2003;84:4102-14 pubmed..Rat dermal fibroblast migration was negatively correlated to traction, suggesting migration was not the driving force for compaction with these cells, whereas human foreskin fibroblast migration was positively correlated to traction. ..
- Yang J, Price M, Li G, Bar Eli M, Salgia R, Jagedeeswaran R, et al. Melanoma proteoglycan modifies gene expression to stimulate tumor cell motility, growth, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Cancer Res. 2009;69:7538-47 pubmed publisher..The studies collectively show the importance of MCSP in promoting progression by an epigenetic mechanism and they indicate that MCSP could be targeted to delay or inhibit tumor progression in patients. ..
- Liu J, Hu Q, Wang Z, Xu C, Wang X, Gong G, et al. Autologous stem cell transplantation for myocardial repair. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H501-11 pubmed..Thus this patch-based autologous stem cell procedure may serve as a therapeutic modality for myocardial repair. ..
- Ostrander J, Daniel A, Lofgren K, Kleer C, Lange C. Breast tumor kinase (protein tyrosine kinase 6) regulates heregulin-induced activation of ERK5 and p38 MAP kinases in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2007;67:4199-209 pubmed..These results place Brk in a novel signaling pathway downstream of ErbB receptors and upstream of Rac, p38 MAPK, and ERK5 and establish the ErbB-Brk-Rac-p38 MAPK pathway as a critical mediator of breast cancer cell migration. ..
- Benyumov A, Hergert P, Herrera J, Peterson M, Henke C, Bitterman P. A novel zebrafish embryo xenotransplantation model to study primary human fibroblast motility in health and disease. Zebrafish. 2012;9:38-43 pubmed publisher..This is the first in vivo examination of primary human lung fibroblast motility in health and disease using zebrafish models. ..
- Highfill S, Kelly R, O Shaughnessy M, Zhou Q, Xia L, Panoskaltsis Mortari A, et al. Multipotent adult progenitor cells can suppress graft-versus-host disease via prostaglandin E2 synthesis and only if localized to sites of allopriming. Blood. 2009;114:693-701 pubmed publisher..Such data have implications for the use of allogeneic MAPCs and possibly other immunomodulatory nonhematopoietic stem cells for preventing GVHD in the clinic. ..
- Tuxworth R, Weber I, Wessels D, Addicks G, Soll D, Gerisch G, et al. A role for myosin VII in dynamic cell adhesion. Curr Biol. 2001;11:318-29 pubmed..During migration, GFP-myosin VII is found at the leading edge of the cell. Myosin VII plays an important role in mediating the initial binding of cells to substrata, a novel role for an unconventional myosin. ..
- Xiong Q, Ye L, Zhang P, Lepley M, Swingen C, Zhang L, et al. Bioenergetic and functional consequences of cellular therapy: activation of endogenous cardiovascular progenitor cells. Circ Res. 2012;111:455-68 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest an important therapeutic target of peri-scar border zone and a promising therapeutic potential for using hESC-VCs together with the fibrin patch-based delivery system. ..
- Wang W, Li X, Zhang W, Li W, Yi M, Yang J, et al. Oxidored-nitro domain containing protein 1 (NOR1) expression suppresses slug/vimentin but not snail in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Inhibition of EMT in vitro and in vivo in mice. Cancer Lett. 2014;348:109-18 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, the data from the current study suggest, for the first time, that NOR1 plays an important role in NPC in ex vivo, in vitro, and in vivo. ..
- Bobr A, Igyarto B, Haley K, Li M, Flavell R, Kaplan D. Autocrine/paracrine TGF-?1 inhibits Langerhans cell migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10492-7 pubmed publisher..We conclude that TGF-?1 acts directly on LCs in an autocrine/paracrine manner to inhibit steady-state and inflammation-induced migration. This is a readily targetable pathway with potential therapeutic implications for skin disease...
- Rupp G, Porter M. A subunit of the dynein regulatory complex in Chlamydomonas is a homologue of a growth arrest-specific gene product. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:47-57 pubmed..The expression of Gas8/Gas11 transcripts in a wide range of tissues may also indicate a potential role for PF2-related proteins in other microtubule-based structures...
- Saunders C, Harris N, Willey P, Woolums B, Wang Y, McQuown A, et al. TorsinA controls TAN line assembly and the retrograde flow of dorsal perinuclear actin cables during rearward nuclear movement. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:657-674 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these results identify TA as a key regulator of actin-dependent rearward nuclear movement during centrosome orientation. ..
- Sheng W, Hu S, Herr G, Ni H, Rock R, Gekker G, et al. Human neural precursor cells express functional kappa-opioid receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;322:957-63 pubmed..Taken together, the results of this study suggest that activation of KORs alters functional properties of NPCs/NSCs that are relevant to human brain development and repair. ..
- Roffers Agarwal J, Gammill L. Neuropilin receptors guide distinct phases of sensory and motor neuronal segmentation. Development. 2009;136:1879-88 pubmed publisher..These data show that Nrp2 and Nrp1 work together to produce segmentation of sensory and motor nerves, and that dorsal peripheral nervous system metamerism is generated in a stepwise, Nrp-dependent process. ..
- Locatelli A, Lange C. Met receptors induce Sam68-dependent cell migration by activation of alternate extracellular signal-regulated kinase family members. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21062-72 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that Sam68 acts as a convergence point for ERK signaling to cell migration; blockade of phospho-Sam68 may provide a new avenue for therapeutic inhibition of metastatic cancers. ..
- Itou J, Oishi I, Kawakami H, Glass T, Richter J, Johnson A, et al. Migration of cardiomyocytes is essential for heart regeneration in zebrafish. Development. 2012;139:4133-42 pubmed publisher..Our data show that the migration of cardiomyocytes into the injury site is regulated independently of proliferation, and that coordination of both processes is necessary for heart regeneration. ..
- Castro N, Lange C. Breast tumor kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 mediate Met receptor signaling to cell migration in breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12:R60 pubmed publisher..Targeting ERK5 kinase activity or inhibiting the formation of Brk/ERK5 complexes may provide an additional means of blocking cell migration associated with breast cancer progression to metastasis. ..
- Martinsen B, Neumann A, Frasier A, Baker C, Krull C, Lohr J. PINCH-1 expression during early avian embryogenesis: implications for neural crest and heart development. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:152-62 pubmed..The normal expression pattern and overexpression in neural crest cell explants suggest that PINCH-1 may be a regulator of neural crest cell adhesion and migration. ..
- Haley K, Igyarto B, Ortner D, Bobr A, Kashem S, Schenten D, et al. Langerhans cells require MyD88-dependent signals for Candida albicans response but not for contact hypersensitivity or migration. J Immunol. 2012;188:4334-9 pubmed publisher..Thus, sensitivity to MyD88-dependent signals is not required for LC migration, but is required for the full activation and function of LC in the setting of fungal infection. ..
- Rawson J, Dimitroff B, Johnson K, Rawson J, Ge X, Van Vactor D, et al. The heparan sulfate proteoglycans Dally-like and Syndecan have distinct functions in axon guidance and visual-system assembly in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2005;15:833-8 pubmed..Together, these findings suggest that in some contexts HS chains provide the biologically critical component, whereas in others the structure of the protein core is also essential. ..
- Jongen Lavrencic M, Salesse S, Delwel R, Verfaillie C. BCR/ABL-mediated downregulation of genes implicated in cell adhesion and motility leads to impaired migration toward CCR7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21 in primary BCR/ABL-positive cells. Leukemia. 2005;19:373-80 pubmed..Compared with GFP UCB or normal (NL) BM CD34+ cells, p210 UCB and CML CD34+ cells migrated poorly towards the CCR7 ligands, CCL19 and CCL21, suggesting a possible role for CCR7 in the abnormal migratory behavior of CML CD34+ cells. ..
- Ni H, Hu S, Sheng W, Olson J, Cheeran M, Chan A, et al. High-level expression of functional chemokine receptor CXCR4 on human neural precursor cells. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004;152:159-69 pubmed..Treatment with anti-CXCR4 antibody or HIV-1 gp120 abolished the migratory response of NPCs towards CXCL12/SDF-1alpha. These findings suggest that CXCR4 may play a significant role in directing NPC migration during CNS development. ..
- Weinreich M, Jameson S, Hogquist K. Postselection thymocyte maturation and emigration are independent of IL-7 and ERK5. J Immunol. 2011;186:1343-7 pubmed publisher..We showed that both CD4 and CD8 T cells complete maturation and express KLF2 independently of ERK5 and IL-7. ..
- Bunnell T, Burbach B, Shimizu Y, Ervasti J. ?-Actin specifically controls cell growth, migration, and the G-actin pool. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4047-58 pubmed publisher..These data support an essential role for ?-actin in regulating cell migration and gene expression through control of the cellular G-actin pool. ..
- Carlson C, Endrizzi B, Wu J, Ding X, Weinreich M, Walsh E, et al. Kruppel-like factor 2 regulates thymocyte and T-cell migration. Nature. 2006;442:299-302 pubmed..Our findings suggest that KLF2 serves to license mature T cells for trafficking from the thymus and recirculation through secondary lymphoid tissues. ..
- Ravindran R, Rusch L, Itano A, Jenkins M, McSorley S. CCR6-dependent recruitment of blood phagocytes is necessary for rapid CD4 T cell responses to local bacterial infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12075-80 pubmed
- Chen Z, Jenkins M. Revealing the in vivo behavior of CD4+ T cells specific for an antigen expressed in Escherichia coli. J Immunol. 1998;160:3462-70 pubmed..Furthermore, productive activation of the T cells during the primary response is dependent on bacterial components other than the Ag itself. ..
- Wylie C. Germ cells. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000;10:410-3 pubmed
- Curtsinger J, Gerner M, Lins D, Mescher M. Signal 3 availability limits the CD8 T cell response to a solid tumor. J Immunol. 2007;178:6752-60 pubmed
- Gerner M, Mescher M. Antigen processing and MHC-II presentation by dermal and tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:2726-37 pubmed publisher..These results show that TIDC are functionally distinct from normal interstitial DC, thus indicating that neoplastic tissues can evade effector CD4 T cells through modification of DC competence...
- Kim H, Schleiffarth J, Jessurun J, Sumanas S, Petryk A, Lin S, et al. Wnt5 signaling in vertebrate pancreas development. BMC Biol. 2005;3:23 pubmed..This study opens the door for further investigation into a role of Wnt signaling in vertebrate organ development and disease. ..
- Anderson R, Fassler R, Georges Labouesse E, Hynes R, Bader B, Kreidberg J, et al. Mouse primordial germ cells lacking beta1 integrins enter the germline but fail to migrate normally to the gonads. Development. 1999;126:1655-64 pubmed..These results demonstrate a role for beta1-containing integrins in the development of the germline, although an equivalent role for * integrin subunit(s) has yet to be established. ..
- Bohrer L, Schwertfeger K. Macrophages promote fibroblast growth factor receptor-driven tumor cell migration and invasion in a CXCR2-dependent manner. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10:1294-305 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, these results suggest that targeting Cxcr2 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancers that are associated with high levels of infiltrating macrophages. ..
- Pribila J, Itano A, Mueller K, Shimizu Y. The alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha E beta 7 integrins define a subset of dendritic cells in peripheral lymph nodes with unique adhesive and antigen uptake properties. J Immunol. 2004;172:282-91 pubmed
- Kholmanskikh S, Dobrin J, Wynshaw Boris A, Letourneau P, Ross M. Disregulated RhoGTPases and actin cytoskeleton contribute to the migration defect in Lis1-deficient neurons. J Neurosci. 2003;23:8673-81 pubmed..This effect of Lis1 on GTPases does not appear to occur through direct Lis1 binding of Rho, but could involve Lis1 effects on Rho modulatory proteins or on microtubule dynamics. ..
- Reinhardt R, Bullard D, Weaver C, Jenkins M. Preferential accumulation of antigen-specific effector CD4 T cells at an antigen injection site involves CD62E-dependent migration but not local proliferation. J Exp Med. 2003;197:751-62 pubmed
- DeNucci C, Shimizu Y. ?1 integrin is critical for the maintenance of antigen-specific CD4 T cells in the bone marrow but not long-term immunological memory. J Immunol. 2011;186:4019-26 pubmed publisher..Thus, ?(1) integrin-dependent maintenance of memory CD4 T cells in the bone marrow is not required for long-term CD4 T cell memory. ..
- Eisenmann K, McCarthy J, Simpson M, Keely P, Guan J, Tachibana K, et al. Melanoma chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan regulates cell spreading through Cdc42, Ack-1 and p130cas. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:507-13 pubmed..Our findings indicate that MCSP may modify tumour growth or invasion by a unique signal-transduction pathway that links Cdc42 activation to downstream tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent cytoskeletal reorganization. ..
- Bade L, Goldberg J, Dehut H, Hall M, Schwertfeger K. Mammary tumorigenesis induced by fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 requires activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3106-17 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these data suggest that AREG and EREG mediate tumorigenic phenotypes by activating EGFR signaling, and that the oncogenic potential of FGFR1 requires EGFR activation to promote mammary tumorigenesis. ..
- Mulier K, Nguyen A, DeLaney J, Marquez S. Comparison of Permacol™ and Strattice™ for the repair of abdominal wall defects. Hernia. 2011;15:315-9 pubmed publisher..Cross-linked materials may prove more durable in the remodeling process as suggested by the increased thinning and weakening observed in non-cross-linked biomesh. ..
- Takada K, Wang X, Hart G, Odumade O, Weinreich M, Hogquist K, et al. Kruppel-like factor 2 is required for trafficking but not quiescence in postactivated T cells. J Immunol. 2011;186:775-83 pubmed publisher..Thus, our data help to define KLF2-dependent and -independent aspects of activated CD8(+) T cell differentiation and argue against a physiological role in cell cycle regulation. ..
- Bohrer L, Chen S, Hallstrom T, Huang H. Androgens suppress EZH2 expression via retinoblastoma (RB) and p130-dependent pathways: a potential mechanism of androgen-refractory progression of prostate cancer. Endocrinology. 2010;151:5136-45 pubmed publisher..Our findings also suggest that blockade of EZH2 derepression during androgen deprivation therapy may represent an effective tactic for the treatment of androgen-refractory PCa. ..
- Rabb H, Daniels F, O Donnell M, Haq M, Saba S, Keane W, et al. Pathophysiological role of T lymphocytes in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000;279:F525-31 pubmed..These data suggest that T lymphocytes can mediate experimental renal IRI. Moreover, adhesion of infiltrating T cells to renal tubular cells may provide a potential mechanism underlying postischemic tubular dysfunction...
- Chen R, Kim O, Li M, Xiong X, Guan J, Kung H, et al. Regulation of the PH-domain-containing tyrosine kinase Etk by focal adhesion kinase through the FERM domain. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:439-44 pubmed..Taken together, our data indicate the essential role of the interaction of the PH domain of Etk and the FERM domain of FAK in integrin signalling. ..
- Fairchild C, Gammill L. Tetraspanin18 is a FoxD3-responsive antagonist of cranial neural crest epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that maintains cadherin-6B protein. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1464-76 pubmed publisher..These results offer new insight into the molecular mechanisms of cranial neural crest EMT and expand our understanding of tetraspanin function relevant to metastasis. ..
- Ren Y, Kirkpatrick C, Rawson J, Sun M, Selleck S. Cell type-specific requirements for heparan sulfate biosynthesis at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction: effects on synapse function, membrane trafficking, and mitochondrial localization. J Neurosci. 2009;29:8539-50 pubmed publisher..Our data support the emerging view that HSPG functions are not limited to the cell surface and matrix environments, but also affect a diverse set of cellular processes including membrane trafficking and organelle distributions. ..
- Grando S, Horton R, Pereira E, Diethelm Okita B, George P, Albuquerque E, et al. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor regulating cell adhesion and motility is expressed in human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;105:774-81 pubmed..The specific antagonists kappa-bungarotoxin and mecamylamine caused cell detachment and abolished migration. Thus, a nicotinic receptor expressed in keratinocytes may mediate acetylcholine control of keratinocyte adhesion and motility. ..
- Zhang P, Hu X, Xu X, Chen Y, Bache R. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 modulates endothelial cell growth through nitric oxide and Akt. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:890-7 pubmed publisher..DDAH1 exerts a unique role in activating Akt that affects endothelial function independently of degrading endogenous NOS inhibitors. ..
- Fahrioglu U, Murphy M, Zarkower D, Bardwell V. mRNA expression analysis and the molecular basis of neonatal testis defects in Dmrt1 mutant mice. Sex Dev. 2007;1:42-58 pubmed publisher..This work also identifies a number of new candidate testicular regulators for further investigation. ..
- Ruscher R, Kummer R, Lee Y, Jameson S, Hogquist K. CD8?? intraepithelial lymphocytes arise from two main thymic precursors. Nat Immunol. 2017;18:771-779 pubmed publisher..These data provide a foundation for understanding the biology of CD8?? IELs. ..
- Bakken T, He M, Cannon M. The phosphatase Shp2 is required for signaling by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral GPCR in primary endothelial cells. Virology. 2010;397:379-88 pubmed publisher..This establishes Shp2 as an important point of convergence of KSHV vGPCR signaling and a potential molecular target in the design of an anti-KSHV therapeutic regimen. ..
- Liu P, Yang J, Pei J, Pei D, Wilson M. Regulation of MT1-MMP activity by ?-catenin in MDCK non-cancer and HT1080 cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2010;225:810-21 pubmed publisher..These differences were most probably due to different subcellular locations and different involved pathways of ?-catenin in these cells. ..
- Iizuka Y, Mooneyham A, Sieben A, Chen K, Maile M, Hellweg R, et al. UNC-45A is required for neurite extension via controlling NMII activation. Mol Biol Cell. 2017;28:1337-1346 pubmed publisher..Collectively our results provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of neurite growth and define UNC-45A as a novel and master regulator of NMII-mediated cellular processes in neurons. ..
- Schenkel J, Fraser K, Vezys V, Masopust D. Sensing and alarm function of resident memory CD8? T cells. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:509-13 pubmed publisher..Anamnestic responses in front-line tissues are thus an integrated collaboration between front-line and circulating populations of memory CD8(+) T cells, and vaccines should establish both populations to maximize rapid responses. ..
- Sam T, Xiao J, Roehrich H, Low W, Gregerson D. Engrafted neural progenitor cells express a tissue-restricted reporter gene associated with differentiated retinal photoreceptor cells. Cell Transplant. 2006;15:147-60 pubmed
- Nesmelova I, Sham Y, Dudek A, van Eijk L, Wu G, Slungaard A, et al. Platelet factor 4 and interleukin-8 CXC chemokine heterodimer formation modulates function at the quaternary structural level. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4948-58 pubmed..This concept, in turn, has implications for designing chemokine/cytokine variants with modified biological properties. ..
- Fink J, Hirsch B, Zheng C, Dietz G, Hatten M, Ross M. Astrotactin (ASTN), a gene for glial-guided neuronal migration, maps to human chromosome 1q25.2. Genomics. 1997;40:202-5 pubmed
- Iida J, Pei D, Kang T, Simpson M, Herlyn M, Furcht L, et al. Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan regulates matrix metalloproteinase-dependent human melanoma invasion into type I collagen. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:18786-94 pubmed..The results indicate that MT3-MMP possesses the potential to promote melanoma invasion and proteolysis and that the formation of a complex between MT3-MMP and MCSP may be a crucial step in activating these processes. ..
- Bangasser B, Rosenfeld S, Odde D. Determinants of maximal force transmission in a motor-clutch model of cell traction in a compliant microenvironment. Biophys J. 2013;105:581-92 pubmed publisher..The analysis suggests that coordinate parameter shifts, such as increasing the numbers of motors and clutches, could underlie tumor progression and collective cell migration. ..
- Iizuka Y, Cichocki F, Sieben A, Sforza F, Karim R, Coughlin K, et al. UNC-45A Is a Nonmuscle Myosin IIA Chaperone Required for NK Cell Cytotoxicity via Control of Lytic Granule Secretion. J Immunol. 2015;195:4760-70 pubmed publisher..Lastly, loss of UNC-45A leads to reduced NMIIA binding to actin, suggesting that UNC-45A is a crucial component in regulating human NK cell cytoskeletal dynamics via promoting the formation of actomyosin complexes. ..
- Neudauer C, McCarthy J. Insulin-like growth factor I-stimulated melanoma cell migration requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase but not extracellular-regulated kinase activation. Exp Cell Res. 2003;286:128-37 pubmed..Determining the contributions of IGF-I signaling pathways to migration will help us to understand melanoma progression and may lead to new therapeutic targets of this highly metastatic cancer. ..
- VERMILLION K, Lidberg K, Gammill L. Cytoplasmic protein methylation is essential for neural crest migration. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:95-109 pubmed publisher..Altogether, these data reveal a novel and essential role for post-translational nonhistone protein methylation during neural crest migration and define a previously unknown requirement for EF1?1 methylation in migration. ..
- Breshears L, Wessels D, Soll D, Titus M. An unconventional myosin required for cell polarization and chemotaxis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6918-23 pubmed publisher..These data reveal a role for a MyTH/FERM myosin in mediating early chemotactic signaling and suggest that MyTH/FERM proteins have conserved roles in signaling and the generation of cell polarity...
- Zhang X, Graves P, Zeng Y. Overexpression of human Argonaute2 inhibits cell and tumor growth. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:2553-61 pubmed..Ago2 expression was lower in human lung adenocarcinomas than in the paired, non-cancerous tissues. We concluded that changes in Ago2 expression might have significant physiological and pathological consequences in vivo. ..
- Marsick B, FLYNN K, Santiago Medina M, Bamburg J, Letourneau P. Activation of ADF/cofilin mediates attractive growth cone turning toward nerve growth factor and netrin-1. Dev Neurobiol. 2010;70:565-88 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that gradients of NGF and netrin-1 locally activate AC to promote actin polymerization and subsequent growth cone turning toward the side containing higher AC activity. ..
- Roffers Agarwal J, Hutt K, Gammill L. Paladin is an antiphosphatase that regulates neural crest cell formation and migration. Dev Biol. 2012;371:180-90 pubmed publisher..Our work identifies a novel regulator of phosphorylation status that provides an additional layer of regulation in the neural crest...