Experts and Doctors on homeodomain proteins in Connecticut, United States


Locale: Connecticut, United States
Topic: homeodomain proteins

Top Publications

  1. Hesslein D, Pflugh D, Chowdhury D, Bothwell A, Sen R, Schatz D. Pax5 is required for recombination of transcribed, acetylated, 5' IgH V gene segments. Genes Dev. 2003;17:37-42 pubmed
    ..The finding of transcribed, histone acetylated gene segments that fail to recombine suggests that a Pax5-dependent regulatory mechanism is required in addition to standard constraints of accessibility to control V(H) gene recombination. ..
  2. Petracco R, Grechukhina O, Popkhadze S, Massasa E, Zhou Y, Taylor H. MicroRNA 135 regulates HOXA10 expression in endometriosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E1925-33 pubmed publisher
    ..HOXA10 was aberrantly regulated in the endometrium of women with endometriosis by both miR135a and miR135b. Increased microRNA expression likely suppresses genes required for implantation. ..
  3. DU H, Vitiello D, Sarno J, Taylor H. 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase expression is regulated by HOXA10 in murine endometrium and human endometrial cells. Reproduction. 2010;139:237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..PHGDH is necessary for serine biosynthesis, which serves as a substrate for protein synthesis. One mechanism by which HOXA10 regulates cellular differentiation may involve limiting protein synthesis in the secretary phase. ..
  4. Daftary G, Taylor H. Endocrine regulation of HOX genes. Endocr Rev. 2006;27:331-55 pubmed
    ..This review discusses endocrine Hox regulation and its impact on physiology and human pathology. ..
  5. Lin L, McGinnis W. Mapping functional specificity in the Dfd and Ubx homeo domains. Genes Dev. 1992;6:1071-81 pubmed
    ..Although residues in the amino end of the homeo domain are also important in determining a Deformed-like targeting specificity, other regions of the Deformed homeo domain are also required for full activity. ..
  6. Schatz D, Swanson P. V(D)J recombination: mechanisms of initiation. Annu Rev Genet. 2011;45:167-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we propose a model for the formation of RAG-DNA complexes that involves anchoring of RAG1 at the recombination signal nonamer and RAG2-dependent surveillance of adjoining DNA for suitable spacer and heptamer sequences. ..
  7. Reinitz J, Mjolsness E, Sharp D. Model for cooperative control of positional information in Drosophila by bicoid and maternal hunchback. J Exp Zool. 1995;271:47-56 pubmed
    ..The model shows that positional information in the presumptive middle body is cooperatively determined by maternal products of the bicoid and hunchback genes. ..
  8. Letinic K, Rakic P. Telencephalic origin of human thalamic GABAergic neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2001;4:931-6 pubmed
  9. Oliver J, Ramos D, Prudic K, Monteiro A. Temporal gene expression variation associated with eyespot size plasticity in Bicyclus anynana. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65830 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Connell K, Guess M, Chen H, Lynch T, Bercik R, Taylor H. HOXA11 promotes fibroblast proliferation and regulates p53 in uterosacral ligaments. Reprod Sci. 2009;16:694-700 pubmed publisher
  2. Taylor H, Fei X. Emx2 regulates mammalian reproduction by altering endometrial cell proliferation. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:2839-46 pubmed
    ..Emx2 controls mammalian reproduction by adjusting endometrial cell proliferation without effecting differentiation. Regulated uterine Emx2 expression is necessary during reproduction for maximal implantation and litter size. ..
  3. Jorgensen E, Ruman J, Doherty L, Taylor H. A novel mutation of HOXA13 in a family with hand-foot-genital syndrome and the role of polyalanine expansions in the spectrum of Müllerian fusion anomalies. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1235-8 pubmed publisher
    ..When patients present with septa, it is not necessary to subject them to roentgenograms of the distal limbs or to sequence analysis of HOXA13 unless they show clear signs of the other sequelae characteristic of true HFGS. ..
  4. Scamborova P, Wong A, Steitz J. An intronic enhancer regulates splicing of the twintron of Drosophila melanogaster prospero pre-mRNA by two different spliceosomes. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:1855-69 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have identified an intron region critical for prospero twintron splicing as a first step towards elucidating the molecular mechanism of splicing regulation involving competition between the two kinds of spliceosomes. ..
  5. Lynch V, Brayer K, Gellersen B, Wagner G. HoxA-11 and FOXO1A cooperate to regulate decidual prolactin expression: towards inferring the core transcriptional regulators of decidual genes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6845 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the functional non-equivalence of HoxA-11 and HoxA-10 with respect to PRL regulation suggests that these transcription factors regulate distinct sets of target genes during decidualization. ..
  6. Sarno J, Schatz F, Lockwood C, Huang S, Taylor H. Thrombin and interleukin-1beta regulate HOXA10 expression in human term decidual cells: implications for preterm labor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:2366-72 pubmed
    ..The dramatic decrease of HOXA10 in response to IL-1beta or thrombin may contribute to progestin resistance in preterm labor, mimicking progesterone resistance seen in Hoxa10(-/-) mice. ..
  7. Fienberg A, Nordstedt C, Belting H, Czernik A, Nairn A, Gandy S, et al. Phylogenetically conserved CK-II phosphorylation site of the murine homeodomain protein Hoxb-6. J Exp Zool. 1999;285:76-84 pubmed
    ..The conservation of this site in several homeodomain proteins from various species is discussed. ..
  8. Bromer J, Wu J, Zhou Y, Taylor H. Hypermethylation of homeobox A10 by in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure: an epigenetic mechanism for altered developmental programming. Endocrinology. 2009;150:3376-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify hypermethylation as a novel mechanism of DES-induced altered developmental programming. ..
  9. Fugmann S, Villey I, Ptaszek L, Schatz D. Identification of two catalytic residues in RAG1 that define a single active site within the RAG1/RAG2 protein complex. Mol Cell. 2000;5:97-107 pubmed
  10. Zhang S, Liu M, Kano A, Zhang C, Fu X, Barnstable C. STAT3 activation in response to growth factors or cytokines participates in retina precursor proliferation. Exp Eye Res. 2005;81:103-15 pubmed
    ..These results strongly support a model that STAT3-mediated signalling regulates precursor populations during mouse retina development. ..
  11. Watanabe M, Hadzic T, Nishiyama A. Transient upregulation of Nkx2.2 expression in oligodendrocyte lineage cells during remyelination. Glia. 2004;46:311-22 pubmed
    ..2 gene, which may trigger the existing NG2-expressing precursors in the adult CNS to undergo terminal differentiation into remyelinating OLs. ..
  12. Litt A, Irish V. Duplication and diversification in the APETALA1/FRUITFULL floral homeotic gene lineage: implications for the evolution of floral development. Genetics. 2003;165:821-33 pubmed
    ..However, the presence of euAP1 genes only in core eudicots suggests that there may have been changes in mechanisms of floral development that are correlated with the fixation of floral structure seen in this clade. ..
  13. Ghosh B, Jacobs H, Wiedemann L, Brown A, Bedford F, Nimmakayalu M, et al. Genomic structure, cDNA mapping, and chromosomal localization of the mouse homeobox gene, Hex. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:1023-5 pubmed
  14. Bogue C, Ganea G, Sturm E, Ianucci R, Jacobs H. Hex expression suggests a role in the development and function of organs derived from foregut endoderm. Dev Dyn. 2000;219:84-9 pubmed
    ..Our results provide more detail on the potential role of Hex in the development of several organs derived from foregut endoderm and in the maintenance of function of several of these organs in the mature animal. ..
  15. Dreyfus D. The DDE recombinases: diverse roles in acquired and innate immunity. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;97:567-76; quiz 576-8, 602 pubmed
  16. Schatz D, Ji Y. Recombination centres and the orchestration of V(D)J recombination. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011;11:251-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These advances suggest novel mechanisms for both the targeting and the mistargeting of V(D)J recombination, and have implications for how these events contribute to genome instability and lymphoid malignancy. ..
  17. DU H, Sarno J, Taylor H. HOXA10 inhibits Kruppel-like factor 9 expression in the human endometrial epithelium. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:205-11 pubmed publisher
    ..HOXA10 directly and selectively repressed KLF9 expression in endometrial epithelial cells. HOXA10 repression of KLF9 likely contributes to the loss of sex steroid responsiveness in secretory-phase endometrial epithelium. ..
  18. Zhang H, Degar B, Rogoulina S, Resor C, Booth C, Sinning J, et al. Hematopoiesis following disruption of the Pitx2 homeodomain gene. Exp Hematol. 2006;34:167-78 pubmed
    ..Although the fetal livers of Pitx2 null embryos displayed signs of impaired erythropoiesis, Pitx2 gene disrupted HSCs can contribute to hematopoiesis under physiological conditions. ..
  19. Daftary G, Kayisli U, Seli E, Bukulmez O, Arici A, Taylor H. Salpingectomy increases peri-implantation endometrial HOXA10 expression in women with hydrosalpinx. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:367-72 pubmed
    ..Salpingectomy restores endometrial HOXA10 expression. This may be one mechanism by which salpingectomy results in augmented implantation rates in IVF. ..
  20. Daftary G, Taylor H. Implantation in the human: the role of HOX genes. Semin Reprod Med. 2000;18:311-20 pubmed
    ..The importance of Hox genes in this process has been well documented, and they remain one of the few well-characterized molecules necessary for implantation. ..
  21. Cermik D, Selam B, Taylor H. Regulation of HOXA-10 expression by testosterone in vitro and in the endometrium of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:238-43 pubmed
    ..Testosterone is a novel regulator of HOXA10. Diminished uterine HOXA10 expression may contribute to the diminished reproduction potential of women with PCOS. ..
  22. Quaggin S, Heuvel G, Golden K, Bodmer R, Igarashi P. Primary structure, neural-specific expression, and chromosomal localization of Cux-2, a second murine homeobox gene related to Drosophila cut. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:22624-34 pubmed
    ..Cux-2 may encode a transcription factor that is involved in neural specification in mammals. ..
  23. Kramer E, Dorit R, Irish V. Molecular evolution of genes controlling petal and stamen development: duplication and divergence within the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA MADS-box gene lineages. Genetics. 1998;149:765-83 pubmed
    ..A major duplication event in the AP3 lineage coincides with the base of the higher eudicot radiation and may reflect the evolution of a petal-specific AP3 function in the higher eudicot lineage. ..
  24. Chiu C, Nonaka D, Xue L, Amemiya C, Wagner G. Evolution of Hoxa-11 in lineages phylogenetically positioned along the fin-limb transition. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2000;17:305-16 pubmed
    ..Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, a 35-bp intron sequence, which is 100% conserved in all Hoxa-11 loci except for the zebrafish Hoxa-11a paralog, was found to bind protein(s) in HeLa and chick whole-cell extracts. ..
  25. Tichy A, Ray A, Carlson J. A new Drosophila POU gene, pdm3, acts in odor receptor expression and axon targeting of olfactory neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:7121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this mutational analysis, the first for a POU class VI gene, demonstrates a role for pdm3 in both of the processes that define the functional organization of ORNs in the olfactory system. ..
  26. Fischer C, Kayisili U, Taylor H. HOXA10 expression is decreased in endometrium of women with adenomyosis. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1133-6 pubmed publisher
    ..HOXA10 gene expression is decreased in the secretory phase endometrium of women with adenomyosis. Diminished expression of HOXA10 is a potential mechanism explaining decreased implantation observed in women with adenomyosis. ..
  27. Tsai C, Drejer A, Schatz D. Evidence of a critical architectural function for the RAG proteins in end processing, protection, and joining in V(D)J recombination. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1934-49 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the RAG proteins have an architectural function in facilitating proper and efficient V(D)J joining, and a protective function in preventing degradation of broken ends prior to joining. ..
  28. Roth J, Breitenbach M, Wagner G. Repressor domain and nuclear localization signal of the murine Hoxa-11 protein are located in the homeodomain: no evidence for role of poly alanine stretches in transcriptional repression. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2005;304:468-75 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that the high degree of conservation of the homeodomain is due to the multiple functional constraints that result from the various conserved functions accommodated in the homeodomain. ..
  29. Lee M, Bonneau A, Takacs C, Bazzini A, DiVito K, Fleming E, et al. Nanog, Pou5f1 and SoxB1 activate zygotic gene expression during the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Nature. 2013;503:360-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that maternal Nanog, Pou5f1 and SoxB1 are required to initiate the zygotic developmental program and induce clearance of the maternal program by activating miR-430 expression. ..
  30. Lin X, Swaroop A, Vaccarino F, Murtha M, Haas M, Ji X, et al. Characterization and sequence analysis of the human homeobox-containing gene GBX2. Genomics. 1996;31:335-42 pubmed
    ..These studies provide a framework for designing future experiments that are needed to determine the functional significance of this gene in CNS development. ..
  31. Sakkas D, Lu C, Zulfikaroglu E, Neuber E, Taylor H. A soluble molecule secreted by human blastocysts modulates regulation of HOXA10 expression in an epithelial endometrial cell line. Fertil Steril. 2003;80:1169-74 pubmed
    ..Additionally, HOXA10 induction can serve as a means of evaluating human embryos cultured for IVF and ET. High quality embryos may induce local endometrial receptivity before trophectoderm-endometrial contact. ..
  32. Taylor H, Vanden Heuvel G, Igarashi P. A conserved Hox axis in the mouse and human female reproductive system: late establishment and persistent adult expression of the Hoxa cluster genes. Biol Reprod. 1997;57:1338-45 pubmed
    ..The late establishment of a Hox axis and persistent expression of Hox genes in the adult may play an important role in preserving this plasticity...
  33. Hart C, Compton J, Langley S, Hunihan L, LeClair K, Zelent A, et al. Genetic linkage analysis of the murine developmental mutant velvet coat (Ve) and the distal chromosome 15 developmental genes Hox-3.1, Rar-g, Wnt-1, and Krt-2. J Exp Zool. 1992;263:83-95 pubmed
    ..No recombination was found between Ve, Krt-2, and Rar-g. The data also provide evidence for the hypothesis of a large-scale genomic duplication involving homologous gene pairs on mouse Chromosomes 15 and 11. ..
  34. Tan Q, Irish V. The Arabidopsis zinc finger-homeodomain genes encode proteins with unique biochemical properties that are coordinately expressed during floral development. Plant Physiol. 2006;140:1095-108 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose the ZF-HD gene family encodes a group of transcriptional regulators with unique biochemical activities that play overlapping regulatory roles in Arabidopsis floral development. ..
  35. Ma Y, Guess M, Datar A, Hennessey A, Cardenas I, Johnson J, et al. Knockdown of Hoxa11 in vivo in the uterosacral ligament and uterus of mice results in altered collagen and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:100 pubmed publisher
  36. Olsson Carter K, Slack F. The POU transcription factor UNC-86 controls the timing and ventral guidance of Caenorhabditis elegans axon growth. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1815-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This temporal shift is not dependent on UNC-40 or SAX-3, and does not require the presence of lin-4. We propose that unc-86(lf) HSN axons are misguided due to the temporal decoupling of axon initiation and ventral guidance responses. ..
  37. Tetrault A, Richman S, Fei X, Taylor H. Decreased endometrial HOXA10 expression associated with use of the copper intrauterine device. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:1820-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel mechanism of copper IUD action involves suppression of genes required for endometrial receptivity. The dramatic decrease of endometrial HOXA10 in response to IUD use may contribute to contraceptive efficacy. ..
  38. Akbas G, Taylor H. HOXC and HOXD gene expression in human endometrium: lack of redundancy with HOXA paralogs. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:39-45 pubmed
    ..A network of HOX genes may be involved in regulating multiple aspects of endometrial development, including both proliferation and differentiation. ..
  39. Bradshaw M, Shashikant C, Belting H, Bollekens J, Ruddle F. A long-range regulatory element of Hoxc8 identified by using the pClasper vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:2426-30 pubmed
    ..We show that the regulatory elements that maintain the anterior boundaries of expression in the neural tube and paraxial mesoderm are located between 11 and 19 kb downstream of the gene. ..
  40. DU H, Daftary G, Lalwani S, Taylor H. Direct regulation of HOXA10 by 1,25-(OH)2D3 in human myelomonocytic cells and human endometrial stromal cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:2222-33 pubmed
    ..1,25-(OH)2D3 up-regulates HOXA10 expression by binding VDR and interacting with a VDRE in the HOXA10 regulatory region. Direct regulation of HOXA10 by vitamin D has implications for fertility and myeloid differentiation. ..
  41. Rivkees S, Chen M, Kulkarni J, Browne J, Zhao Z. Characterization of the murine A1 adenosine receptor promoter, potent regulation by GATA-4 and Nkx2.5. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:14204-9 pubmed
    ..5 could individually drive A1AR promoter activity and act synergistically to activate A1AR expression. These observations suggest that embryonic A1AR expression involves activation of the A1AR promoter by GATA-4 and Nkx2.5. ..
  42. Rash B, Lim H, Breunig J, Vaccarino F. FGF signaling expands embryonic cortical surface area by regulating Notch-dependent neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2011;31:15604-17 pubmed publisher
  43. TenHarmsel A, Austin R, Savenelli N, Biggin M. Cooperative binding at a distance by even-skipped protein correlates with repression and suggests a mechanism of silencing. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:2742-52 pubmed
    ..Cooperative binding of further repressor molecules to distant low-affinity sites, and competition with activators bound at these sites lead to repression at a distance. ..
  44. Bumsted K, Barnstable C. Dorsal retinal pigment epithelium differentiates as neural retina in the microphthalmia (mi/mi) mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:903-8 pubmed
    ..Most importantly, loss of mi function permits a change in cell fate from RPE to retina in the dorsal eye. ..
  45. Chen X, Cho K, Singer B, Zhang H. The nuclear transcription factor PKNOX2 is a candidate gene for substance dependence in European-origin women. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16002 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings underscore the importance of considering multiple addiction types and the importance of considering population and gender stratification when analyzing data with heterogeneous population. ..
  46. Rackow B, Jorgensen E, Taylor H. Endometrial polyps affect uterine receptivity. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2690-2 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a molecular mechanism to support the clinical findings of diminished pregnancy rates in women with endometrial polyps...
  47. Dong J, Jimi E, Zhong H, Hayden M, Ghosh S. Repression of gene expression by unphosphorylated NF-kappaB p65 through epigenetic mechanisms. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1159-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, unphosphorylated nuclear NF-kappaB can affect expression of genes not normally regulated by NF-kappaB through epigenetic mechanisms. ..
  48. Kundrat L, Regan L. Balance between folding and degradation for Hsp90-dependent client proteins: a key role for CHIP. Biochemistry. 2010;49:7428-38 pubmed publisher
  49. Vanden Heuvel G, Quaggin S, Igarashi P. A unique variant of a homeobox gene related to Drosophila cut is expressed in mouse testis. Biol Reprod. 1996;55:731-9 pubmed
    ..The highly restricted pattern of expression of Cux-1 in the testis suggests that it may be involved in regulation of postmeiotic gene expression. ..
  50. Lynch V, Wagner G. Multiple chromosomal rearrangements structured the ancestral vertebrate Hox-bearing protochromosomes. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000349 pubmed publisher
  51. Laney J, Biggin M. Redundant control of Ultrabithorax by zeste involves functional levels of zeste protein binding at the Ultrabithorax promoter. Development. 1996;122:2303-11 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that zeste is significantly active in the wild-type animal and not simply a factor that is induced as a back-up when other activators fail. ..
  52. Daftary G, Taylor H. Pleiotropic effects of Hoxa10 on the functional development of peri-implantation endometrium. Mol Reprod Dev. 2004;67:8-14 pubmed
    ..Functional differentiation in regenerative adult tissues may depend on timed expression of embryonic selector genes. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 67: 8-14, 2004. ..
  53. Jacobs D, Hansen J, Fu A, Stevens R, Tjonneland A, Vogel U, et al. Methylation alterations at imprinted genes detected among long-term shiftworkers. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2013;54:141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that long-term shiftwork may alter methylation patterns at imprinted genes, which may be an important mechanism by which shiftwork has carcinogenic potential and warrants further investigation. ..
  54. Shockett P, Schatz D. DNA hairpin opening mediated by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:4159-66 pubmed
    ..RAG1 and RAG2 may therefore be responsible for initiating the processing of coding ends and for the generation of P nucleotides during V(D)J recombination. ..
  55. Taylor H, Igarashi P, Olive D, Arici A. Sex steroids mediate HOXA11 expression in the human peri-implantation endometrium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:1129-35 pubmed
    ..Steroids are novel regulators HOX gene expression. The spatial and temporal pattern of HOXA11 expression in the human endometrium suggests a role in endometrial development, implantation, and maintenance of pregnancy. ..
  56. Taylor H, Arici A, Olive D, Igarashi P. HOXA10 is expressed in response to sex steroids at the time of implantation in the human endometrium. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:1379-84 pubmed
    ..HOXA10 may have an important function in regulating endometrial development during the menstrual cycle and in establishing conditions necessary for implantation in the human. ..
  57. Hawiger D, Wan Y, Eynon E, Flavell R. The transcription cofactor Hopx is required for regulatory T cell function in dendritic cell-mediated peripheral T cell unresponsiveness. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:962-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Hopx is required for the function of T(reg) cells induced by DCs and the promotion of DC-mediated T cell unresponsiveness in vivo. ..
  58. Daftary G, Taylor H. EMX2 gene expression in the female reproductive tract and aberrant expression in the endometrium of patients with endometriosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:2390-6 pubmed
    ..Reporter expression was increased, indicating reversal of HOXA10-mediated transcriptional repression. Endometrial EMX2 expression is aberrant in women with endometriosis and is mediated by altered HOXA10 expression. ..
  59. Penna I, Hongling Du -, Kallen A, Taylor H. Endothelin type A receptor (ETA) expression is regulated by HOXA10 in human endometrial stromal cells. Reprod Sci. 2010;17:471-6 pubmed publisher
    ..ET( A) likely acts as a molecular mechanism by which HOXA10 promotes stromal cell growth and prostaglandin production in both the implantation window and decidua. ..
  60. Austin R, Biggin M. A domain of the even-skipped protein represses transcription by preventing TFIID binding to a promoter: repression by cooperative blocking. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4683-93 pubmed
    ..We speculate that occupancy of secondary sites within the basal promoter by CDGB or the eve protein inhibits subsequent TFIID binding to repress transcription, a mechanism we term cooperative blocking. ..
  61. McGinnis N, Kuziora M, McGinnis W. Human Hox-4.2 and Drosophila deformed encode similar regulatory specificities in Drosophila embryos and larvae. Cell. 1990;63:969-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, human Hox-4.2 can specifically substitute for a normal regulatory function of its Drosophila homolog, Dfd. ..
  62. Nakamura S, Stock D, Wydner K, Bollekens J, Takeshita K, Nagai B, et al. Genomic analysis of a new mammalian distal-less gene: Dlx7. Genomics. 1996;38:314-24 pubmed
    ..These mapping results support the possibility that vertebrate distal-less genes have been duplicated in concert with the Hox clusters. ..
  63. Lei H, Juan A, Kim M, Ruddle F. Mouse naked cuticle 2 (mNkd2) as a direct transcriptional target of Hoxc8 in vivo. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2007;307:1-6 pubmed
    ..If, as the results suggest, mNkd2 is a direct target of Hoxc8, it represents a novel mechanism by which Hoxc8 might cross-talk with the Wnt signaling pathway by regulating mNkd2. ..
  64. Letinic K, Zoncu R, Rakic P. Origin of GABAergic neurons in the human neocortex. Nature. 2002;417:645-9 pubmed
  65. Taylor H. Endocrine disruptors affect developmental programming of HOX gene expression. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:e57-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Diethylstilbestrol and several environmental xenoestrogens disrupt the development of the female reproductive tract by altering HOX gene expression, leading to structural and functional defects. ..
  66. Ghosh B, Ganea G, Denson L, Iannucci R, Jacobs H, Bogue C. Immunocytochemical characterization of murine Hex, a homeobox-containing protein. Pediatr Res. 2000;48:634-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that nuclear localization of Hex is involved in early hepatic specification and that compartmentalization of Hex protein plays an important role in its function during mouse development. ..
  67. Zanotti S, Smerdel Ramoya A, Canalis E. HES1 (hairy and enhancer of split 1) is a determinant of bone mass. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:2648-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, by inhibiting osteoblast function and inducing bone resorption, HES1 is an intracellular determinant of bone mass and structure. ..
  68. Vanden Heuvel G, Bodmer R, McConnell K, Nagami G, Igarashi P. Expression of a cut-related homeobox gene in developing and polycystic mouse kidney. Kidney Int. 1996;50:453-61 pubmed
    ..Expression of Cux-1 in the kidney is inversely related to degree of cellular differentiation. Cux-1 may encode a transcriptional repressor that inhibits terminally differentiated gene expression during early stages of nephrogenesis. ..
  69. Walter J, Dever C, Biggin M. Two homeo domain proteins bind with similar specificity to a wide range of DNA sites in Drosophila embryos. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1678-92 pubmed
    ..We propose that these data favor the model that eve, ftz, and closely related homeo domain proteins act by directly regulating mostly the same target genes...
  70. Lynch V, Roth J, Wagner G. Adaptive evolution of Hox-gene homeodomains after cluster duplications. BMC Evol Biol. 2006;6:86 pubmed
    ..These results further suggest that adaptive evolution actively contributed to Hox-gene homeodomain functions. ..
  71. DU H, Taylor H. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2015;6:a023002 pubmed publisher
    ..Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. ..
  72. Bucala R. Fibrocytes at 20 Years. Mol Med. 2015;21 Suppl 1:S3-5 pubmed publisher
  73. Yin F, Bailey S, Innis C, Ciubotaru M, Kamtekar S, Steitz T, et al. Structure of the RAG1 nonamer binding domain with DNA reveals a dimer that mediates DNA synapsis. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:499-508 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a previously unsuspected function for the NBD in DNA synapsis and have implications for the regulation of DNA binding and cleavage by RAG1 and RAG2. ..
  74. Connell K, Guess M, Chen H, Andikyan V, Bercik R, Taylor H. HOXA11 is critical for development and maintenance of uterosacral ligaments and deficient in pelvic prolapse. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1050-5 pubmed publisher
  75. Daftary G, Troy P, Bagot C, Young S, Taylor H. Direct regulation of beta3-integrin subunit gene expression by HOXA10 in endometrial cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:571-9 pubmed
    ..beta3-Integrin expression was directly up-regulated by HOXA10 through a 41-bp 5'-regulatory element. Sex steroids regulate the expression of endometrial beta3-integrin through a pathway involving HOXA10. ..
  76. Bellon S, Rodgers K, Schatz D, Coleman J, Steitz T. Crystal structure of the RAG1 dimerization domain reveals multiple zinc-binding motifs including a novel zinc binuclear cluster. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:586-91 pubmed
    ..The domain also contains a unique zinc binuclear cluster in place of a normally mononuclear zinc site in the RING finger. Together, four zinc ions help organize the entire domain, including the two helices that form the dimer interface. ..
  77. Canalis E, Zanotti S, Beamer W, Economides A, Smerdel Ramoya A. Connective tissue growth factor is required for skeletal development and postnatal skeletal homeostasis in male mice. Endocrinology. 2010;151:3490-501 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, CTGF is necessary for normal skeletal development but to a lesser extent for postnatal skeletal homeostasis. ..
  78. Yang H, Zhou Y, Edelshain B, Schatz F, Lockwood C, Taylor H. FKBP4 is regulated by HOXA10 during decidualization and in endometriosis. Reproduction. 2012;143:531-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The P(4) resistance seen in endometriosis may be mediated through HOXA10-regulated FKBP4 expression. ..
  79. Deng Y, Atri D, Eichmann A, Simons M. Endothelial ERK signaling controls lymphatic fate specification. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:1202-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that ERK activation plays a key role in lymphatic EC fate specification and that excessive ERK activation is the basis of lymphatic abnormalities seen in Noonan syndrome and related diseases. ..
  80. Troy P, Daftary G, Bagot C, Taylor H. Transcriptional repression of peri-implantation EMX2 expression in mammalian reproduction by HOXA10. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1-13 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate conservation of the transcription factor-target gene relationship, although the direction of regulation is reversed with possible evolutionary implications. ..
  81. Truman L, Bentley K, SMITH E, Massaro S, Gonzalez D, Haberman A, et al. ProxTom lymphatic vessel reporter mice reveal Prox1 expression in the adrenal medulla, megakaryocytes, and platelets. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:1715-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The faithful expression of the fluorescent reporter in ProxTom LVs indicates that these mice have potential utility in the study of diseases as diverse as lymphedema, filariasis, transplant rejection, obesity, and tumor metastasis...
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