Genomes and Genes
Experts and Doctors on drosophila proteins in Berkeley, California, United States
Locale: Berkeley, California, United States
Topic: drosophila proteins
- Pipes G, Lin Q, Riley S, Goodman C. The Beat generation: a multigene family encoding IgSF proteins related to the Beat axon guidance molecule in Drosophila. Development. 2001;128:4545-52 pubmed
- Ohtsuki S, Levine M. GAGA mediates the enhancer blocking activity of the eve promoter in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3325-30 pubmed..We suggest that Trl-GAGA increases the stability of enhancer-promoter interactions by creating an open chromatin configuration at the core promoter. ..
- Fisher W, Li J, Hammonds A, Brown J, Pfeiffer B, Weiszmann R, et al. DNA regions bound at low occupancy by transcription factors do not drive patterned reporter gene expression in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:21330-5 pubmed publisher..These results support studies that indicate that the high cellular concentrations of sequence-specific transcription factors drive extensive, low-occupancy, nonfunctional interactions within the accessible portions of the genome. ..
- Puig O, Marr M, Ruhf M, Tjian R. Control of cell number by Drosophila FOXO: downstream and feedback regulation of the insulin receptor pathway. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2006-20 pubmed..Our results establish dFOXO as a key transcriptional regulator of the insulin pathway that modulates growth and proliferation. ..
- Zito K, Fetter R, Goodman C, Isacoff E. Synaptic clustering of Fascilin II and Shaker: essential targeting sequences and role of Dlg. Neuron. 1997;19:1007-16 pubmed..Finally, transient expression studies show that the pathway these proteins take to the synapse involves either an active clustering or a selective stabilization in the synaptic membrane. ..
- Pak D, Pflumm M, Chesnokov I, Huang D, Kellum R, Marr J, et al. Association of the origin recognition complex with heterochromatin and HP1 in higher eukaryotes. Cell. 1997;91:311-23 pubmed..These results indicate that ORC may play a widespread role in packaging chromosomal domains through interactions with heterochromatin-organizing factors. ..
- Calhoun V, Levine M. Long-range enhancer-promoter interactions in the Scr-Antp interval of the Drosophila Antennapedia complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9878-83 pubmed..We suggest that homotypic interactions between the tethering elements stabilize long-range T1-Scr interactions during development. ..
- Peng J, Karpen G. H3K9 methylation and RNA interference regulate nucleolar organization and repeated DNA stability. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:25-35 pubmed..These results suggest a mechanism for how local chromatin structure can regulate genome stability, and the organization of chromosomal elements and nuclear organelles. ..
- Cai H, Levine M. The gypsy insulator can function as a promoter-specific silencer in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1997;16:1732-41 pubmed..These results provide an explanation for why mod(mdg4) exerts differential effects on different gypsy-induced mutations. ..
- Dynlacht B, Attardi L, Admon A, Freeman M, Tjian R. Functional analysis of NTF-1, a developmentally regulated Drosophila transcription factor that binds neuronal cis elements. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1677-88 pubmed..These findings suggest that NTF-1 is a member of a family of developmentally regulated transcription factors that may be involved in directing the expression of genes such as Ubx, Ddc, and ftz in neuronal cells. ..
- Clarey M, Erzberger J, Grob P, Leschziner A, Berger J, Nogales E, et al. Nucleotide-dependent conformational changes in the DnaA-like core of the origin recognition complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:684-90 pubmed..By analogy to the DNA-wrapping activity of DnaA, we posit that ORC together with Cdc6 prepares origin DNA for helicase loading through mechanisms related to the established pathway of prokaryotes. ..
- Moses A, Pollard D, Nix D, Iyer V, Li X, Biggin M, et al. Large-scale turnover of functional transcription factor binding sites in Drosophila. PLoS Comput Biol. 2006;2:e130 pubmed..Finally, we show that binding-site gains and losses are asymmetrically distributed with respect to D. melanogaster, consistent with lineage-specific acquisition and loss of Zeste-responsive regulatory elements. ..
- Kopczynski C, Davis G, Goodman C. A neural tetraspanin, encoded by late bloomer, that facilitates synapse formation. Science. 1996;271:1867-70 pubmed..In lbl mutant embryos, the growth cone of the RP3 motoneuron contacts its target muscles, but synapse formation is delayed and neighboring motoneurons display an increase in ectopic sprouting. ..
- Senger K, Armstrong G, Rowell W, Kwan J, Markstein M, Levine M. Immunity regulatory DNAs share common organizational features in Drosophila. Mol Cell. 2004;13:19-32 pubmed..Aspects of this "regulatory code" are essential for the immune response. These results suggest that immunity regulatory DNAs contain constrained organizational features, which may be a general property of eukaryotic enhancers. ..
- Serano J, Rubin G. The Drosophila synaptotagmin-like protein bitesize is required for growth and has mRNA localization sequences within its open reading frame. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13368-73 pubmed..Thus, we have found that bitesize is a metazoan example of a transcript for which all identifiable mRNA localization sequences are contained within the protein-coding region. ..
- Moore J, Fristrom D, Hammonds A, Fristrom J. Characterization of IMP-E3, a gene active during imaginal disc morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Genet. 1990;11:299-309 pubmed..The conceptual IMP-E3 protein contains a signal peptide, an RGD sequence, and a potential glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. We speculate that the protein provides a transient cue important for imaginal disc morphogenesis. ..
- Reis T, Van Gilst M, Hariharan I. A buoyancy-based screen of Drosophila larvae for fat-storage mutants reveals a role for Sir2 in coupling fat storage to nutrient availability. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001206 pubmed publisher..Our findings point to a Sir2-mediated pathway that activates a catabolic response to amino-acid starvation irrespective of the sugar content of the diet. ..
- Calhoun V, Stathopoulos A, Levine M. Promoter-proximal tethering elements regulate enhancer-promoter specificity in the Drosophila Antennapedia complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9243-7 pubmed..We suggest that the Scr450 fragment contains tethering elements that selectively recruit T1 to the Scr promoter. Tethering elements might regulate enhancer-promoter interactions at other complex genetic loci. ..
- Zinzen R, Papatsenko D. Enhancer responses to similarly distributed antagonistic gradients in development. PLoS Comput Biol. 2007;3:e84 pubmed
- Ellison C, Bachtrog D. Dosage compensation via transposable element mediated rewiring of a regulatory network. Science. 2013;342:846-50 pubmed publisher..Thus, TE-mediated rewiring of regulatory networks through domestication and amplification may be followed by fine-tuning of the cis-regulatory element supplied by the TE and erosion of nonfunctional regions. ..
- Harris K, Schnittke N, Beckendorf S. Two ligands signal through the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF receptor to ensure proper salivary gland positioning. Mech Dev. 2007;124:441-8 pubmed..Rescue experiments indicate that the PDGF/VEGF pathway functions autonomously in the salivary gland. The results of this study demonstrate that the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF pathway is essential for proper positioning of the salivary glands. ..
- Cutforth T, Rubin G. Mutations in Hsp83 and cdc37 impair signaling by the sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase in Drosophila. Cell. 1994;77:1027-36 pubmed..Together, these data support a role for Hsp90 proteins in tyrosine kinase regulation and suggest that signals promoting neuronal differentiation may involve cell cycle control. ..
- Biemar F, Zinzen R, Ronshaugen M, Sementchenko V, Manak J, Levine M. Spatial regulation of microRNA gene expression in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15907-11 pubmed..These results provide evidence that restricted activities of the 8-miR and miR-1 miRNAs are mediated by classical tissue-specific enhancers. ..
- Wrischnik L, Timmer J, Megna L, Cline T. Recruitment of the proneural gene scute to the Drosophila sex-determination pathway. Genetics. 2003;165:2007-27 pubmed..The screen that yielded new sc alleles also generated autosomal duplications that argue against the textbook view that fruit fly sex signal evolution recruited a set of autosomal signal elements comparable to the XSEs...
- Sabogal A, Rio D. A green fluorescent protein solubility screen in E. coli reveals domain boundaries of the GTP-binding domain in the P element transposase. Protein Sci. 2010;19:2210-8 pubmed publisher..This study highlights the use of a GFP-based solubility screen on a large multidomain protein to identify highly expressed, soluble truncated domain subregions. ..
- Fortini M, Simon M, Rubin G. Signalling by the sevenless protein tyrosine kinase is mimicked by Ras1 activation. Nature. 1992;355:559-61 pubmed..Similar activation of the Drosophila Ras2 protein does not produce these effects, demonstrating Ras protein specificity. ..
- Kidd T, Russell C, Goodman C, Tear G. Dosage-sensitive and complementary functions of roundabout and commissureless control axon crossing of the CNS midline. Neuron. 1998;20:25-33 pubmed..The levels of Comm and Robo appear to be tightly regulated to assure that only certain growth cones cross the midline and that those growth cones that do cross never do so again. ..
- Clark H, Brentrup D, Schneitz K, Bieber A, Goodman C, Noll M. Dachsous encodes a member of the cadherin superfamily that controls imaginal disc morphogenesis in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1530-42 pubmed
- Attardi L, Von Seggern D, Tjian R. Ectopic expression of wild-type or a dominant-negative mutant of transcription factor NTF-1 disrupts normal Drosophila development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:10563-7 pubmed..Our results suggest that both the activity and the regulation of NTF-1 are critical for viability and proper development of the fly. ..
- Lewis P, Sahoo D, Geng C, Bell M, Lipsick J, Botchan M. Drosophila lin-52 acts in opposition to repressive components of the Myb-MuvB/dREAM complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3218-27 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, these findings support a model in which the Lin-52 and Myb proteins counteract the repressive activities of the other members of the MMB/dREAM complex at specific genomic loci in a developmentally controlled manner. ..
- Noordermeer J, Kopczynski C, Fetter R, Bland K, Chen W, Goodman C. Wrapper, a novel member of the Ig superfamily, is expressed by midline glia and is required for them to ensheath commissural axons in Drosophila. Neuron. 1998;21:991-1001 pubmed..However, they do not ensheath the commissural axons, and as a result, the glia die. In the absence of Wrapper, the two axon commissures are not properly separated. ..
- Winberg M, Mitchell K, Goodman C. Genetic analysis of the mechanisms controlling target selection: complementary and combinatorial functions of netrins, semaphorins, and IgCAMs. Cell. 1998;93:581-91 pubmed..Rather, these growth cones assess the relative balance of attractive and repulsive forces and select their targets based on the combinatorial and simultaneous input of multiple cues. ..
- Hager J, Cline T. Induction of female Sex-lethal RNA splicing in male germ cells: implications for Drosophila germline sex determination. Development. 1997;124:5033-48 pubmed..Ironically, the testis may be an excellent organ in which to study the interactions among regulatory genes such as Sxl, snf, ovo and otu which control female-specific processes in the ovary. ..
- Wakabayashi Ito N, Belvin M, Bluestein D, Anderson K. fusilli, an essential gene with a maternal role in Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral patterning. Dev Biol. 2001;229:44-54 pubmed
- Zhou J, Zwicker J, Szymanski P, Levine M, Tjian R. TAFII mutations disrupt Dorsal activation in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13483-8 pubmed..These results suggest that TAFIIs contribute to the activation of transcription in vivo and support the hypothesis that subunits of TFIID may serve as targets of enhancer binding proteins. ..
- DiAntonio A. Learning something ORIGINal at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Neuron. 1999;23:1-2 pubmed
- Tang A, Neufeld T, Kwan E, Rubin G. PHYL acts to down-regulate TTK88, a transcriptional repressor of neuronal cell fates, by a SINA-dependent mechanism. Cell. 1997;90:459-67 pubmed
- Hay B, Maile R, Rubin G. P element insertion-dependent gene activation in the Drosophila eye. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:5195-200 pubmed..A screen with one of these vectors identified eagle as a suppressor of a rough eye phenotype associated with overexpression of an activated Ras1 gene. ..
- Adams M, Tarng R, Rio D. The alternative splicing factor PSI regulates P-element third intron splicing in vivo. Genes Dev. 1997;11:129-38 pubmed..We also show that IVS3 splicing is activated in somatic embryonic cells in the presence of an antisense PSI ribozyme. These results support the model that PSI is a tissue-specific regulator of IVS3 splicing in vivo. ..
- Kanda H, Nguyen A, Chen L, Okano H, Hariharan I. The Drosophila ortholog of MLL3 and MLL4, trithorax related, functions as a negative regulator of tissue growth. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1702-10 pubmed publisher..Thus, in Drosophila eye imaginal discs, Trr, likely functioning together with Utx, restricts tissue growth. In contrast, Trx appears to promote cell survival. ..
- Lusk R, Eisen M. Evolutionary mirages: selection on binding site composition creates the illusion of conserved grammars in Drosophila enhancers. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000829 pubmed publisher..melanogaster enhancers. Thus, this study calls into question the common practice of inferring "cis-regulatory grammars" from the organization and evolutionary dynamics of developmental enhancers. ..
- Zinzen R, Cande J, Ronshaugen M, Papatsenko D, Levine M. Evolution of the ventral midline in insect embryos. Dev Cell. 2006;11:895-902 pubmed publisher..mel., but it is activated solely by Twi in A. mel. We suggest that the Twi-only mode of regulation--and the broad ventral midline--represents the ancestral form of CNS patterning in Holometabolous insects...
- Colmenares S, Swenson J, Langley S, Kennedy C, Costes S, Karpen G. Drosophila Histone Demethylase KDM4A Has Enzymatic and Non-enzymatic Roles in Controlling Heterochromatin Integrity. Dev Cell. 2017;42:156-169.e5 pubmed publisher..We conclude that dKDM4A, in addition to its previously characterized role in euchromatin, utilizes both enzymatic and structural mechanisms to regulate heterochromatin organization and functions. ..
- Evans D, Cline T. Drosophila switch gene Sex-lethal can bypass its switch-gene target transformer to regulate aspects of female behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4474-81 pubmed publisher..The TIF pathway may represent an ancestral female-specific function acquired by Sxl in an early evolutionary step toward its becoming the regulator of tra in Drosophila. ..
- Reed S, Serio A, Welch M. Rickettsia parkeri invasion of diverse host cells involves an Arp2/3 complex, WAVE complex and Rho-family GTPase-dependent pathway. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:529-45 pubmed publisher..Our results reveal a key role for the WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes, as well as a higher degree of variation than previously appreciated in actin nucleation pathways activated during Rickettsia invasion...
- Stathopoulos A, Levine M. Linear signaling in the Toll-Dorsal pathway of Drosophila: activated Pelle kinase specifies all threshold outputs of gene expression while the bHLH protein Twist specifies a subset. Development. 2002;129:3411-9 pubmed..We discuss how the Dorsal gradient system can be modified during metazoan evolution and conclude that Dorsal-Twist interactions are distinct from the interplay between Bicoid and Hunchback, which pattern the anteroposterior axis. ..
- Labourier E, Adams M, Rio D. Modulation of P-element pre-mRNA splicing by a direct interaction between PSI and U1 snRNP 70K protein. Mol Cell. 2001;8:363-73 pubmed..These data show that the processing of specific target transcripts, such as the P-element mRNA, is regulated by a functional PSI-U1 snRNP interaction in Drosophila. ..
- Kuebler D, Zhang H, Ren X, Tanouye M. Genetic suppression of seizure susceptibility in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:1211-25 pubmed..These results demonstrate the utility of Drosophila as a model system for studying seizure susceptibility and identify physiological processes that modify seizure susceptibility...
- Snow P, Bieber A, Goodman C. Fasciclin III: a novel homophilic adhesion molecule in Drosophila. Cell. 1989;59:313-23 pubmed..The distribution of this adhesion molecule on subsets of fasciculating axons and growth cones during Drosophila development suggests that fasciclin III plays a role in growth cone guidance. ..
- Chan R, Chan A, Jeon M, Wu T, Pasqualone D, Rougvie A, et al. Chromosome cohesion is regulated by a clock gene paralogue TIM-1. Nature. 2003;423:1002-9 pubmed..On the basis of comparisons between TIMELESS homologues in worms, flies and mice, we propose that chromosome cohesion, rather than circadian clock regulation, is the ancient and conserved function for TIMELESS-like proteins. ..
- Papatsenko D, Levine M. Dual regulation by the Hunchback gradient in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2901-6 pubmed publisher..Computational simulations suggest that repression results from the dimerization of Hb monomers on the DNA template. ..
- Sun S, Cline T. Effects of Wolbachia infection and ovarian tumor mutations on Sex-lethal germline functioning in Drosophila. Genetics. 2009;181:1291-301 pubmed publisher..Clearly Sxl and otu work together in the female germline. These studies of meiosis in Sxl mutant females revealed that X chromosome recombination is considerably more sensitive than autosomal recombination to reduced Sxl activity. ..
- Sefton L, Timmer J, Zhang Y, Beranger F, Cline T. An extracellular activator of the Drosophila JAK/STAT pathway is a sex-determination signal element. Nature. 2000;405:970-3 pubmed..Unlike sex signals for other organisms, sisC has acquired its sex-specific function while maintaining non-sex-specific roles in development, a characteristic that it shares with all other Drosophila XSEs. ..
- Nibu Y, Levine M. CtBP-dependent activities of the short-range Giant repressor in the Drosophila embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6204-8 pubmed..We propose that Giant-dCtBP interactions might be indirect and mediated by an unknown bZIP subunit that forms a heteromeric complex with Giant. We also suggest that the VLDLS motif recruits an as yet unidentified corepressor protein. ..
- Rubin G. Signal transduction and the fate of the R7 photoreceptor in Drosophila. Trends Genet. 1991;7:372-7 pubmed..Studies of the mechanisms governing the specificity of signal transmission and reception suggest that the sevenless signal directs a bipotential cell towards a neuronal rather than a cone cell fate. ..
- Hayward D, Patel N, Rehm E, Goodman C, Ball E. Sequence and expression of grasshopper antennapedia: comparison to Drosophila. Dev Biol. 1995;172:452-65 pubmed publisher..In the CNS expression is initially limited to a few neurons, but eventually becomes widespread. Both insects show strong expression in certain homologous identified neurons and similar temporal modulation of expression...
- Wolff T, Rubin G. Strabismus, a novel gene that regulates tissue polarity and cell fate decisions in Drosophila. Development. 1998;125:1149-59 pubmed..Sequence analysis of both vertebrate and invertebrate homologs indicates that stbm has been highly conserved throughout evolution. ..
- Osborne R, Zhu H, Iavarone A, Hess C, Klinman J. Inactivation of Met471Cys tyramine ?-monooxygenase results from site-specific cysteic acid formation. Biochemistry. 2012;51:7488-95 pubmed publisher..While both Met and Cys side chains are expected to be similarly subject to oxidative damage in proteins, the enhanced reactivity of Met471Cys toward solution oxidants in T?M is attributed to its weaker interaction with Cu(I)(M). ..
- Nibu Y, Zhang H, Levine M. Interaction of short-range repressors with Drosophila CtBP in the embryo. Science. 1998;280:101-4 pubmed..These observations suggest that CtBP and dCtBP are engaged in an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of transcriptional repression, which is used in both Drosophila and mammals. ..
- Gordon S, Dickinson M. Role of calcium in the regulation of mechanical power in insect flight. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4311-5 pubmed..Collectively, these experiments on intact animals support an active role for [Ca(2+)] in regulating power output of stretch-activated A-IFM. ..
- Kolesnikov T, Beckendorf S. 18 wheeler regulates apical constriction of salivary gland cells via the Rho-GTPase-signaling pathway. Dev Biol. 2007;307:53-61 pubmed..We show that RhoGAP5A and RhoGAP88C/Crossveinless-c (CV-C) are required for proper salivary gland morphogenesis, implicating them as potential targets of 18W. ..
- Chandrasekaran V, Beckendorf S. senseless is necessary for the survival of embryonic salivary glands in Drosophila. Development. 2003;130:4719-28 pubmed..Furthermore, we show that in the salivary glands, sens acts as an anti-apoptotic protein by repressing reaper and possibly hid. ..
- Guerrero G, Reiff D, Rieff D, Agarwal G, Ball R, Borst A, et al. Heterogeneity in synaptic transmission along a Drosophila larval motor axon. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1188-96 pubmed..The results suggest that transmission strength is mainly determined presynaptically at the level of individual boutons, possibly by one or more factors existing in a gradient. ..
- Fambrough D, Pan D, Rubin G, Goodman C. The cell surface metalloprotease/disintegrin Kuzbanian is required for axonal extension in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:13233-8 pubmed..This phenotype is rescued by panneural expression of kuz mRNA in the embryo. These results show that the Kuz metalloprotease is required for axon extension, suggesting a requirement for proteolytic activity at the growth cone surface. ..
- Worley M, Setiawan L, Hariharan I. TIE-DYE: a combinatorial marking system to visualize and genetically manipulate clones during development in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2013;140:3275-84 pubmed publisher..We demonstrate the utility of this system in studying the consequences of alterations in growth, patterning and cell-cell affinity. ..
- Neufeld T, Rubin G. The Drosophila peanut gene is required for cytokinesis and encodes a protein similar to yeast putative bud neck filament proteins. Cell. 1994;77:371-9 pubmed..Our results suggest that this class of proteins is involved in aspects of cytokinesis that have been conserved between flies and yeast. ..
- Dickson B. Nuclear factors in sevenless signalling. Trends Genet. 1995;11:106-11 pubmed
- Harris R, Setiawan L, Saul J, Hariharan I. Localized epigenetic silencing of a damage-activated WNT enhancer limits regeneration in mature Drosophila imaginal discs. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher..Localized epigenetic silencing of damage-responsive enhancers can therefore restrict regenerative capacity in maturing organisms without compromising gene functions regulated by developmental signals. ..
- Simpson J, Kidd T, Bland K, Goodman C. Short-range and long-range guidance by slit and its Robo receptors. Robo and Robo2 play distinct roles in midline guidance. Neuron. 2000;28:753-66 pubmed..The robo,robo2 double mutant is largely identical to slit. ..
- Song J, Tanouye M. Seizure suppression by shakB2, a gap junction mutation in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:627-35 pubmed..These results show the use of Drosophila as a model system for studying the kinds of genetic interactions responsible for seizure susceptibility, bringing us closer to unraveling the complexity of seizure disorders in humans. ..
- Wan H, DiAntonio A, Fetter R, Bergstrom K, Strauss R, Goodman C. Highwire regulates synaptic growth in Drosophila. Neuron. 2000;26:313-29 pubmed..Within presynaptic terminals, HIW is localized to the periactive zone surrounding active zones; Fasciclin II (Fas II), which also controls synaptic growth, is found at the same location. ..
- Haley B, Hendrix D, Trang V, Levine M. A simplified miRNA-based gene silencing method for Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2008;321:482-90 pubmed publisher..As proof of concept, this method was used for the efficient silencing of dpp gene activity in the adult wing, and the analysis of the general RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) elongation factor, Nelf-E. ..
- Hess C, McGuirl M, Klinman J. Mechanism of the insect enzyme, tyramine beta-monooxygenase, reveals differences from the mammalian enzyme, dopamine beta-monooxygenase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3042-9 pubmed..These findings may be relevant to the control of octopamine production in insect cells...