Experts and Doctors on tuberculosis in Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa


Locale: Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
Topic: tuberculosis

Top Publications

  1. McIlleron H, Willemse M, Schaaf H, Smith P, Donald P. Pyrazinamide plasma concentrations in young children with tuberculosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:262-5 pubmed
    ..7 (25.5, 35.0) mg/L after a median dose of 23 mg/kg. Peak concentrations < 20 mg/L were found in 5 children (15%) and such low concentrations were particularly likely after doses < 20 mg/kg. ..
  2. Eshun Wilson I, Havers F, Nachega J, Prozesky H, Taljaard J, Zeier M, et al. Evaluation of paradoxical TB-associated IRIS with the use of standardized case definitions for resource-limited settings. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2010;9:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This case definition should be evaluated prospectively. ..
  3. Atkins S, Lewin S, Ringsberg K, Thorson A. Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change. Glob Health Action. 2012;5:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics. ..
  4. Kritzinger F, den Boon S, Verver S, Enarson D, Lombard C, Borgdorff M, et al. No decrease in annual risk of tuberculosis infection in endemic area in Cape Town, South Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Tuberculosis transmission remains very high in these two communities and control measures to date have failed. Additional measures to control TB are needed. ..
  5. du Plessis W, Walzl G, Loxton A. B cells as multi-functional players during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2016;97:118-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we aim to discuss B cells, from its generation through to its functioning as effectors in both the innate and adaptive immune response, within the tuberculosis domain. ..
  6. Franzen D, Diacon A, Freitag L, Schubert P, Wright C, Schuurmans M. Ultrathin bronchoscopy for solitary pulmonary lesions in a region endemic for tuberculosis: a randomised pilot trial. BMC Pulm Med. 2016;16:62 pubmed publisher
    ..0 % and 62.5 %, respectively (p?=?0.95). UB is not superior to SB for the evaluation of SPL in a region endemic with tuberculosis, when combined with fluoroscopic guidance only. (Identifier: NCT02490059 ). ..
  7. Pepper D, Rebe K, Morroni C, Wilkinson R, Meintjes G. Clinical deterioration during antitubercular treatment at a district hospital in South Africa: the importance of drug resistance and AIDS defining illnesses. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4520 pubmed publisher
    ..Routine infection control is essential and needs to be strengthened in our setting. ..
  8. Connell T, Davies M, Johannisen C, Wood K, Pienaar S, Wilkinson K, et al. Reversion and conversion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis IFN-gamma ELISpot results during anti-tuberculous treatment in HIV-infected children. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:138 pubmed publisher
    ..However, serial IFN-gamma ELISpot measurements appear to have limited clinical utility in assessing a successful response to anti-tuberculous treatment in HIV infected children. ..
  9. Pepper D, Marais S, Wilkinson R, Bhaijee F, De Azevedo V, Meintjes G. Barriers to initiation of antiretrovirals during antituberculosis therapy in Africa. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19484 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies are needed to promote ART initiation during TB therapy, especially among young men. ..

More Information

Publications139 found, 100 shown here

  1. Jacobs R, Tshehla E, Malherbe S, Kriel M, Loxton A, Stanley K, et al. Host biomarkers detected in saliva show promise as markers for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis disease and monitoring of the response to tuberculosis treatment. Cytokine. 2016;81:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified candidate biomarkers in saliva, which may be useful in the diagnosis of TB disease and monitoring of the response to TB treatment. These results require further validation in larger studies. ..
  2. Fletcher H, Snowden M, Landry B, Rida W, Satti I, Harris S, et al. T-cell activation is an immune correlate of risk in BCG vaccinated infants. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11290 pubmed publisher
    ..502, 95% CI=0.29-0.86, P=0.013, FDR=0.14). The causes and impact of T-cell activation on disease risk should be considered when designing and testing TB vaccine candidates for these populations. ..
  3. McIlleron H, Meintjes G, Burman W, Maartens G. Complications of antiretroviral therapy in patients with tuberculosis: drug interactions, toxicity, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. J Infect Dis. 2007;196 Suppl 1:S63-75 pubmed
    ..These complexities of coadministration of antitubercular and antiretroviral agents are reviewed, and research priorities are highlighted. ..
  4. Cohen K, Meintjes G. Management of individuals requiring antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010;5:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent findings and the findings of ongoing studies will assist clinicians in dealing with these challenges. ..
  5. Uwimana J, Zarowsky C, Hausler H, Jackson D. Training community care workers to provide comprehensive TB/HIV/PMTCT integrated care in KwaZulu-Natal: lessons learnt. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;17:488-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that up-skilling CCWs could be one avenue to enhance TB/HIV case finding, TB contact tracing and linkages to care. ..
  6. McEvoy C, Cloete R, Müller B, Schürch A, van Helden P, Gagneux S, et al. Comparative analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pe and ppe genes reveals high sequence variation and an apparent absence of selective constraints. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30593 pubmed publisher
    ..Since pe/ppe proteins are highly antigenic and have been studied as potential vaccine components these results should also prove informative for aspects of M. tuberculosis vaccine design. ..
  7. Smith A, Burger R, Claassens M, Ayles H, Godfrey Faussett P, Beyers N. Health care workers' gender bias in testing could contribute to missed tuberculosis among women in South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016;20:350-6 pubmed publisher
    ..6% vs. 20.7%, P = 0.023). The attainment of sex equity in the provision of TB health services requires adherence to testing protocols. Everyone, irrespective of sex, who seeks care for a cough of ?2 weeks should be tested. ..
  8. Cashmore T, Peter J, van Zyl Smit R, Semple P, Maredza A, Meldau R, et al. Feasibility and diagnostic utility of antigen-specific interferon-gamma responses for rapid immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis using induced sputum. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10389 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the test, in its current ELISPOT format, is not clinically useful because the majority of the assays are inconclusive. ..
  9. Moyo S, Verver S, Hawkridge A, Geiter L, Hatherill M, Workman L, et al. Tuberculosis case finding for vaccine trials in young children in high-incidence settings: a randomised trial. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16:185-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Home visits combined with record surveillance detected significantly more cases than record surveillance with a single study-end visit. The TB case profile did not differ significantly between the two groups. ..
  10. Mukinda F, Theron D, van der Spuy G, Jacobson K, Roscher M, Streicher E, et al. Rise in rifampicin-monoresistant tuberculosis in Western Cape, South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16:196-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Routine drug susceptibility testing should be considered in all TB-HIV co-infected patients, and absence of INH resistance should be confirmed phenotypically if genotypic RMR-TB is detected. ..
  11. Deetlefs E, Epstein D, Watermeyer G, Seggie R, Thomson S. Tuberculosis in an inflammatory bowel disease cohort from South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2012;102:802-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend that IBD patients should be screened actively and monitored for TB when immunosuppressive medications are used. ..
  12. Marais B, Wright C, Schaaf H, Gie R, Hesseling A, Enarson D, et al. Tuberculous lymphadenitis as a cause of persistent cervical lymphadenopathy in children from a tuberculosis-endemic area. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:142-6 pubmed
    ..Fine needle aspirations provided a rapid and definitive diagnosis in the majority of children and will have added diagnostic value in settings where alternative diagnoses are more likely. ..
  13. Mahomed H, Kibel M, Hawkridge T, Schaaf H, Hanekom W, Iloni K, et al. The impact of a change in bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine policy on tuberculosis incidence in children in Cape Town, South Africa. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:1167-72 pubmed
    ..7). A program using Danish 1331 BCG given intradermally did not prevent more tuberculosis cases in children overall as compared with a program using Tokyo 172 BCG given percutaneously but reduced the proportion with disseminated disease. ..
  14. Maritz J, Benatar M, Dave J, Harrison T, Badri M, Levitt N, et al. HIV neuropathy in South Africans: frequency, characteristics, and risk factors. Muscle Nerve. 2010;41:599-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings raise the possibility that the incidence of DSP may be reduced with avoidance of stavudine-containing regimens in older subjects, especially with a history of prior TB infection. ..
  15. Dheda K, Davids V, Lenders L, Roberts T, Meldau R, Ling D, et al. Clinical utility of a commercial LAM-ELISA assay for TB diagnosis in HIV-infected patients using urine and sputum samples. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9848 pubmed publisher
    ..However, even in this group sensitivity was modest. Future and adequately powered studies in a primary care setting should now specifically target patients with suspected TB who have advanced HIV infection. ..
  16. Gideon H, Hamilton M, Wood K, Pepper D, Oni T, Seldon R, et al. Impairment of IFN-gamma response to synthetic peptides of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a 7-day whole blood assay. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71351 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore demonstrates that screening antigenic candidates as synthetic peptides in long-term whole blood assays may underestimate immunogenicity. ..
  17. Hacking D, Cleary S. Setting priorities in health research using the model proposed by the World Health Organization: development of a quantitative methodology using tuberculosis in South Africa as a worked example. Health Res Policy Syst. 2016;14:10 pubmed publisher
    ..More complex formulas are required to deal with such potential confounding variables; however, the results act as starting point for development of a more robust model. ..
  18. Wiseman C, Schaaf H, Cotton M, Gie R, Jennings T, Whitelaw A, et al. Bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis in HIV-infected infants: disease spectrum and survival. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15:770-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the effects of young age, TB disease spectrum and HIV co-infection are difficult to distinguish, our findings support the initiation of early ART in HIV-infected infants with TB. ..
  19. Orrell C, Cohen K, Conradie F, Zeinecker J, Ive P, Sanne I, et al. Efavirenz and rifampicin in the South African context: is there a need to dose-increase efavirenz with concurrent rifampicin therapy?. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no significant decrease in EFV concentrations when on RFN in the 600 mg group. Dose escalation of EFV 600 mg to 800 mg is not required during concomitant TB therapy in South Africa. ..
  20. van Wyk S, Reid A, Mandalakas A, Enarson D, Beyers N, Morrison J, et al. Operational challenges in managing Isoniazid Preventive Therapy in child contacts: a high-burden setting perspective. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:544 pubmed publisher
    ..A tool to improve IPT management and targeting sputum smear and/or culture-positive TB child contacts may overcome some of these challenges and should be developed and piloted in such settings. ..
  21. Theron G, Peter J, Dowdy D, Langley I, Squire S, Dheda K. Do high rates of empirical treatment undermine the potential effect of new diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in high-burden settings?. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:527-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Until such questions can be addressed, and empirical treatment is appropriately characterised, we postulate that the estimated population-level effect of new tests such as Xpert might be substantially overestimated. ..
  22. Volmink J, Garner P. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of strategies to promote adherence to tuberculosis treatment. BMJ. 1997;315:1403-6 pubmed
    ..No completed trial of directly observed treatment was included in the review. All of the interventions tested improved adherence, but it remains unclear whether health education alone leads to better adherence to treatment. ..
  23. Dheda K, Schwander S, Zhu B, van Zyl Smit R, Zhang Y. The immunology of tuberculosis: from bench to bedside. Respirology. 2010;15:433-50 pubmed publisher
    ..An immunologically orientated approach to tackling TB can only succeed with concurrent efforts to alleviate poverty and reduce the global burden of HIV. ..
  24. Lawn S, Wood R, De Cock K, Kranzer K, Lewis J, Churchyard G. Antiretrovirals and isoniazid preventive therapy in the prevention of HIV-associated tuberculosis in settings with limited health-care resources. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10:489-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from randomised controlled trials are needed to underpin further development of public-health policy. ..
  25. Calligaro G, Meintjes G, Mendelson M. Pulmonary manifestations of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2011;17:180-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Early recognition of unmasking and paradoxical IRIS affecting the lung allows timely initiation of antimicrobial and/or immunomodulatory therapies. ..
  26. van der Plas H, Meintjes G, Schutz C, Goliath R, Myer L, Baatjie D, et al. Complications of antiretroviral therapy initiation in hospitalised patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54145 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the high morbidity, mortality was relatively low. Careful clinical management and adequate resources are needed in hospitalised HIV-TB patients in the 1(st) three months following ART initiation. ..
  27. Nachman S, Ahmed A, Amanullah F, Becerra M, Botgros R, Brigden G, et al. Towards early inclusion of children in tuberculosis drugs trials: a consensus statement. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:711-20 pubmed publisher
  28. Hennig S, Svensson E, Niebecker R, Fourie P, Weiner M, Bonora S, et al. Population pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction pooled analysis of existing data for rifabutin and HIV PIs. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016;71:1330-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Although 300 mg of rifabutin every 3 days with boosted PI achieves an average equivalent exposure, intermittent doses of rifamycins are not supported by current guidelines. ..
  29. Hanekom W, Lawn S, Dheda K, Whitelaw A. Tuberculosis research update. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:981-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this brief review, we provide a focused update on these four key areas of TB research. ..
  30. Day C, Abrahams D, Lerumo L, Janse van Rensburg E, Stone L, O rie T, et al. Functional capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cell responses in humans is associated with mycobacterial load. J Immunol. 2011;187:2222-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have potentially significant applications for the diagnosis of TB and for the identification of T cell correlates of TB disease progression. ..
  31. Dintwe O, Day C, Smit E, Nemes E, Gray C, Tameris M, et al. Heterologous vaccination against human tuberculosis modulates antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell function. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:2409-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, surface phenotypes commonly used as proxies for memory T-cell function did not associate with functional effects of vaccination. ..
  32. Hoff S, Peter J, Theron G, Pascoe M, Tingskov P, Aggerbeck H, et al. Sensitivity of C-Tb: a novel RD-1-specific skin test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection. Eur Respir J. 2016;47:919-28 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis infection. Sensitivity was reduced only in HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. Further studies in different settings are required to validate the proposed 5 mm cut-point. ..
  33. Dreyer A, Mbambo D, Machaba M, Oliphant C, Claassens M. Tuberculosis cure rates and the ETR.Net: investigating the quality of reporting treatment outcomes from primary healthcare facilities in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17:190 pubmed publisher
    ..Over reporting of treatment success of 12% occurred on the ETR.Net. The high error proportion in reporting onto the ETR.Net could result in a false sense of improvement in the TB control programme in the Ehlanzeni district. ..
  34. Middelkoop K, Bekker L, Liang H, Aquino L, Sebastian E, Myer L, et al. Force of tuberculosis infection among adolescents in a high HIV and TB prevalence community: a cross-sectional observation study. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:156 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate this is due to increased social contact with infectious TB cases. Control of the TB epidemic in this setting will require reducing the force of infection. ..
  35. Lawn S, Kerkhoff A, Burton R, Schutz C, Boulle A, Vogt M, et al. Diagnostic accuracy, incremental yield and prognostic value of Determine TB-LAM for routine diagnostic testing for tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients requiring acute hospital admission in South Africa: a prospective cohort. BMC Med. 2017;15:67 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay also rapidly identifies individuals with a poor prognosis. ..
  36. Bekolo C, Diallo A, Philips M, Yuma J, Di Stefano L, Drèze S, et al. Six-monthly appointment spacing for clinical visits as a model for retention in HIV Care in Conakry-Guinea: a cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:766 pubmed publisher
    ..R6M could be rolled out as the model of care for stable patients where and when feasible as a strategy likely to improve retention in HIV care. ..
  37. Van der Watt J, Harrison T, Benatar M, Heckmann J. Polyneuropathy, anti-tuberculosis treatment and the role of pyridoxine in the HIV/AIDS era: a systematic review. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15:722-8 pubmed publisher
  38. Peter J, Theron G, Muchinga T, Govender U, Dheda K. The diagnostic accuracy of urine-based Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-infected hospitalized patients who are smear-negative or sputum scarce. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39966 pubmed publisher
    ..Concentration of urine prior to MTB/RIF-testing significantly improves sensitivity. ..
  39. Thienemann F, Sliwa K, Rockstroh J. HIV and the heart: the impact of antiretroviral therapy: a global perspective. Eur Heart J. 2013;34:3538-46 pubmed publisher
  40. Shenai S, Armstrong D, Valli E, Dolinger D, Nakiyingi L, Dietze R, et al. Analytical and Clinical Evaluation of the Epistem Genedrive Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2016;54:1051-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1%), respectively. The Genedrive assay did not meet performance standards recommended by the World Health Organization for a smear microscopy replacement tuberculosis test. Epistem is working on modifications to improve the assay. ..
  41. Moyo S, Verver S, Mahomed H, Hawkridge A, Kibel M, Hatherill M, et al. Age-related tuberculosis incidence and severity in children under 5 years of age in Cape Town, South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14:149-54 pubmed
    ..TB incidence was high, and peaked in children aged 12-23 months. Many children experienced severe disease. A fifth of children with microbiologically confirmed disease presented with only one feature typically associated with TB. ..
  42. Mahomed H, Ehrlich R, Hawkridge T, Hatherill M, Geiter L, Kafaar F, et al. Screening for TB in high school adolescents in a high burden setting in South Africa. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2013;93:357-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The screening tools evaluated in this study may not be practical for routine use owing to low positive predictive values but may be useful in TB vaccine clinical trials. ..
  43. Kagina B, Abel B, Scriba T, Hughes E, Keyser A, Soares A, et al. Specific T cell frequency and cytokine expression profile do not correlate with protection against tuberculosis after bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination of newborns. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:1073-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Critical components of immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, such as CD4 T cell IFN-? production, may not necessarily translate into immune correlates of protection against TB disease. ..
  44. Marais B, Gie R, Schaaf H, Starke J, Hesseling A, Donald P, et al. A proposed radiological classification of childhood intra-thoracic tuberculosis. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34:886-94 pubmed
    ..The hope is that the proposed classification will clarify concepts and stimulate discussion that may lead to future consensus. ..
  45. Kagina B, Abel B, Bowmaker M, Scriba T, Gelderbloem S, Smit E, et al. Delaying BCG vaccination from birth to 10 weeks of age may result in an enhanced memory CD4 T cell response. Vaccine. 2009;27:5488-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Delaying BCG vaccination from birth to 10 weeks of age enhances the quantitative and qualitative BCG-specific T cell response, when measured at 1 year of age. ..
  46. Naidoo P, Peltzer K, Louw J, Matseke G, McHunu G, Tutshana B. Predictors of tuberculosis (TB) and antiretroviral (ARV) medication non-adherence in public primary care patients in South Africa: a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:396 pubmed publisher
    ..The treatment care package needs to involve not only the health sector but other relevant government sectors, such as social development. ..
  47. Njuguna C, Stewart A, Mouton J, Blockman M, Maartens G, Swart A, et al. Adverse Drug Reactions Reported to a National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker Hotline in South Africa: Description and Prospective Follow-Up of Reports. Drug Saf. 2016;39:159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection and management of these ADRs should be included in HCW training. In cases with follow-up, concordance with advice was high, and HCWs reported improvement in the majority. ..
  48. Black G, Thiel B, Ota M, Parida S, Adegbola R, Boom W, et al. Immunogenicity of novel DosR regulon-encoded candidate antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in three high-burden populations in Africa. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:1203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings have implications for the selection of potential TB vaccine candidates and for determining biosignatures of latent M. tuberculosis infection, active TB disease, and protective immunity. ..
  49. Meintjes G, Scriven J, Marais S. Management of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2012;9:238-50 pubmed publisher
    ..When considering corticosteroid treatment clinicians should be aware of their side effects and only use them when the diagnosis of IRIS is certain. In viral forms of IRIS corticosteroids are generally avoided. ..
  50. Scriba T, Carpenter C, Pro S, Sidney J, Musvosvi M, Rozot V, et al. Differential Recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Epitopes as a Function of Tuberculosis Disease History. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;196:772-781 pubmed publisher
    ..The underlying cause is not known, but one explanation is that previous disease results in less-effective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)...
  51. Meintjes G, Wilkinson R, Morroni C, Pepper D, Rebe K, Rangaka M, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of prednisone for paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. AIDS. 2010;24:2381-90 pubmed publisher
    ..It is important to investigate for drug-resistant tuberculosis and other causes for deterioration before administering glucocorticoids. ..
  52. Lawn S, Campbell L, Kaplan R, Little F, Morrow C, Wood R. Delays in starting antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis accessing non-integrated clinical services in a South African township. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:258 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Delays in starting ART were prolonged, especially for patients referred from separate TB clinics. Non-integration of TB and ART services is likely to be a substantial obstacle to timely initiation of ART. ..
  53. Parsons S, Gous T, Warren R, de Villiers C, Seier J, van Helden P. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) using the QuantiFERON-TB gold (in-tube) assay. J Med Primatol. 2009;38:411-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Early diagnosis of simian tuberculosis (TB) is vital to prevent transmission of this disease. We evaluated the ability of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold (In-Tube Method) assay (QFG-IT) to detect TB in chacma baboons (Papio ursinus)...
  54. Tena Coki N, Scriba T, Peteni N, Eley B, Wilkinson R, Andersen P, et al. CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to mycobacterial antigens in African children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:120-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mycobacteria-specific T-cell responses could be demonstrated in all groups of children, suggesting that the responses could be boosted by new TB vaccines currently in clinical trials. ..
  55. van Zyl Smit R, Brunet L, Pai M, Yew W. The convergence of the global smoking, COPD, tuberculosis, HIV, and respiratory infection epidemics. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2010;24:693-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Multifaceted approaches will be necessary to reduce the impact on those in developing nations most likely to be affected by the convergence of all epidemics. ..
  56. Govindasamy D, Kranzer K, van Schaik N, Noubary F, Wood R, Walensky R, et al. Linkage to HIV, TB and non-communicable disease care from a mobile testing unit in Cape Town, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80017 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening for HIV, TB symptoms and hypertension at mobile units in South Africa has a high yield but inadequate linkage. After-hours and weekend clinics may overcome a major barrier to accessing care. ..
  57. Miller M, Buss P, de Klerk Lorist L, Hofmeyr J, Hausler G, Lyashchenko K, et al. Application of Rapid Serologic Tests for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Free-Ranging Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus)--Implications for Antemortem Disease Screening. J Wildl Dis. 2016;52:180-2 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates the potential use of serodiagnostic tests for M. bovis infection in this species. ..
  58. Atkins S, Biles D, Lewin S, Ringsberg K, Thorson A. Patients' experiences of an intervention to support tuberculosis treatment adherence in South Africa. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2010;15:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..While the new programme seems to have succeeded in providing additional information, it is not clear that it substantially changed patient agency over their treatment taking in this setting. ..
  59. Fletcher H, Filali Mouhim A, Nemes E, Hawkridge A, Keyser A, Njikan S, et al. Human newborn bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination and risk of tuberculosis disease: a case-control study. BMC Med. 2016;14:76 pubmed publisher
    ..Distinct patterns of host responses to Mycobacterium bovis BCG suggest that novel TB vaccines may also elicit distinct patterns of host responses. This diversity should be considered in future TB vaccine development. ..
  60. Munro S, Lewin S, Swart T, Volmink J. A review of health behaviour theories: how useful are these for developing interventions to promote long-term medication adherence for TB and HIV/AIDS?. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:104 pubmed
    ..Further research and analysis is needed urgently to determine which models might best improve adherence to long-term treatment regimens. ..
  61. Bhaijee F, Wainwright H, Meintjes G, Wilkinson R, Todd G, de Vries E, et al. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis in HIV-1-infected patients with tuberculosis and venous thrombosis. S Afr Med J. 2010;100:372-7 pubmed
    ..Active prevention and appropriate management of WISN are likely to improve the dire morbidity and mortality of this unusual condition. ..
  62. Maartens G, Decloedt E, Cohen K. Effectiveness and safety of antiretrovirals with rifampicin: crucial issues for high-burden countries. Antivir Ther. 2009;14:1039-43 pubmed publisher
  63. Thee S, Garcia Prats A, Donald P, Hesseling A, Schaaf H. A review of the use of ethionamide and prothionamide in childhood tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2016;97:126-36 pubmed publisher
    ..More thorough investigation of the therapeutic effects and toxicity of ETH and PTH is needed in childhood TB while child-friendly formulations are needed to appropriately dose children. ..
  64. Horvati K, Bősze S, Gideon H, Bacsa B, Szabó T, Goliath R, et al. Population tailored modification of tuberculosis specific interferon-gamma release assay. J Infect. 2016;72:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data shows the potential to population tailor detection of MTB sensitization using specific synthetic peptides and interferon-gamma release in vitro. ..
  65. Nicol M, Kampmann B, Lawrence P, Wood K, Pienaar S, Pienaar D, et al. Enhanced anti-mycobacterial immunity in children with erythema nodosum and a positive tuberculin skin test. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:2152-7 pubmed
    ..Children presenting with EN and a positive TST show evidence of responses associated with enhanced anti-mycobacterial immunity. ..
  66. Nicol M, Davies M, Wood K, Hatherill M, Workman L, Hawkridge A, et al. Comparison of T-SPOT.TB assay and tuberculin skin test for the evaluation of young children at high risk for tuberculosis in a community setting. Pediatrics. 2009;123:38-43 pubmed publisher
    ..TB cannot be used to exclude active disease. The sensitivity of this assay may be impaired for very young children. ..
  67. Oni T, Patel J, Gideon H, Seldon R, Wood K, Hlombe Y, et al. Enhanced diagnosis of HIV-1-associated tuberculosis by relating T-SPOT.TB and CD4 counts. Eur Respir J. 2010;36:594-600 pubmed publisher
    ..A strong association between the degree of sputum positivity and T-SPOT.TB score was found. The sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB assay in active disease may be less impaired by advanced immunosuppression. ..
  68. Lawn S, Kerkhoff A, Vogt M, Wood R. Clinical significance of lipoarabinomannan detection in urine using a low-cost point-of-care diagnostic assay for HIV-associated tuberculosis. AIDS. 2012;26:1635-43 pubmed publisher
    ..If used in combination with laboratory-based diagnostics, treatment delays would decrease and survival might be improved. ..
  69. Muller B, de Klerk Lorist L, Henton M, Lane E, Parsons S, Gey van Pittius N, et al. Mixed infections of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in South African antelopes presenting with tuberculosis-like lesions. Vet Microbiol. 2011;147:340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In cases where potentially pathogenic NTMs are isolated from mycobacterial cultures of tuberculosis-like lesions, the non-use of additional non-selective culture techniques could lead to misinterpretations of the diagnostic test results...
  70. Jacobs M, Brown N, Allie N, Ryffel B. Fatal Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in TNF-LT-alpha-deficient mice. Clin Immunol. 2000;94:192-9 pubmed
    ..In summary, in the absence of TNF-LT-alpha the recruitment and activation of mononuclear cells in response to BCG infection were significantly delayed and reduced resulting in immature granulomas allowing uncontrolled fatal infection...
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    ..tb. are impaired in TLR4 mutant mice, resulting in chronic infection with impaired elimination of mycobacteria. Therefore, TLR4 signaling is required to mount a protective response during chronic M.tb. infection. ..
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    ..By correcting diagnostic weaknesses identified in the sputum register, PHC facilities will be able to detect, treat and cure a higher percentage of TB patients. ..
  73. Lawn S, Myer L, Edwards D, Bekker L, Wood R. Short-term and long-term risk of tuberculosis associated with CD4 cell recovery during antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. AIDS. 2009;23:1717-25 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the short-term and long-term risks of tuberculosis (TB) associated with CD4 cell recovery during antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  74. Sinanovic E, Kumaranayake L. The motivations for participation in public-private partnerships for the provision of tuberculosis treatment in South Africa. Glob Public Health. 2010;5:479-92 pubmed publisher
    ..For a partnership to be successful, in addition to sufficient motivation, the level of competition between private providers, regulatory framework, and social and political awareness becomes increasingly important. ..
  75. Cohen K, Grant A, Dandara C, McIlleron H, Pemba L, Fielding K, et al. Effect of rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy and the cytochrome P450 2B6 516G>T polymorphism on efavirenz concentrations in adults in South Africa. Antivir Ther. 2009;14:687-95 pubmed
    ..7-57.3). Efavirenz can be used together with rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy without dose adjustment in this population. The 516G>T polymorphism occurred commonly and was associated with high efavirenz concentrations. ..
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    ..The strong association between W-Beijing and HIV infection may have important implications for tuberculosis control. ..
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    ..TB meningitis is probably underdiagnosed by laboratory investigation, as evidence by the large numbers presenting with sterile lymphocytic markedly abnormal CSFs. ..
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    ..Our findings revise the notion that LT? might have a critical role in host defense to acute mycobacterial infection, independent of TNF, but suggest a contribution of LT? in the control of chronic M. tuberculosis infection. ..
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    ..Effective pre-exposure and postexposure vaccination, in conjunction with mass campaigns, is the most promising tuberculosis control strategy to approach the elimination target by the middle of the 21st century. ..
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    ..Prospective studies are required in high-burden settings to confirm whether IFN-gamma responses are predictive of high risk of progression to active TB, particularly in HIV-infected individuals. ..
  83. Lawn S, Churchyard G. Epidemiology of HIV-associated tuberculosis. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009;4:325-33 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-TB remains a major challenge to global health that requires substantial increases in resource allocation and concerted international action. ..
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    ..Like many other receptors for these pathogens, the loss of SR-B1 can be functionally compensated for under normal conditions. ..
  85. Wood R, Johnstone Robertson S, Uys P, Hargrove J, Middelkoop K, Lawn S, et al. Tuberculosis transmission to young children in a South African community: modeling household and community infection risks. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The benefits of increased ventilation are maximized when the period of infectivity is reduced by prompt treatment of source cases. ..
  86. Lawn S, Campbell L, Kaplan R, Boulle A, Cornell M, Kerschberger B, et al. Time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy among patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;57:136-40 pubmed publisher
    ..7%, and 51.1% of patients started ART within 2, 4, and 8 weeks of tuberculosis treatment, respectively. Operational barriers must be tackled to permit further acceleration of ART initiation as recommended by 2010 WHO ART guidelines. ..
  87. Van Wyk S, Enarson D, Beyers N, Lombard C, Hesseling A. Consulting private health care providers aggravates treatment delay in urban South African tuberculosis patients. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15:1069-76 pubmed publisher
    ..021); 27% of patients reported first going to a non-NTP HCP. Initial care sought from non-NTP HCP was the main determinant of total, HS and diagnostic delays. Engagement and education of private HCPs is recommended. ..
  88. Lawn S. Point-of-care detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: a state of the art review. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:103 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether this might be related to the assay itself or to the challenges associated with study design is discussed. ..
  89. Tameris M, Hatherill M, Landry B, Scriba T, Snowden M, Lockhart S, et al. Safety and efficacy of MVA85A, a new tuberculosis vaccine, in infants previously vaccinated with BCG: a randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial. Lancet. 2013;381:1021-8 pubmed
    ..Reasons for the absence of MVA85A efficacy against tuberculosis or M tuberculosis infection in infants need exploration. Aeras, Wellcome Trust, and Oxford-Emergent Tuberculosis Consortium (OETC). ..
  90. Kerkhoff A, Wood R, Cobelens F, Gupta Wright A, Bekker L, Lawn S. Resolution of anaemia in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with a high prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis receiving antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:3860 pubmed publisher
    ..However, approximately one-quarter of patients remained anaemic after one year of ART and may require additional investigations and/or interventions. ..
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    ..Finally, M. tuberculosis-infected U937 cells simultaneously provided a sensitive indicator for detection of mycobacterial-specific, HLA-unrestricted gammadelta+ CTL activity...
  92. Chopra M, Daviaud E, Pattinson R, Fonn S, Lawn J. Saving the lives of South Africa's mothers, babies, and children: can the health system deliver?. Lancet. 2009;374:835-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The costs are affordable and the key gap is leadership and effective implementation at every level of the health system, including national and local accountability for service provision. ..