Experts and Doctors on hiv infections in Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

Summary

Locale: Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
Topic: hiv infections

Top Publications

  1. Stein J, Lewin S, Fairall L, Mayers P, English R, Bheekie A, et al. Building capacity for antiretroviral delivery in South Africa: a qualitative evaluation of the PALSA PLUS nurse training programme. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008;8:240 pubmed publisher
  2. van Zyl Smit R, Pai M, Yew W, Leung C, Zumla A, Bateman E, et al. Global lung health: the colliding epidemics of tuberculosis, tobacco smoking, HIV and COPD. Eur Respir J. 2010;35:27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These interactions deserve urgent attention and have major implications for coordinated public health planning and policy recommendations in the developing world. ..
  3. Joska J, Westgarth Taylor J, Myer L, Hoare J, Thomas K, Combrinck M, et al. Characterization of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders among individuals starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2011;15:1197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..In a regression model, a lower level of education and male gender were predictive of HIV-D. These findings suggest that HAND are highly prevalent in primary care settings in South Africa where clade C HIV is predominant. ..
  4. Fatti G, Grimwood A, Bock P. Better antiretroviral therapy outcomes at primary healthcare facilities: an evaluation of three tiers of ART services in four South African provinces. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12888 pubmed publisher
    ..Further prospective research is required to determine the degree to which outcome differences are attributable to either facility level characteristics or patient co-morbidity at hospital level. ..
  5. Jaspan H, Flisher A, Myer L, Mathews C, Middelkoop K, Mark D, et al. Sexual health, HIV risk, and retention in an adolescent HIV-prevention trial preparatory cohort. J Adolesc Health. 2011;49:42-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Retention may improve with transport provision, visits with incentives, and efforts to retain males. ..
  6. Mall S, Middelkoop K, Mark D, Wood R, Bekker L. Changing patterns in HIV/AIDS stigma and uptake of voluntary counselling and testing services: the results of two consecutive community surveys conducted in the Western Cape, South Africa. AIDS Care. 2013;25:194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the role of HIV/AIDS-associated stigma in influencing choices to access HIV testing, and the benefits associated with HIV testing, interventions to reduce stigma in communities affected by this disease should be encouraged. ..
  7. Cotton M, Marais B, Andersson M, Eley B, Rabie H, Slogrove A, et al. Minimizing the risk of non-vertical, non-sexual HIV infection in children--beyond mother to child transmission. J Int AIDS Soc. 2012;15:17377 pubmed publisher
  8. Jackson D, Naik R, Tabana H, Pillay M, Madurai S, Zembe W, et al. Quality of home-based rapid HIV testing by community lay counsellors in a rural district of South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18744 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are important given the likely expansion of community and home-based testing models and the shortage of clinically trained professional staff. ..
  9. Hille J, Webster Cyriaque J, Palefski J, Raab Traub N. Mechanisms of expression of HHV8, EBV and HPV in selected HIV-associated oral lesions. Oral Dis. 2002;8 Suppl 2:161-8 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms of interaction between HIV and HPV are not fully understood. Expression of viral gene products is clearly important and necessary for the development of multiple AIDS-associated oral lesions...

More Information

Publications225 found, 100 shown here

  1. Ward K, Butler N, Mugabo P, Klausner J, McFarland W, Chen S, et al. Provision of syndromic treatment of sexually transmitted infections by community pharmacists: a potentially underutilized HIV prevention strategy. Sex Transm Dis. 2003;30:609-13 pubmed
    ..Training pharmacists to provide syndromic STI treatment may be one strategy to reduce STI morbidity and HIV transmission. ..
  2. Boulle A, Orrel C, Kaplan R, Van Cutsem G, McNally M, Hilderbrand K, et al. Substitutions due to antiretroviral toxicity or contraindication in the first 3 years of antiretroviral therapy in a large South African cohort. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:753-60 pubmed
    ..Whilst awaiting other treatment options, the risks of known toxicities could be minimized through early identification of patients at the highest risk. ..
  3. Mayosi B, Flisher A, Lalloo U, Sitas F, Tollman S, Bradshaw D. The burden of non-communicable diseases in South Africa. Lancet. 2009;374:934-47 pubmed publisher
  4. Orrell C, Cohen K, Conradie F, Zeinecker J, Ive P, Sanne I, et al. Efavirenz and rifampicin in the South African context: is there a need to dose-increase efavirenz with concurrent rifampicin therapy?. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no significant decrease in EFV concentrations when on RFN in the 600 mg group. Dose escalation of EFV 600 mg to 800 mg is not required during concomitant TB therapy in South Africa. ..
  5. Kranzer K, Olson L, van Schaik N, Raditlhalo E, Hudson E, Panigrahi P, et al. Quality of induced sputum using a human-powered nebuliser in a mobile human immunodeficiency virus testing service in South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15:1077-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research needs to investigate the yield of TB in sputum samples induced by the HPN. ..
  6. Lawn S, Kerkhoff A, Vogt M, Wood R. Diagnostic accuracy of a low-cost, urine antigen, point-of-care screening assay for HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis before antiretroviral therapy: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:201-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Wellcome Trust. ..
  7. Cleary S, Birch S, Moshabela M, Schneider H. Unequal access to ART: exploratory results from rural and urban case studies of ART use. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88:141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is one of the first to present comprehensive evidence on access barriers to assist in the design of policy solutions. ..
  8. Nel E, Ellis A. Swallowing abnormalities in HIV infected children: an important cause of morbidity. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:68 pubmed publisher
    ..Most patients have functional rather than structural or mucosal abnormalities. VFSS makes an important contribution to the diagnosis and management of these patients. ..
  9. Govindasamy D, Ferrand R, Wilmore S, Ford N, Ahmed S, Afnan Holmes H, et al. Uptake and yield of HIV testing and counselling among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015;18:20182 pubmed publisher
    ..g. home-based HTC among families) to identify individuals earlier in their disease progression. Data on linkage to care and cost-effectiveness of HTC strategies are needed to strengthen policies. ..
  10. Watkins D, Tulloch N, Anderson M, Barnhart S, Steyn K, Levitt N. Delivery of health care for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases among people living with HIV/AIDS in African countries: a systematic review protocol. Syst Rev. 2016;5:63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings will be highly relevant to health policymakers, administrators, and practitioners in African settings. PROSPERO CRD42015029375. ..
  11. Wilson D, Nachega J, Chaisson R, Maartens G. Diagnostic yield of peripheral lymph node needle-core biopsies in HIV-infected adults with suspected smear-negative tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005;9:220-2 pubmed
    ..A definitive diagnosis was made on initial needle-core biopsy in 22 subjects (85%) and in two of three subjects who underwent a second needle-core biopsy. Tuberculosis was the final diagnosis in 24 subjects (92%). ..
  12. Middelkoop K, Myer L, Smit J, Wood R, Bekker L. Design and evaluation of a drama-based intervention to promote voluntary counseling and HIV testing in a South African community. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33:524-6 pubmed
    ..0001). A structured, community-based education program based on drama can lead to substantial increases in the demand for VCT services in resource-limited settings. ..
  13. Schaaf H, Marais B, Whitelaw A, Hesseling A, Eley B, Hussey G, et al. Culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa: a review of 596 cases. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:140 pubmed
    ..With cavitating disease and sputum or gastric aspirates positive for acid-fast bacilli, children may be infectious. Transmission of drug-resistant TB is high in this setting. ..
  14. Ntsekhe M, Mayosi B. Cardiac manifestations of HIV infection: an African perspective. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2009;6:120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we review the cardiac manifestations of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa...
  15. Kranzer K, Houben R, Glynn J, Bekker L, Wood R, Lawn S. Yield of HIV-associated tuberculosis during intensified case finding in resource-limited settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Concerted action is needed to develop intensified case finding as an important method for control of tuberculosis. ..
  16. Rehle T, Hallett T, Shisana O, Pillay Van Wyk V, Zuma K, Carrara H, et al. A decline in new HIV infections in South Africa: estimating HIV incidence from three national HIV surveys in 2002, 2005 and 2008. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11094 pubmed publisher
    ..The estimation of HIV incidence and ART exposure is crucial to disentangle the concurrent impact of prevention and treatment programs on HIV prevalence. ..
  17. Calligaro G, Meintjes G, Mendelson M. Pulmonary manifestations of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2011;17:180-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Early recognition of unmasking and paradoxical IRIS affecting the lung allows timely initiation of antimicrobial and/or immunomodulatory therapies. ..
  18. Marais D, Gawarecki D, Allan B, Ahmed K, Altini L, Cassim N, et al. The effectiveness of Carraguard, a vaginal microbicide, in protecting women against high-risk human papillomavirus infection. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:1219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was lower in compliant Carraguard users than compliant placebo users. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a negative association of HPV infection with a vaginal microbicide. ..
  19. Zeier M, Botha M, van der Merwe F, Eshun Wilson I, van Schalkwyk M, la Grange M, et al. Progression and persistence of low-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in women living with human immunodeficiency virus. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2012;16:243-50 pubmed publisher
    ..5% to 7.1% (p = .001), but for HIV-positive women, the effect was smaller (from 66.3% to 45.5%, p < .001). Antiretroviral treatment reduced the risk for progression and persistence of LSIL in HIV-infected women. ..
  20. Hoare J, Fouche J, Spottiswoode B, Donald K, Philipps N, Bezuidenhout H, et al. A diffusion tensor imaging and neurocognitive study of HIV-positive children who are HAART-naïve "slow progressors". J Neurovirol. 2012;18:205-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that demyelination as reflected by the increase in RD may be a prominent disease process in paediatric HIV infection. ..
  21. Bere A, Tayib S, Kriek J, Masson L, Jaumdally S, Barnabas S, et al. Altered phenotype and function of NK cells infiltrating human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated genital warts during HIV infection. Clin Immunol. 2014;150:210-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that wart NK cells from HIV+ women have defects in their ability to degranulate and/or secrete IFN-?, which may provide insights into why HIV+ women fail to spontaneously resolve genital warts. ..
  22. Dijkstra M, van der Elst E, Micheni M, Gichuru E, Musyoki H, Duby Z, et al. Emerging themes for sensitivity training modules of African healthcare workers attending to men who have sex with men: a systematic review. Int Health. 2015;7:151-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent MSM studies conducted in sSA provided new knowledge, contested existing information, and identified new areas of MSM service needs currently unaddressed in the online training. ..
  23. Lawn S. Point-of-care detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: a state of the art review. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:103 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether this might be related to the assay itself or to the challenges associated with study design is discussed. ..
  24. Kaplan S, Oosthuizen C, Stinson K, Little F, Euvrard J, Schomaker M, et al. Contemporary disengagement from antiretroviral therapy in Khayelitsha, South Africa: A cohort study. PLoS Med. 2017;14:e1002407 pubmed publisher
    ..Disengagement from care remains an important challenge. We sought to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with disengagement from care during 2013-2014 and outcomes for those who disengaged...
  25. Wabiri N, Shisana O, Zuma K, Freeman J. Assessing the spatial nonstationarity in relationship between local patterns of HIV infections and the covariates in South Africa: A geographically weighted regression analysis. Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol. 2016;16:88-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of key social drivers of HIV and how they vary from location to location can help to effectively guide and focus intervention programs to areas of particular need. ..
  26. Holmes H, Stephen L. Oral lesions of HIV infection in developing countries. Oral Dis. 2002;8 Suppl 2:40-3 pubmed
    ..Elucidation of these various factors may provide a basis for treatment within the developing and developed world...
  27. Fatti G, Zar H, Swingler G. Clinical indicators of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) in South African children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Int J Infect Dis. 2006;10:282-5 pubmed
    ..75 (95% CI 0.43-0.95) and increased specificity of 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.95). Empirical anti-pneumocystis therapy should be considered in HIV-infected infants presenting with tachypnea, hypoxia and absence of vomiting. ..
  28. Lubbe D, Fagan J. Revisiting the risks involved in using homograft ossicles in otological surgery. J Laryngol Otol. 2008;122:111-5 pubmed
    ..The human immunodeficiency virus is easily inactivated by simple sterilisation techniques, and there is a statistically insignificant risk of transmitting this virus if proper sterilisation protocols are followed. ..
  29. Shisana O, Connolly C, Rehle T, Mehtar S, Dana P. HIV risk exposure among South African children in public health facilities. AIDS Care. 2008;20:755-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These infections can be prevented through education and improved infection-control procedures. ..
  30. de Cherif T, Schoeman J, Cleary S, Meintjes G, Rebe K, Maartens G. Early severe morbidity and resource utilization in South African adults on antiretroviral therapy. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:205 pubmed publisher
    ..525). Causes of early morbidity are different and more complex in HIV-infected patients on HAART. This results in greater resource utilization of diagnostic and therapeutic services. ..
  31. Ford N, Calmy A. Improving first-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010;5:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of strong pharmacovigilance systems, cohort monitoring will be critical to assessing the safety profile of new drugs in such settings. ..
  32. Burrell E, Mark D, Grant R, Wood R, Bekker L. Sexual risk behaviours and HIV-1 prevalence among urban men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa. Sex Health. 2010;7:149-53 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need for continued and robust HIV surveillance along with detailed risk behaviour trends over time to inform the development of targeted risk-reduction interventions for this population. ..
  33. Levin M, Mathema H, Stinson K, Jennings K. Acceptability, feasibility and impact of routine screening to detect undiagnosed HIV infection in 17 - 24-month-old children in the western sub-district of Cape Town. S Afr Med J. 2012;102:245-8 pubmed
    ..Routine HIV testing of children is feasible and acceptable at primary level, but may require additional resources to achieve universal coverage. Routine screening at an earlier age may detect previously undiagnosed HIV infection. ..
  34. Peter J, Cashmore T, Meldau R, Theron G, van Zyl Smit R, Dheda K. Diagnostic accuracy of induced sputum LAM ELISA for tuberculosis diagnosis in sputum-scarce patients. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16:1108-12 pubmed publisher
  35. Ntusi N, Badri M, Khalfey H, Whitelaw A, Oliver S, Piercy J, et al. ICU-associated Acinetobacter baumannii colonisation/infection in a high HIV-prevalence resource-poor setting. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52452 pubmed publisher
    ..There are hardly any data about the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of ICU-associated A.baumannii colonisation/infection in HIV-infected and uninfected persons from resource-poor settings like Africa...
  36. Maughan Brown B. Concurrent sexual partnerships among young adults in Cape Town, South Africa: how is concurrency changing?. Sex Health. 2013;10:246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..High and increasing levels of concurrency within most recent partnerships among Black men highlight this group as a potential focus for such efforts. ..
  37. Stern E, Buikema R. The relational dynamics of hegemonic masculinity among South African men and women in the context of HIV. Cult Health Sex. 2013;15:1040-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The narratives reveal that HIV-risky dominant male norms should be addressed relationally for the sake of better SRH outcomes. ..
  38. Beyrer C, Bekker L, Pozniak A, Barré Sinoussi F. Pre-exposure prophylaxis works--it's time to deliver. Lancet. 2015;385:1482-4 pubmed publisher
  39. Hennig S, Svensson E, Niebecker R, Fourie P, Weiner M, Bonora S, et al. Population pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction pooled analysis of existing data for rifabutin and HIV PIs. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016;71:1330-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Although 300 mg of rifabutin every 3 days with boosted PI achieves an average equivalent exposure, intermittent doses of rifamycins are not supported by current guidelines. ..
  40. Orrell C, Cohen K, Leisegang R, Bangsberg D, Wood R, Maartens G. Comparison of six methods to estimate adherence in an ART-naïve cohort in a resource-poor setting: which best predicts virological and resistance outcomes?. AIDS Res Ther. 2017;14:20 pubmed publisher
    ..pactr.org ). The first participant was enrolled on the 12th July 2012. The last patient last visit (week 48) was 15 April 2014. ..
  41. Dahourou D, Gautier Lafaye C, Teasdale C, Renner L, Yotebieng M, Desmonde S, et al. Transition from paediatric to adult care of adolescents living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges, youth-friendly models, and outcomes. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20:21528 pubmed publisher
    ..Standardized data gathering, analysis, and reporting systems specific to adolescent transition are essential to improve understanding and adolescent outcomes in Africa. ..
  42. Borkum M, Heckmann J, Manning K, Dave J, Levitt N, Rayner B, et al. High prevalence of "non-dipping" blood pressure and vascular stiffness in HIV-infected South Africans on antiretrovirals. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185003 pubmed publisher
    ..Causality cannot be inferred but cardiovascular risk reduction should be emphasized in these patients. ..
  43. Jessop S. HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Dermatol Clin. 2006;24:509-20, vii pubmed
    ..The most effective anthracycline is pegylated liposomal doxorubicin; however, few developing countries, where KS prevalence is highest, can afford to use these agents. ..
  44. Lawn S. Immune reconstitution disease associated with parasitic infections following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2007;20:482-8 pubmed
    ..The importance of such cases in antiretroviral therapy programmes in resource-limited settings, however, is not yet known. ..
  45. Maritz J, Benatar M, Dave J, Harrison T, Badri M, Levitt N, et al. HIV neuropathy in South Africans: frequency, characteristics, and risk factors. Muscle Nerve. 2010;41:599-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings raise the possibility that the incidence of DSP may be reduced with avoidance of stavudine-containing regimens in older subjects, especially with a history of prior TB infection. ..
  46. Dheda K, Davids V, Lenders L, Roberts T, Meldau R, Ling D, et al. Clinical utility of a commercial LAM-ELISA assay for TB diagnosis in HIV-infected patients using urine and sputum samples. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9848 pubmed publisher
    ..However, even in this group sensitivity was modest. Future and adequately powered studies in a primary care setting should now specifically target patients with suspected TB who have advanced HIV infection. ..
  47. Folefoc A, Fromme B, Katz A, Flanagan C. South African mutations of the CCR5 coreceptor for HIV modify interaction with chemokines and HIV Envelope protein. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;54:352-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that South African CCR5 variants have a range of phenotypes in vitro that may reflect altered chemokine responses and susceptibility to HIV infection in individuals who carry these alleles. ..
  48. Johnson L, Stinson K, Newell M, Bland R, Moultrie H, Davies M, et al. The contribution of maternal HIV seroconversion during late pregnancy and breastfeeding to mother-to-child transmission of HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;59:417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal seroconversion during late pregnancy and breastfeeding contributes significantly to the pediatric HIV burden and needs greater attention in the planning of prevention of MTCT programs. ..
  49. Zembe Y, Townsend L, Thorson A, Ekström A. Predictors of inconsistent condom use among a hard to reach population of young women with multiple sexual partners in peri-urban South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51998 pubmed publisher
    ..Carefully tailored repeat bio-behavioral surveillance surveys are recommended for this sub-population. ..
  50. Peter J, Theron G, Dheda K. Can point-of-care urine LAM strip testing for tuberculosis add value to clinical decision making in hospitalised HIV-infected persons?. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54875 pubmed publisher
    ..However, compared to empiric treatment, LAM identified a different subset of patients with more advanced immunosuppression and greater disease severity. ..
  51. Hardie D, Korsman S, Hsiao N. Cytomegalovirus load in whole blood is more reliable for predicting and assessing CMV disease than pp65 antigenaemia. J Virol Methods. 2013;193:166-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To conclude, CMV viral load provides a more consistent guide to determine likelihood of disease than pp65 count and is a more sensitive marker of CMV reactivation. ..
  52. Kerkhoff A, Wood R, Cobelens F, Gupta Wright A, Bekker L, Lawn S. Resolution of anaemia in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with a high prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis receiving antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:3860 pubmed publisher
    ..However, approximately one-quarter of patients remained anaemic after one year of ART and may require additional investigations and/or interventions. ..
  53. Shefer T. Resisting the binarism of victim and agent: Critical reflections on 20 years of scholarship on young women and heterosexual practices in South African contexts. Glob Public Health. 2016;11:211-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The paper argues for critical, feminist self-reflexivity that should extend to re-thinking methodologies entrenched in frameworks of authority and surveillance. ..
  54. Allie S, Stanley A, Bryer A, Meiring M, Combrinck M. High levels of von Willebrand factor and low levels of its cleaving protease, ADAMTS13, are associated with stroke in young HIV-infected patients. Int J Stroke. 2015;10:1294-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Stroke in human immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with a prothrombotic state, characterized by elevated von Willebrand factor and low ADAMTS13 levels. ..
  55. Horvati K, Bősze S, Gideon H, Bacsa B, Szabó T, Goliath R, et al. Population tailored modification of tuberculosis specific interferon-gamma release assay. J Infect. 2016;72:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data shows the potential to population tailor detection of MTB sensitization using specific synthetic peptides and interferon-gamma release in vitro. ..
  56. Badri M, Lawn S, Wood R. Utility of CD4 cell counts for early prediction of virological failure during antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:89 pubmed publisher
    ..CD4 count is an inadequate alternative to VL measurement for early detection of virological failure. ..
  57. Govindasamy D, Kranzer K, van Schaik N, Noubary F, Wood R, Walensky R, et al. Linkage to HIV, TB and non-communicable disease care from a mobile testing unit in Cape Town, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80017 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening for HIV, TB symptoms and hypertension at mobile units in South Africa has a high yield but inadequate linkage. After-hours and weekend clinics may overcome a major barrier to accessing care. ..
  58. Bateman E, Feldman C, Mash R, Fairall L, English R, Jithoo A. Systems for the management of respiratory disease in primary care--an international series: South Africa. Prim Care Respir J. 2009;18:69-75 pubmed publisher
  59. Jarvis J, Meintjes G, Williams Z, Rebe K, Harrison T. Symptomatic relapse of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in South Africa: the role of inadequate secondary prophylaxis. S Afr Med J. 2010;100:378-82 pubmed
    ..Interventions to improve the use of secondary fluconazole prophylaxis are essential. ..
  60. Goussard P, Gie R, Kling S, Andronikou S, Lucas S, Janson J, et al. Bronchoscopic assessment of airway involvement in children presenting with clinically significant airway obstruction due to tuberculosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013;48:1000-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The secondary aim was to compare the degree of airway involvement in HIV negative to HIV positive children as well the airway involvement caused by drug susceptible and drug resistant MTB...
  61. Ellman T. Demedicalizing AIDS prevention and treatment in Africa. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:303-5 pubmed publisher
  62. Boulle A, Van Cutsem G, Cohen K, Hilderbrand K, Mathee S, Abrahams M, et al. Outcomes of nevirapine- and efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy when coadministered with rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy. JAMA. 2008;300:530-9 pubmed publisher
  63. Nuttall J, Wilmshurst J, Ndondo A, Yeats J, Corcoran C, Hussey G, et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in a child with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:683-5 pubmed
    ..Rapid and sustained improvement followed a prolonged course of glucocorticosteroid therapy while continuing antiretrovirals. ..
  64. Myer L, Kuhn L, Stein Z, Wright T, Denny L. Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and women's susceptibility to HIV infection: epidemiological evidence and biological mechanisms. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:786-94 pubmed
    ..Further research into factors that increase women's susceptibility to HIV will help to inform the design of vaginal microbicides and other HIV prevention interventions. ..
  65. Maartens G, Decloedt E, Cohen K. Effectiveness and safety of antiretrovirals with rifampicin: crucial issues for high-burden countries. Antivir Ther. 2009;14:1039-43 pubmed publisher
  66. Uebel K, Timmerman V, Ingle S, van Rensburg D, Mollentze W. Towards universal ARV access: achievements and challenges in Free State Province, South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2010;100:589-93 pubmed
    ..The Free State is implementing a project (STRETCH trial) to broaden the ARV roll-out in an attempt to increase access to ARVs. ..
  67. Wiseman C, Schaaf H, Cotton M, Gie R, Jennings T, Whitelaw A, et al. Bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis in HIV-infected infants: disease spectrum and survival. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15:770-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the effects of young age, TB disease spectrum and HIV co-infection are difficult to distinguish, our findings support the initiation of early ART in HIV-infected infants with TB. ..
  68. Kredo T, Gerritsen A, van Heerden J, Conway S, Siegfried N. Clinical practice guidelines within the Southern African Development Community: a descriptive study of the quality of guideline development and concordance with best evidence for five priority diseases. Health Res Policy Syst. 2012;10:1 pubmed publisher
    ..A regional guideline support committee could harness local capacity to support context appropriate guideline development. ..
  69. Smythe W, Khandelwal A, Merle C, Rustomjee R, Gninafon M, Bocar Lo M, et al. A semimechanistic pharmacokinetic-enzyme turnover model for rifampin autoinduction in adult tuberculosis patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:2091-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Assuming 5 half-lives to steady state, this corresponds to a duration of approximately 40 days to reach the induced state for rifampin autoinduction. ..
  70. Lawn S, Kerkhoff A, Vogt M, Wood R. High diagnostic yield of tuberculosis from screening urine samples from HIV-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;60:289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Urine Xpert testing provides a means of rapid TB diagnosis in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and poor prognosis. These data are indicative of high rates of TB dissemination and renal involvement in this clinical population. ..
  71. Pinillos F, Dandara C, Swart M, Strehlau R, Kuhn L, Patel F, et al. Case report: Severe central nervous system manifestations associated with aberrant efavirenz metabolism in children: the role of CYP2B6 genetic variation. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:56 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening for potential EFV-toxicity based on the CYP2B6 c.516 SNP alone, may not be adequate. ..
  72. Stead D, Osler M, Boulle A, Rebe K, Meintjes G. Severe hyperlactataemia complicating stavudine first-line antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:937-43 pubmed
    ..This study confirms a high incidence of severe SHL in Africa, which has been shown in previous studies. Rechallenge with zidovudine in less severe cases was found to be safe. ..
  73. Peacock D, Stemple L, Sawires S, Coates T. Men, HIV/AIDS, and human rights. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;51 Suppl 3:S119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. ..
  74. Oni T, Patel J, Gideon H, Seldon R, Wood K, Hlombe Y, et al. Enhanced diagnosis of HIV-1-associated tuberculosis by relating T-SPOT.TB and CD4 counts. Eur Respir J. 2010;36:594-600 pubmed publisher
    ..A strong association between the degree of sputum positivity and T-SPOT.TB score was found. The sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB assay in active disease may be less impaired by advanced immunosuppression. ..
  75. Dheda K, Shean K, Zumla A, Badri M, Streicher E, Page Shipp L, et al. Early treatment outcomes and HIV status of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2010;375:1798-807 pubmed publisher
    ..South African Medical Research Council, European Union Framework 7 program, and European Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership. ..
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    ..However, despite the ability of the assay to rapidly detect rifampicin-resistant disease, the specificity for drug-resistant TB was sub-optimal. ..
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    ..This study suggests that up-skilling CCWs could be one avenue to enhance TB/HIV case finding, TB contact tracing and linkages to care. ..
  79. Sinxadi P, Dave J, Samuels D, Heckmann J, Maartens G, Levitt N, et al. Mitochondrial genomics and antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic complications in HIV-infected Black South Africans: a pilot study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29:1031-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report to link an African mtDNA variant with hypertriglyceridemia. If replicated, these findings may provide new insights into host factors affecting metabolic complications. ..
  80. Chege G, Burgers W, Stutz H, Meyers A, Chapman R, Kiravu A, et al. Robust immunity to an auxotrophic Mycobacterium bovis BCG-VLP prime-boost HIV vaccine candidate in a nonhuman primate model. J Virol. 2013;87:5151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This report further indicates the feasibility of developing a BCG-based HIV vaccine that is safe for childhood HIV immunization...
  81. Neogi U, Engelbrecht S, Claassen M, Jacobs G, van Zyl G, Preiser W, et al. Mutational Heterogeneity in p6 Gag Late Assembly (L) Domains in HIV-1 Subtype C Viruses from South Africa. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2016;32:80-4 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and was associated with a higher number of reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) mutations (p = 0.04) among patients failing ART. ..
  82. Carballo Dieguez A, BALAN I, Brown W, Giguere R, Dolezal C, Leu C, et al. High levels of adherence to a rectal microbicide gel and to oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) achieved in MTN-017 among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181607 pubmed publisher
    ..Adherence to RAI-associated rectal gel use was as high as adherence to daily oral PrEP. A rectal microbicide gel, if efficacious, could be an alternative for individuals uninterested in daily oral PrEP. ..
  83. Ignaszak A, Hendricks N, Waryo T, Songa E, Jahed N, Ngece R, et al. Novel therapeutic biosensor for indinavir-a protease inhibitor antiretroviral drug. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009;49:498-501 pubmed publisher
    ..158 x 10(-2)mgL(-1), and 40s, respectively. The detection limit is well below the plasma concentration of indinavir (8h after intake) which range from 0.13 to 8.6mgL(-1). ..
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    ..Mortality was high and pending more data we recommend extended treatment with high-dose co-trimoxazole in similar cases...
  85. Lawn S, Kerkhoff A, Burton R, Schutz C, Boulle A, Vogt M, et al. Diagnostic accuracy, incremental yield and prognostic value of Determine TB-LAM for routine diagnostic testing for tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients requiring acute hospital admission in South Africa: a prospective cohort. BMC Med. 2017;15:67 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay also rapidly identifies individuals with a poor prognosis. ..
  86. Hyle E, Mayosi B, Middelkoop K, Mosepele M, Martey E, Walensky R, et al. The association between HIV and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:954 pubmed publisher
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    ..Tuberculosis transmission remains very high in these two communities and control measures to date have failed. Additional measures to control TB are needed. ..
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    ..HIV-TB remains a major challenge to global health that requires substantial increases in resource allocation and concerted international action. ..
  89. Lawn S, Wood R, De Cock K, Kranzer K, Lewis J, Churchyard G. Antiretrovirals and isoniazid preventive therapy in the prevention of HIV-associated tuberculosis in settings with limited health-care resources. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10:489-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from randomised controlled trials are needed to underpin further development of public-health policy. ..
  90. van Zyl G, van der Merwe L, Claassen M, Zeier M, Preiser W. Antiretroviral resistance patterns and factors associated with resistance in adult patients failing NNRTI-based regimens in the Western Cape, South Africa. J Med Virol. 2011;83:1764-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Major protease inhibitor mutations were not detected. A delayed response to ART failure may risk accumulation of TAMs in patients on an NNRTI-based regimen. The use of NVP rather than EFV was associated with ETV resistance. ..
  91. Hoff S, Peter J, Theron G, Pascoe M, Tingskov P, Aggerbeck H, et al. Sensitivity of C-Tb: a novel RD-1-specific skin test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection. Eur Respir J. 2016;47:919-28 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis infection. Sensitivity was reduced only in HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. Further studies in different settings are required to validate the proposed 5 mm cut-point. ..
  92. Kenyon C, Tsoumanis A, Schwartz I, Maughan Brown B. Partner concurrency and HIV infection risk in South Africa. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;45:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..8, p=0.03) than among women aged 30 years and older (aOR 1.3, p=0.36). These results suggest that partner concurrency may increase the HIV infection risk for black South African women, and in particular, for younger women. ..