Experts and Doctors on intramolecular oxidoreductases in Tokyo, Japan


Locale: Tokyo, Japan
Topic: intramolecular oxidoreductases

Top Publications

  1. Hiraoka A, Seiki K, Oda H, Eguchi N, Urade Y, Tominaga I, et al. Charge microheterogeneity of the beta-trace proteins (lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase) in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurological disorders analyzed by capillary isoelectrofocusing. Electrophoresis. 2001;22:3433-7 pubmed
    ..Such quantitative and qualitative changes in beta-TP in human CSF indicated changes in its pathophysiological roles in association with various neurological disorders. ..
  2. Nakayama H, Echizen H, Gomi T, Shibuya Y, Nakamura Y, Nakano K, et al. Urinary lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase: a potential marker for early gentamicin-induced renal damage?. Ther Drug Monit. 2009;31:126-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, urinary L-PGDS may be a promising biomarker for the early phase of GM-induced renal impairment. ..
  3. Tanioka T, Nakatani Y, Kobayashi T, Tsujimoto M, Oh Ishi S, Murakami M, et al. Regulation of cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase by 90-kDa heat shock protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:1018-23 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the regulation of cPGES activity in cells depends on its association with Hsp90 and provide the first line of evidence that eicosanoid biosynthesis is under the control of the molecular chaperone. ..
  4. Kasahara K, Miyamoto T, Fujimoto T, Oguri H, Tokiwano T, Oikawa H, et al. Solanapyrone synthase, a possible Diels-Alderase and iterative type I polyketide synthase encoded in a biosynthetic gene cluster from Alternaria solani. Chembiochem. 2010;11:1245-52 pubmed publisher
  5. Kuwada E, Kambara K, Tadaki T, Noguchi K. Insoluble fraction of tumor cell homogenate is a useful material for eliciting cytotoxic T lymphocytes: a unique method for protein solubilization. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:881-91 pubmed
    ..The effects were augmented when DCs were electroloaded with both the soluble and insoluble fractions of B16 homogenate. Insoluble fraction of tumor cells is a useful material for cancer immunotherapy. ..
  6. Nakayama T. Prostacyclin analogues: prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2006;4:351-9 pubmed
    ..PGI(2) analogues that can be used in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases are also discussed. ..
  7. Hara S, Kamei D, Sasaki Y, Tanemoto A, Nakatani Y, Murakami M. Prostaglandin E synthases: Understanding their pathophysiological roles through mouse genetic models. Biochimie. 2010;92:651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the in vivo roles of PGES enzymes by knockout mouse studies and provide an overview of their biochemical properties. ..
  8. Kusunoki N, Kitahara K, Kojima F, Tanaka N, Kaneko K, Endo H, et al. Adiponectin stimulates prostaglandin E(2) production in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1641-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that adiponectin induces COX-2 and mPGES-1 expression, resulting in the enhancement of PGE(2) production by RASFs. Thus, adiponectin may play a role in the pathogenesis of synovitis in RA patients. ..
  9. Murakami M. Lipid mediators in life science. Exp Anim. 2011;60:7-20 pubmed

More Information


  1. Tajima T, Murata T, Aritake K, Urade Y, Hirai H, Nakamura M, et al. Lipopolysaccharide induces macrophage migration via prostaglandin D(2) and prostaglandin E(2). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;326:493-501 pubmed publisher
  2. Nakayama T, Soma M, Rahmutula D, Tobe H, Sato M, Uwabo J, et al. Association study between a novel single nucleotide polymorphism of the promoter region of the prostacyclin synthase gene and essential hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2002;25:65-8 pubmed
    ..We performed an association study using the SNP in 200 patients and 200 controls. The allele frequency distribution in the two groups was not significantly different. Thus, this SNP in the PGIS gene is not associated with EH. ..
  3. Yoshioka W, Aida Yasuoka K, Fujisawa N, Kawaguchi T, Ohsako S, Hara S, et al. Critical role of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in the hydronephrosis caused by lactational exposure to dioxin in mice. Toxicol Sci. 2012;127:547-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, mPGES-1 upregulation upon lactational TCDD exposure is a causal factor for TCDD-induced hydronephrosis in mouse neonates...
  4. Sarashina H, Tsubosaka Y, Omori K, Aritake K, Nakagawa T, Hori M, et al. Opposing immunomodulatory roles of prostaglandin D2 during the progression of skin inflammation. J Immunol. 2014;192:459-65 pubmed publisher
    ..DP-mediated vascular barrier enhancement or CRTH2-mediated neutrophil activation may be responsible for these effects. Thus, PGD2 represents opposite roles in inflammation, depending on the disease phase in vivo. ..
  5. Taketomi Y, Ueno N, Kojima T, Sato H, Murase R, Yamamoto K, et al. Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2-DP1 receptor paracrine axis. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:554-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we describe a lipid-driven PLA2G3-L-PGDS-DP1 loop that drives mast cell maturation. ..
  6. Tanioka T, Nakatani Y, Semmyo N, Murakami M, Kudo I. Molecular identification of cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase that is functionally coupled with cyclooxygenase-1 in immediate prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:32775-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, functional coupling between COX-1 and cPGES/p23 may contribute to production of the PGE(2) that plays a role in maintenance of tissue homeostasis. ..
  7. Murakami M, Naraba H, Tanioka T, Semmyo N, Nakatani Y, Kojima F, et al. Regulation of prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis by inducible membrane-associated prostaglandin E2 synthase that acts in concert with cyclooxygenase-2. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:32783-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, COX-2 and mPGES are essential components for delayed PGE(2) biosynthesis, which may be linked to inflammation, fever, osteogenesis, and even cancer. ..
  8. Hiraoka A, Arato T, Tominaga I, Eguchi N, Oda H, Urade Y. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-capillary gel electrophoretic analysis of molecular mass microheterogeneity of beta-trace protein in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with central nervous system diseases. J Chromatogr A. 1998;802:143-8 pubmed
    ..The quantitative changes in the subfraction level in CSF beta TP are considered to reflect the pathological alterations in the CNS. ..
  9. Kamei D, Yamakawa K, Takegoshi Y, Mikami Nakanishi M, Nakatani Y, Oh Ishi S, et al. Reduced pain hypersensitivity and inflammation in mice lacking microsomal prostaglandin e synthase-1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33684-95 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our present results provide unequivocal evidence that mPGES-1 contributes to the formation of PGE2 involved in pain hypersensitivity and inflammation. ..
  10. Shimura C, Satoh T, Igawa K, Aritake K, Urade Y, Nakamura M, et al. Dendritic cells express hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase and function as a source of prostaglandin D2 in the skin. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:227-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, DCs could be an important source of skin PGD2 and may mediate or regulate skin inflammation by releasing PGD2 in response to various stimuli, contributing to the innate and/or acquired immune responses. ..
  11. Ueno N, Taketomi Y, Yamamoto K, Hirabayashi T, Kamei D, Kita Y, et al. Analysis of two major intracellular phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) in mast cells reveals crucial contribution of cytosolic PLA(2)?, not Ca(2+)-independent PLA(2)?, to lipid mobilization in proximal mast cells and distal fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:37249-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Although iPLA(2)? is partially responsible for PGE(2) production by macrophages and dendritic cells, it is dispensable for mast cell maturation and function. ..
  12. Nakalekha C, Yokoyama C, Miura H, Alles N, Aoki K, Ohya K, et al. Increased bone mass in adult prostacyclin-deficient mice. J Endocrinol. 2010;204:125-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate for the first time that PGI(2) is involved in bone metabolism in vivo. ..
  13. Liu M, Eguchi N, Yamasaki Y, Urade Y, Hattori N, Urabe T. Focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice induces hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase in microglia and macrophages. Neuroscience. 2007;145:520-9 pubmed
    ..We speculate that hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase in the brain has different functions during early and late phases of ischemia. ..
  14. Kamei D, Murakami M, Sasaki Y, Nakatani Y, Majima M, Ishikawa Y, et al. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in both cancer cells and hosts contributes to tumour growth, invasion and metastasis. Biochem J. 2009;425:361-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus our present approaches provide unequivocal evidence for critical roles of the mPGES-1-dependent PGE2 biosynthetic pathway in both cancer cells and host microenvironments in tumour growth and metastasis. ..
  15. Nakatani Y, Hokonohara Y, Kakuta S, Sudo K, Iwakura Y, Kudo I. Knockout mice lacking cPGES/p23, a constitutively expressed PGE2 synthetic enzyme, are peri-natally lethal. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;362:387-92 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the PGE(2) content in the lungs of cPGES/p23-null embryos was lower than that of the wild type. These results indicate that cPGES-derived PGES is involved in the normal development of mouse embryonic lung. ..
  16. Takemiya T, Matsumura K, Sugiura H, Maehara M, Yasuda S, Uematsu S, et al. Endothelial microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 exacerbates neuronal loss induced by kainate. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:381-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that endothelial cells may control neuronal excitotoxicity, most likely by regulating astrocytes via inducible PGE(2). ..
  17. Nagahama Y, Obama T, Usui M, Kanazawa Y, Iwamoto S, Suzuki K, et al. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced periodontal inflammation is associated with the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin synthase 1 in human gingival epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;413:566-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a mechanistic link between periodontal disease and lipid metabolism-related disorders, including atherosclerosis. ..
  18. Kihara Y, Matsushita T, Kita Y, Uematsu S, Akira S, Kira J, et al. Targeted lipidomics reveals mPGES-1-PGE2 as a therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21807-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the mPGES-1-PGE(2)-EPs axis of the AA cascade may exacerbate EAE pathology. Our findings have important implications for the design of therapies for MS. ..
  19. Ikeda Matsuo Y, Hirayama Y, Ota A, Uematsu S, Akira S, Sasaki Y. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 are both required for ischaemic excitotoxicity. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159:1174-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and COX-2 are co-induced by excess glutamate in ischaemic brain. These enzymes are co-localized and act together to exacerbate stroke injury, by excessive PGE(2) production...
  20. Nakatani Y, Hokonohara Y, Tajima Y, Kudo I, Hara S. Involvement of the constitutive prostaglandin E synthase cPGES/p23 in expression of an initial prostaglandin E2 inactivating enzyme, 15-PGDH. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2011;94:112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, forcible expression of cPGES/p23 in 3Y1 cells resulted in facilitation of 15-PGDH promoter activity. These results suggest that the PGE(2)-inactivating pathway is controlled by the PGE(2) biosynthetic enzyme, cPGES/p23. ..
  21. Chishima F, Hayakawa S, Yamamoto T, Sugitani M, Karasaki Suzuki M, Sugita K, et al. Expression of inducible microsomal prostaglandin E synthase in local lesions of endometriosis patients. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2007;57:218-26 pubmed
    ..Increased expression of mPGES-1 mRNA was detected in most of the endometriosis samples. Our results suggest that expression of mPGES in addition to COX-2 plays a role in increasing PGE(2) production in endometriosis. ..
  22. Hirawa N, Uehara Y, Ikeda T, Gomi T, Hamano K, Totsuka Y, et al. Urinary prostaglandin D synthase (beta-trace) excretion increases in the early stage of diabetes mellitus. Nephron. 2001;87:321-7 pubmed
    ..Urinary L-PGDS may thus predict the progression of renal injuries in diabetic patients. ..
  23. Inada M, Matsumoto C, Uematsu S, Akira S, Miyaura C. Membrane-bound prostaglandin E synthase-1-mediated prostaglandin E2 production by osteoblast plays a critical role in lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss associated with inflammation. J Immunol. 2006;177:1879-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, LPS binds to TLR4 on osteoblasts that directly induce mPGES-1 expression for PGE(2) synthesis, leading to subsequent bone resorption. Therefore, mPGES-1 may provide a new target for the treatment of inflammatory bone disease. ..
  24. Matsumoto C, Oda T, Yokoyama S, Tominari T, Hirata M, Miyaura C, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 heterodimers, TLR2/6 and TLR2/1 induce prostaglandin E production by osteoblasts, osteoclast formation and inflammatory periodontitis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;428:110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, TLR2 heterodimer signaling may play a key role in PGE-mediated inflammatory bone loss in periodontal disease. ..
  25. Nakayama T, Soma M, Izumi Y, Kanmatsuse K. Organization of the human prostacyclin synthase gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;221:803-6 pubmed
    ..We determined the exon/intron organization of the human prostacyclin synthase gene. The gene, which spans approximately 70 kilobases, is composed of 10 exons. ..
  26. Nakayama T, Soma M, Takahashi Y, Rehemudula D, Tobe H, Sato M, et al. Polymorphism of the promoter region of prostacyclin synthase gene is not related to essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14:409-11 pubmed
    ..The allele frequency distribution in the two groups were not significantly different. Thus, this VNTR polymorphism in the PGIS gene is not associated with EH. ..
  27. Ikeda Matsuo Y, Tanji H, Ota A, Hirayama Y, Uematsu S, Akira S, et al. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 contributes to ischaemic excitotoxicity through prostaglandin E2 EP3 receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:847-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity of mPGES-1 exacerbated stroke injury through EP(3) receptors and activation of Rho kinase and/or G(i). Thus, mPGES-1 and EP(3) receptors may be valuable therapeutic targets for treatment of human stroke. ..
  28. Murata S, Udono H, Tanahashi N, Hamada N, Watanabe K, Adachi K, et al. Immunoproteasome assembly and antigen presentation in mice lacking both PA28alpha and PA28beta. EMBO J. 2001;20:5898-907 pubmed
    ..Hence, PA28alpha/beta is not a prerequisite for antigen presentation in general, but plays an essential role for the processing of certain antigens. ..
  29. Ma Y, Matsuwaki T, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Cyclooxygenase-2-related signaling in the hypothalamus plays differential roles in response to various acute stresses. Brain Res. 2013;1508:23-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNA under the infectious stress condition was not negatively regulated by endogenous glucocorticoids, likely due to an increase in IL-1? levels. ..
  30. Murakami M, Nakashima K, Kamei D, Masuda S, Ishikawa Y, Ishii T, et al. Cellular prostaglandin E2 production by membrane-bound prostaglandin E synthase-2 via both cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:37937-47 pubmed
    ..Collectively, mPGES-2 is a unique PGES that can be coupled with both COXs and may play a role in the production of the PGE2 involved in both tissue homeostasis and disease. ..
  31. Ishimoto T, Oshima H, Oshima M, Kai K, Torii R, Masuko T, et al. CD44+ slow-cycling tumor cell expansion is triggered by cooperative actions of Wnt and prostaglandin E2 in gastric tumorigenesis. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:673-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that PGE(2)-mediated inflammatory signaling and Wnt signaling cooperatively trigger the expansion of CD44(+) slow-cycling stem-like cells in SCJ, leading to development of lethal gastric tumors in mice. ..
  32. Ikeda Matsuo Y, Ikegaya Y, Matsuki N, Uematsu S, Akira S, Sasaki Y. Microglia-specific expression of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 contributes to lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 production. J Neurochem. 2005;94:1546-58 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the activation of microglia contributes to PGE2 production through the concerted de novo synthesis of mPGES-1 and COX-2 at sites of inflammation of the brain parenchyma. ..
  33. Ikeda Matsuo Y, Ota A, Fukada T, Uematsu S, Akira S, Sasaki Y. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 is a critical factor of stroke-reperfusion injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11790-5 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that mPGES-1 may be a critical determinant of postischemic neurological dysfunctions and a valuable therapeutic target for treatment of human stroke. ..
  34. Tokudome S, Sano M, Shinmura K, Matsuhashi T, Morizane S, Moriyama H, et al. Glucocorticoid protects rodent hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase-derived PGD2 biosynthesis. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:1477-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest what we believe to be a novel interaction between glucocorticoid-GR signaling and the cardiomyocyte survival pathway mediated by the arachidonic acid cascade. ..
  35. Hayashi C, Chishima F, Sugitani M, Ichikawa G, Nakazawa Watanabe T, Sugita K, et al. Relationship between Toll-like receptor-4 and mPGES-1 gene expression in local lesions of endometriosis patients. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2013;69:231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Relationship between TLR4 and mPGES-1 mRNA in endometriotic lesions indicate that innate immunity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. ..
  36. Murata T, Aritake K, Matsumoto S, Kamauchi S, Nakagawa T, Hori M, et al. Prostagladin D2 is a mast cell-derived antiangiogenic factor in lung carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19802-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mast cell-derived PGD(2) governs the tumor microenvironment by restricting excessive responses to vascular permeability and TNF-? production. ..
  37. Katsumata Y, Shinmura K, Sugiura Y, Tohyama S, Matsuhashi T, Ito H, et al. Endogenous prostaglandin D2 and its metabolites protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury by activating Nrf2. Hypertension. 2014;63:80-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we propose activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? by the dehydrated metabolite of PGD(2) (15-deoxy-?12,14-PGJ(2)) as another mechanism by which glucocorticoids induce cardioprotection. ..
  38. Goto A, Tanaka M, Yoshida M, Umakoshi M, Nanjo H, Shiraishi K, et al. The low expression of miR-451 predicts a worse prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer cases. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181270 pubmed publisher
    ..This clinicopathological study of 370 NSCLC cases and the cell biological studies of NSCLC cell lines clarified the tumor-suppressive role of miR-451 and its prognostic value. We also validated MIF as a target of miR-451 in NSCLC. ..
  39. Takemiya T, Matsumura K, Sugiura H, Yasuda S, Uematsu S, Akira S, et al. Endothelial microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 facilitates neurotoxicity by elevating astrocytic Ca2+ levels. Neurochem Int. 2011;58:489-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel endothelium-astrocyte-neuron signaling pathway may be crucial for neuronal damage after repetitive seizures, and hence could be a new target for drug development. ..
  40. Yamakawa K, Kamekura S, Kawamura N, Saegusa M, Kamei D, Murakami M, et al. Association of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 deficiency with impaired fracture healing, but not with bone loss or osteoarthritis, in mouse models of skeletal disorders. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:172-83 pubmed publisher
  41. Nakayama T, Soma M, Haketa A, Aoi N, Kosuge K, Sato M, et al. Haplotype analysis of the prostacyclin synthase gene and essential hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2003;26:553-7 pubmed
    ..There was no significant difference in the overall distribution of haplotypes between EH and normotensive subjects. To summarize, we successfully identified haplotypes of the PGIS gene, and these haplotypes were not associated with EH. ..
  42. Kamei D, Murakami M, Nakatani Y, Ishikawa Y, Ishii T, Kudo I. Potential role of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in tumorigenesis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:19396-405 pubmed
    ..These results collectively suggest that aberrant expression of mPGES-1 in combination with COX-2 can contribute to tumorigenesis. ..
  43. Nakayama T, Soma M, Saito S, Honye J, Yajima J, Rahmutula D, et al. Association of a novel single nucleotide polymorphism of the prostacyclin synthase gene with myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 2002;143:797-801 pubmed
    ..05, P =.04). The C/C genotype was found more frequently in the MI group than in the control group. We conclude that the C1117A polymorphism in exon 8 is associated with risk for MI and may be a genetic marker of MI in Japanese persons. ..
  44. Nakayama T, Soma M, Rehemudula D, Takahashi Y, Tobe H, Satoh M, et al. Association of 5' upstream promoter region of prostacyclin synthase gene variant with cerebral infarction. Am J Hypertens. 2000;13:1263-7 pubmed
    ..Transcriptional activity increased with increasing numbers of repeats. This study provides consistent support for the association between CI and the PGIS gene. ..
  45. Higashi S, Ohishi H, Kudo I. Augmented prostaglandin E2 generation resulting from increased activities of cytosolic and secretory phospholipase A2 and induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in interleukin-1 beta-stimulated rat calvarial cells during the mineralizing phase. Inflamm Res. 2000;49:102-11 pubmed
    ..Augmented PGE2 production by mineralizing osteoblasts after IL-1beta treatment, and the involvement of IL-1beta-induced cPLA2, sPLA2, COX-2 and PGE synthase activities in this phenomenon were demonstrated. ..
  46. Fukai A, Kamekura S, Chikazu D, Nakagawa T, Hirata M, Saito T, et al. Lack of a chondroprotective effect of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibition in a surgically induced model of osteoarthritis in mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, experiments using inhibitor and genetic deficiency demonstrated a lack of chondroprotective effect of COX-2 inhibition in the mouse surgical OA model. ..
  47. Ota Y, Imai T, Hasumura M, Cho Y, Takami S, Oyamada T, et al. Prostaglandin synthases influence thyroid follicular cell proliferation but not carcinogenesis in rats initiated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine. Toxicol Sci. 2012;127:339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to clarify the significance of the reduction of COX-2 expression in preneoplastic/neoplastic lesions. ..
  48. Liu M, Eguchi N, Yamasaki Y, Urade Y, Hattori N, Urabe T. Protective role of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase in transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Neuroscience. 2009;163:296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated that the neuroprotective effects of HPGDS in our model are mediated by suppression of activation and infiltration of inflammatory cells. ..
  49. Satoh K, Nagano Y, Shimomura C, Suzuki N, Saeki Y, Yokota H. Expression of prostaglandin E synthase mRNA is induced in beta-amyloid treated rat astrocytes. Neurosci Lett. 2000;283:221-3 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a possibly significant role of this enzyme in the progression of AD. ..