Experts and Doctors on b lymphocytes in Berlin, Germany


Locale: Berlin, Germany
Topic: b lymphocytes

Top Publications

  1. Gajendran N, Vanhecke D, Brinkmann V, Kaufmann S. Identifying activated T cells in reconstituted RAG deficient mice using retrovirally transduced Pax5 deficient pro-B cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5115 pubmed publisher
    ..This can be achieved by using an inducible reporter, choosing the appropriate promoter, and reconstituting mice lacking cells of interest by injecting gene-modified Pax5 deficient pro-B cells. ..
  2. Willimsky G, Czéh M, Loddenkemper C, Gellermann J, Schmidt K, Wust P, et al. Immunogenicity of premalignant lesions is the primary cause of general cytotoxic T lymphocyte unresponsiveness. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1687-700 pubmed publisher
  3. Lietz A, Janz M, Sigvardsson M, Jundt F, Dorken B, Mathas S. Loss of bHLH transcription factor E2A activity in primary effusion lymphoma confers resistance to apoptosis. Br J Haematol. 2007;137:342-8 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that lineage infidelity in PEL is not as pronounced as in HL, and that the loss of the B cell-specific transcription factor E2A in PEL is implicated in apoptosis protection. ..
  4. Johrens K, Grünbaum M, Anagnostopoulos I. Differences in the T-bet and GATA-3 expression patterns between lymphocytic colitis and coeliac disease. Virchows Arch. 2010;457:451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, most of the CD8+ lamina propria T cells in CD were T-bet+. We conclude that in contrast to CD, which exhibits immunophenotypical features of a Th1-response, LC shows features of a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. ..
  5. Müller G, Höpken U, Stein H, Lipp M. Systemic immunoregulatory and pathogenic functions of homeostatic chemokine receptors. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72:1-8 pubmed
  6. Krüger L, Demuth I, Neitzel H, Varon R, Sperling K, Chrzanowska K, et al. Cancer incidence in Nijmegen breakage syndrome is modulated by the amount of a variant NBS protein. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:107-11 pubmed
    ..Patients whose cells are able to maintain particularly high levels of the truncated p70-nibrin protein are at a lower risk for lymphoma than those patients with low levels of p70-nibrin in their cells. ..
  7. Rossberg S, Schwarz K, Meisel C, Holzhauer S, Kuhl J, Ebell W, et al. Delayed onset of (severe) combined immunodeficiency (S)CID (T-B+NK+): complete IL-7 receptor deficiency in a 22 months old girl. Klin Padiatr. 2009;221:339-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus even in patients with moderate clinical symptoms and delayed onset a (T-B+NK+) (Severe) Combined Immunodeficiency ((S)CID)) due to missing IL-7 receptor signalling must be considered. ..
  8. Rasheed A, Rahn H, Sallusto F, Lipp M, Müller G. Follicular B helper T cell activity is confined to CXCR5(hi)ICOS(hi) CD4 T cells and is independent of CD57 expression. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:1892-903 pubmed
  9. von Wenckstern H, Zimmermann K, Kleuser B. The role of the lysophospholipid sphingosine 1-phosphate in immune cell biology. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2006;54:239-51 pubmed

More Information


  1. Worm M, Krah J, Manz R, Henz B. Retinoic acid inhibits CD40 + interleukin-4-mediated IgE production in vitro. Blood. 1998;92:1713-20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, this study shows that RA inhibits IgE production of anti-CD40 + IL-4-stimulated B cells in vitro. ..
  2. Hutloff A, Büchner K, Reiter K, Baelde H, Odendahl M, Jacobi A, et al. Involvement of inducible costimulator in the exaggerated memory B cell and plasma cell generation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:3211-20 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our identification of plasma cells in areas of T cell-B cell interaction in kidneys suggests that components of a T cell-driven B cell activation process may take place in peripheral tissues in SLE. ..
  3. Thulke S, Radonic A, Nitsche A, Siegert W. Quantitative expression analysis of HHV-6 cell receptor CD46 on cells of human cord blood, peripheral blood and G-CSF mobilised leukapheresis cells. Virol J. 2006;3:77 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, hematopoietic progenitor cells express CD46 on their surface, thereby fulfilling a basic requirement for the susceptibility of HHV-6 infection. ..
  4. Rosseau S, Hocke A, Mollenkopf H, Schmeck B, Suttorp N, Kaufmann S, et al. Comparative transcriptional profiling of the lung reveals shared and distinct features of Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza A virus infection. Immunology. 2007;120:380-91 pubmed
    ..These data provide new insights into pathogenesis of the most common forms of pneumonia, highlighting the value of transcriptional profiling for the elucidation of underlying mechanisms. ..
  5. Rasche C, Wolfram C, Wahls M, Worm M. Differential immunomodulating effects of inactivated probiotic bacteria on the allergic immune response. Acta Derm Venereol. 2007;87:305-11 pubmed
    ..Regarding cytokine production, the data suggest a differential response to both bacteria depending on the atopic state, but a clear promotion of T-helper1-dominated response in allergic donors. ..
  6. Schulte Herbrüggen O, Quarcoo D, Meisel A, Meisel C. Differential affection of intestinal immune cell populations after cerebral ischemia in mice. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2009;16:213-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Tonnies H, Pietrzak J, Bocian E, MacDermont K, Kuechler A, Belitz B, et al. New immortalized cell lines of patients with small supernumerary marker chromosome: towards the establishment of a cell bank. J Histochem Cytochem. 2007;55:651-60 pubmed
    ..The 16 cases provide information to establish a refined genotype-phenotype correlation of sSMC and are available for future studies. ..
  8. Heine G, Niesner U, Chang H, Steinmeyer A, Zugel U, Zuberbier T, et al. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) promotes IL-10 production in human B cells. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2210-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Costa I, Roepcke S, Schliep A. Gene expression trees in lymphoid development. BMC Immunol. 2007;8:25 pubmed
    ..The implementation of our method (licensed under the GPL) is available at ..
  10. Zehn D, Cohen C, Reiter Y, Walden P. Extended presentation of specific MHC-peptide complexes by mature dendritic cells compared to other types of antigen-presenting cells. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:1551-60 pubmed
  11. Mittrucker H, Raupach B, Kohler A, Kaufmann S. Cutting edge: role of B lymphocytes in protective immunity against Salmonella typhimurium infection. J Immunol. 2000;164:1648-52 pubmed
    ..typhimurium involved both B cell-dependent and -independent effector mechanisms. Thus, B cell-mediated immunity plays a distinct role in control of S. typhimurium in susceptible mice. ..
  12. Henneken M, Dorner T, Burmester G, Berek C. Differential expression of chemokine receptors on peripheral blood B cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005;7:R1001-13 pubmed
    ..However, differences between patients with RA and patients with SLE point toward a disease-specific regulation of receptor expression. These differences may influence the migrational behavior of B cells. ..
  13. Quandt D, Hoff H, Rudolph M, Fillatreau S, Brunner Weinzierl M. A new role of CTLA-4 on B cells in thymus-dependent immune responses in vivo. J Immunol. 2007;179:7316-24 pubmed
    ..We propose that CTLA-4 signals on B cells determine the early fate of B cells in thymus-dependent immune responses. ..
  14. Chu V, Enghard P, Riemekasten G, Berek C. In vitro and in vivo activation induces BAFF and APRIL expression in B cells. J Immunol. 2007;179:5947-57 pubmed
    ..In (NZB x NZW)F(1) mice, the continuous activation of B cells and thus overexpression of BAFF and APRIL may contribute to the development of autoimmune disease. ..
  15. Jundt F, Pröbsting K, Anagnostopoulos I, Muehlinghaus G, Chatterjee M, Mathas S, et al. Jagged1-induced Notch signaling drives proliferation of multiple myeloma cells. Blood. 2004;103:3511-5 pubmed
    ..Functional data indicate that ligand-induced Notch signaling is a growth factor for MM cells and suggest that these interactions contribute to myelomagenesis in vivo. ..
  16. Song I, Heldmann F, Rudwaleit M, Listing J, Appel H, Braun J, et al. Different response to rituximab in tumor necrosis factor blocker-naive patients with active ankylosing spondylitis and in patients in whom tumor necrosis factor blockers have failed: a twenty-four-week clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1290-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, further controlled trials with B cell-directed therapies should be performed in TNF blocker-naive AS patients in the future. ..
  17. Achtman A, Höpken U, Bernert C, Lipp M. CCR7-deficient mice develop atypically persistent germinal centers in response to thymus-independent type 2 antigens. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:409-17 pubmed publisher
    ..It seems unlikely that a defect in regulatory T cell (Treg) location was responsible for the atypical persistence of TI-2-induced germinal centers, as Tregs were comparably distributed in germinal centers of CCR7-deficient and WT mice. ..
  18. Henz B, Maurer M, Lippert U, Worm M, Babina M. Mast cells as initiators of immunity and host defense. Exp Dermatol. 2001;10:1-10 pubmed
    ..While these data require further clarification, the basic ability of mast cells to initiate innate and acquired immune reactions can no longer be questioned. ..
  19. Blass S, Union A, Raymackers J, Schumann F, Ungethum U, Müller Steinbach S, et al. The stress protein BiP is overexpressed and is a major B and T cell target in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:761-71 pubmed
    ..Since overexpression of BiP has been shown to decrease the sensitivity of cells to killing by cytotoxic T cells, BiP overexpression and BiP-specific autoimmunity may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA. ..
  20. Mathas S, Dorken B, Janz M. [The molecular pathogenesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2009;134:1944-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it will be a central aim to develop new treatment strategies based on these insights into HL pathogenesis...
  21. Lampropoulou V, Hoehlig K, Roch T, Neves P, Calderon Gomez E, Sweenie C, et al. TLR-activated B cells suppress T cell-mediated autoimmunity. J Immunol. 2008;180:4763-73 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our data indicate that B cells link recognition of microbial products via TLR to suppression of a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. ..
  22. Moller P, Bohm M, Czarnetszki B, Schadendorf D. Interleukin-7. Biology and implications for dermatology. Exp Dermatol. 1996;5:129-37 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes our present knowledge about the molecular and immunological properties of IL7 with emphasis on the effects of that cytokine within the cutaneous compartment and the potential clinical utility in dermatology. ..
  23. Geelhaar A, Moos V, Schinnerling K, Allers K, Loddenkemper C, Fenollar F, et al. Specific and nonspecific B-cell function in the small intestines of patients with Whipple's disease. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4589-92 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this deficiency does not completely abolish T. whipplei-specific secretory IgA production that nonetheless does not protect from chronic infection. ..
  24. Yoshida T, Mei H, Dorner T, Hiepe F, Radbruch A, Fillatreau S, et al. Memory B and memory plasma cells. Immunol Rev. 2010;237:117-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Their selective targeting will depend on a molecular understanding of their lifestyle. ..
  25. Gruen M, Bommert K, Bargou R. T-cell-mediated lysis of B cells induced by a CD19xCD3 bispecific single-chain antibody is perforin dependent and death receptor independent. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2004;53:625-32 pubmed
    ..In addition to granule exocytosis, Raji cells are lysed by at least one mechanism independent of perforin, which requires transport through the T cell's Golgi apparatus. ..
  26. Forster R, Schubel A, Breitfeld D, Kremmer E, Renner Müller I, Wolf E, et al. CCR7 coordinates the primary immune response by establishing functional microenvironments in secondary lymphoid organs. Cell. 1999;99:23-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, in order to bring together lymphocytes and dendritic cells to form the characteristic microarchitecture of secondary lymphoid organs, CCR7 is required to rapidly initiate an adoptive immune response. ..
  27. Langnickel D, Enghard P, Klein C, Undeutsch R, Hocher B, Manz R, et al. Induction of pathogenic anti-dsDNA antibodies is controlled on the level of B cells in a non-lupus prone mouse strain. J Clin Immunol. 2006;26:86-95 pubmed
    ..T-cell help for the generation of dsDNA-specific AFC was also present in saline-treated CWF1 mice but was controlled on the levels of B cells preventing autoimmunity. ..
  28. Utku N, Boerner A, Tomschegg A, Bennai Sanfourche F, Bulwin G, Heinemann T, et al. TIRC7 deficiency causes in vitro and in vivo augmentation of T and B cell activation and cytokine response. J Immunol. 2004;173:2342-52 pubmed
    ..In summary, the data strongly support an important role for TIRC7 in regulating both T and B cell responses. ..
  29. Kracker S, Bergmann Y, Demuth I, Frappart P, Hildebrand G, Christine R, et al. Nibrin functions in Ig class-switch recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1584-9 pubmed
  30. Neves P, Lampropoulou V, Calderon Gomez E, Roch T, Stervbo U, Shen P, et al. Signaling via the MyD88 adaptor protein in B cells suppresses protective immunity during Salmonella typhimurium infection. Immunity. 2010;33:777-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data identify a role for MyD88 and B cells in regulation of cellular mechanisms of protective immunity during infection...
  31. Dorner T, Kinnman N, Tak P. Targeting B cells in immune-mediated inflammatory disease: a comprehensive review of mechanisms of action and identification of biomarkers. Pharmacol Ther. 2010;125:464-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Fc receptors and levels of circulating immune cells (including B cells and natural killer cells) may be relevant markers. ..
  32. Dorner B, Dorner M, Zhou X, Opitz C, Mora A, Güttler S, et al. Selective expression of the chemokine receptor XCR1 on cross-presenting dendritic cells determines cooperation with CD8+ T cells. Immunity. 2009;31:823-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Absence of XCL1 impaired the development of cytotoxicity to antigens cross-presented by CD8(+) DCs. The XCL1-XCR1 axis thus emerges as an integral component in the development of efficient cytotoxic immunity in vivo. ..
  33. Milovanovic M, Heine G, Hallatschek W, Opitz B, Radbruch A, Worm M. Vitamin D receptor binds to the ? germline gene promoter and exhibits transrepressive activity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:1016-23, 1023.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings shed new light on mechanisms of VDR transrepression and understanding of IgE regulation. ..
  34. Kapp K, Maul J, Hostmann A, Mundt P, Preiss J, Wenzel A, et al. Modulation of systemic antigen-specific immune responses by oral antigen in humans. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:3128-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunomodulation by oral antigen may offer new therapeutic strategies for Th type1-mediated inflammatory diseases and for the development of vaccination strategies. ..
  35. Golembowski S, Gellrich S, von Zimmermann M, Rutz S, Lippert S, Audring H, et al. Clonal evolution in a primary cutaneous follicle center B cell lymphoma revealed by single cell analysis in sequential biopsies. Immunobiology. 2000;201:631-44 pubmed
    ..To draw this conclusion from single cell PCR data, however, a sample of sequential biopsies had to be analyzed. ..
  36. Roever A, Heine G, Zuberbier T, Worm M. Allergen-mediated modulation of CD23 expression is interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 dependent in allergic and non-allergic individuals. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003;33:1568-75 pubmed
  37. Dorner T, Lipsky P. Correlation of circulating CD27high plasma cells and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2004;13:283-9 pubmed
  38. Hansen A, Lipsky P, Dorner T. B cells in Sjögren's syndrome: indications for disturbed selection and differentiation in ectopic lymphoid tissue. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9:218 pubmed
    ..These findings add to our understanding of the pathogenesis of this autoimmune inflammatory disorder and may result in new therapeutic approaches...
  39. Hebel K, Griewank K, Inamine A, Chang H, Müller Hilke B, Fillatreau S, et al. Plasma cell differentiation in T-independent type 2 immune responses is independent of CD11c(high) dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:2912-9 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we found plasma blasts to express CD11c and to be diphtheria toxin-sensitive in CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor-transgenic mice, providing a unique tool for future analysis of in vivo aspects of plasma cell biology. ..
  40. Milovanovic M, Drozdenko G, Weise C, Babina M, Worm M. Interleukin-17A promotes IgE production in human B cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2621-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, IL-17A might be a target for the treatment of IgE-dependent diseases, including atopic dermatitis. ..
  41. Wilke G, Steinhauser G, Grün J, Berek C. In silico subtraction approach reveals a close lineage relationship between follicular dendritic cells and BP3(hi) stromal cells isolated from SCID mice. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2165-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The in silico subtraction approach provides a molecular framework within which to determine the diverse roles of FDC in support of B cells and to investigate the differentiation of FDC from their mesenchymal precursor cells...
  42. Kaufmann S. Novel tuberculosis vaccination strategies based on understanding the immune response. J Intern Med. 2010;267:337-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, vaccination strategies that achieve sterile eradication of, or prevent infection with, tubercle bacilli would be an ambitious highly promising goal. ..
  43. Tokoyoda K, Hauser A, Nakayama T, Radbruch A. Organization of immunological memory by bone marrow stroma. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10:193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of the biology of mesenchymal stromal cells and their interaction with cells of the immune system is key to fully understanding immunological memory. ..
  44. Höpken U, Winter S, Achtman A, Krüger K, Lipp M. CCR7 regulates lymphocyte egress and recirculation through body cavities. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:671-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, an increase in peritoneal lymphocyte numbers is caused by impaired egress of CCR7-deficient lymphocytes from body cavities. These results establish that CCR7 plays a crucial role in lymphocyte exit from the PerC. ..
  45. Appel H, Loddenkemper C, Grozdanovic Z, Ebhardt H, Dreimann M, Hempfing A, et al. Correlation of histopathological findings and magnetic resonance imaging in the spine of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R143 pubmed
    ..This first study correlating histopathological changes in the spine of patients with AS with findings in MRI scans suggests that a substantial degree of bone marrow inflammation and edema is necessary to be detected by MRI. ..
  46. Dorner T, Jacobi A, Lipsky P. B cells in autoimmunity. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:247 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on preclinical and clinical data, B cells have emerged increasingly as both effector cells as well as cells with immunoregulatory potential...
  47. Jundt F, Acikgoz O, Kwon S, Schwarzer R, Anagnostopoulos I, Wiesner B, et al. Aberrant expression of Notch1 interferes with the B-lymphoid phenotype of neoplastic B cells in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Leukemia. 2008;22:1587-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Notch activation interferes with dedifferentiation of neoplastic B cells in Hodgkin lymphoma. ..
  48. Tokoyoda K, Zehentmeier S, Hegazy A, Albrecht I, Grün J, Löhning M, et al. Professional memory CD4+ T lymphocytes preferentially reside and rest in the bone marrow. Immunity. 2009;30:721-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in the memory phase of immunity, memory helper T cells are maintained in BM as resting but highly reactive cells in survival niches defined by IL-7-expressing stroma cells. ..
  49. Ellinghaus U, Rupec R, Pabst O, Ignatius R, Forster R, Dorken B, et al. IkappaBalpha is required for marginal zone B cell lineage development. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2096-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate the importance of the intact NF-kappaB/IkappaBalpha pathway for proper MZB cell development. ..
  50. Scheffel F, Heine G, Henz B, Worm M. Retinoic acid inhibits CD40 plus IL-4 mediated IgE production through alterations of sCD23, sCD54 and IL-6 production. Inflamm Res. 2005;54:113-8 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 12% by the addition of 100 pg/mL recombinant IL-6. ATRA interferes through several pathways with the anti-CD40 plus IL-4 mediated B cell activation, namely IL-6, CD23 and CD54. ..
  51. Alexander T, Thiel A, Rosen O, Massenkeil G, Sattler A, Kohler S, et al. Depletion of autoreactive immunologic memory followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with refractory SLE induces long-term remission through de novo generation of a juvenile and tolerant immune system. Blood. 2009;113:214-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are the first to demonstrate that both depletion of the autoreactive immunologic memory and a profound resetting of the adaptive immune system are required to reestablish self-tolerance in SLE. ..
  52. Hacker C, Kirsch R, Ju X, Hieronymus T, Gust T, Kuhl C, et al. Transcriptional profiling identifies Id2 function in dendritic cell development. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:380-6 pubmed
    ..We also show that Id2 represses B cell genes in DCs. These findings reveal a TGF-beta-Id2 signaling pathway in DCs and suggest a mechanism by which Id2 affects the lineage choice of B cell and DC progenitors. ..
  53. Rhein P, Mitlohner R, Basso G, Gaipa G, Dworzak M, Kirschner Schwabe R, et al. CD11b is a therapy resistance- and minimal residual disease-specific marker in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2010;115:3763-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, CD11b expression has considerable implications for prognosis, treatment response monitoring, and MRD detection in childhood PBC-ALL. ..
  54. Schmidt Bleek K, Schell H, Kolar P, Pfaff M, Perka C, Buttgereit F, et al. Cellular composition of the initial fracture hematoma compared to a muscle hematoma: a study in sheep. J Orthop Res. 2009;27:1147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..B cell percentage increased in the fracture but not in the muscle hematoma from 1 to 4 h. This is the first study that compares the immune cell subpopulations of a fracture and muscle hematoma...
  55. Heine G, Dahten A, Hilt K, Ernst D, Milovanovic M, Hartmann B, et al. Liver X receptors control IgE expression in B cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:5276-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data indicates that LXRs are involved in the control of IgE secretion by differentiating B cells. ..
  56. Schulte Herbrüggen O, Nassenstein C, Lommatzsch M, Quarcoo D, Renz H, Braun A. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 regulate secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in human monocytes. J Neuroimmunol. 2005;160:204-9 pubmed
    ..None of the cytokines induced BDNF secretion in T- or B-cells. Thus, our data provide evidence that IL-6 and TNF-alpha represent a specific link between monocyte infiltration and neuronal changes in inflammatory diseases. ..
  57. Krappmann D, Wegener E, Sunami Y, Esen M, Thiel A, Mordmuller B, et al. The IkappaB kinase complex and NF-kappaB act as master regulators of lipopolysaccharide-induced gene expression and control subordinate activation of AP-1. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6488-500 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data illustrate that NF-kappaB orchestrates immediate-early effects of LPS signaling and controls secondary AP-1 activation to mount an appropriate biological response. ..
  58. Mordmuller B, Krappmann D, Esen M, Wegener E, Scheidereit C. Lymphotoxin and lipopolysaccharide induce NF-kappaB-p52 generation by a co-translational mechanism. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:82-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, both LT-beta receptor agonists and LPS induce NF-kappaB/p100 processing to p52 at the level of the ribosome. ..
  59. Morawietz L, Martinez Gamboa L, Scheffler S, Hausdorf G, Dankof A, Kuckelkorn U, et al. Expression of proteasomal immunosubunit beta1i is dysregulated in inflammatory infiltrates of minor salivary glands in Sjogren's syndrome. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:2694-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Minor salivary gland specimens were analyzed to investigate dysregulation of the proteasome system in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and patients with sicca syndrome...
  60. Chu V, Enghard P, Schurer S, Steinhauser G, Rudolph B, Riemekasten G, et al. Systemic activation of the immune system induces aberrant BAFF and APRIL expression in B cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:2083-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The aberrant up-regulation of these cytokines may initiate a vicious circle in which enhanced levels of BAFF and APRIL act in an autocrine manner to reinforce the systemic activation of the humoral immune system. ..
  61. Breitfeld D, Ohl L, Kremmer E, Ellwart J, Sallusto F, Lipp M, et al. Follicular B helper T cells express CXC chemokine receptor 5, localize to B cell follicles, and support immunoglobulin production. J Exp Med. 2000;192:1545-52 pubmed
    ..Based on the characteristic localization within secondary lymphoid organs, we suggest to term these cells "follicular B helper T cells" (T(FH)). ..
  62. Hoehlig K, Lampropoulou V, Roch T, Neves P, Calderon Gomez E, Anderton S, et al. Immune regulation by B cells and antibodies a view towards the clinic. Adv Immunol. 2008;98:1-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These suppressive functions of B cells and antibodies do not only open new ways for harnessing autoimmune illnesses, but they also should be taken into account when designing new strategies for vaccination against microbes and tumors...