Experts and Doctors on tick borne encephalitis viruses in Austria


Locale: Austria
Topic: tick borne encephalitis viruses

Top Publications

  1. Kunz C. Vaccination against TBE in Austria: the success story continues. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:56-7 pubmed
  2. Stiasny K, Koessl C, Heinz F. Involvement of lipids in different steps of the flavivirus fusion mechanism. J Virol. 2003;77:7856-62 pubmed
  3. Kofler R, Hoenninger V, Thurner C, Mandl C. Functional analysis of the tick-borne encephalitis virus cyclization elements indicates major differences between mosquito-borne and tick-borne flaviviruses. J Virol. 2006;80:4099-113 pubmed
    ..The recognition of essential RNA elements and their differences between mosquito-borne and tick-borne flaviviruses has practical implications for the design of replicons in vaccine and vector development. ..
  4. Orlinger K, Hoenninger V, Kofler R, Mandl C. Construction and mutagenesis of an artificial bicistronic tick-borne encephalitis virus genome reveals an essential function of the second transmembrane region of protein e in flavivirus assembly. J Virol. 2006;80:12197-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion analysis and replacement of the entire TBEV E-TM2 region with its counterpart from another flavivirus revealed that this element, apart from its role as a signal sequence, is important for virion formation...
  5. Mandl C, Heinz F, Kunz C. Sequence of the structural proteins of tick-borne encephalitis virus (western subtype) and comparative analysis with other flaviviruses. Virology. 1988;166:197-205 pubmed
  6. Aberle J, Aberle S, Kofler R, Mandl C. Humoral and cellular immune response to RNA immunization with flavivirus replicons derived from tick-borne encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2005;79:15107-13 pubmed
    ..The results also demonstrate the value of TBEV replicon RNA for inducing protective long-lasting antiviral responses. ..
  7. Elshuber S, Mandl C. Resuscitating mutations in a furin cleavage-deficient mutant of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2005;79:11813-23 pubmed
    ..This is the first example of a flavivirus using such a molecular mechanism. ..
  8. Mandl C. Steps of the tick-borne encephalitis virus replication cycle that affect neuropathogenesis. Virus Res. 2005;111:161-74 pubmed
    ..The understanding of molecular determinants of TBEV neuropathogenesis is relevant for vaccine development, also against other flaviviruses. ..
  9. Walder G, Lkhamsuren E, Shagdar A, Bataa J, Batmunkh T, Orth D, et al. Serological evidence for tick-borne encephalitis, borreliosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Mongolia. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296 Suppl 40:69-75 pubmed
    ..Seroprevalence against A. phagocytophilum was 2.3% in Selenge province, 5.6% in Bulgan province, 2.8% in Dornogov province, and 3.0% in Tov province and Ulaanbaatar. We conclude that all three pathogens are endemic in Mongolia. ..

More Information


  1. Loew Baselli A, Konior R, Pavlova B, Fritsch S, Poellabauer E, Maritsch F, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the modified adult tick-borne encephalitis vaccine FSME-IMMUN: results of two large phase 3 clinical studies. Vaccine. 2006;24:5256-63 pubmed
  2. Kroschewski H, Allison S, Heinz F, Mandl C. Role of heparan sulfate for attachment and entry of tick-borne encephalitis virus. Virology. 2003;308:92-100 pubmed
    ..Thus, even though HS is a major determinant of TBE virus attachment on HS-expressing cells, our findings suggest the existence of an alternative host cell receptor that is less abundant than HS. ..
  3. Kunze M, Kunze U. Social marketing and the establishment of the ISW-TBE. Vaccine. 2003;21 Suppl 1:S62-5 pubmed
  4. Barrett P, Schober Bendixen S, Ehrlich H. History of TBE vaccines. Vaccine. 2003;21 Suppl 1:S41-9 pubmed
    ..This article describes the development and modification of these vaccines over this time frame, and illustrates the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing this severe CNS disease. ..
  5. Heinz F, Allison S. The machinery for flavivirus fusion with host cell membranes. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2001;4:450-5 pubmed
    ..New structural data have shown that the alphaviruses, another group of icosahedral enveloped viruses, also have class II fusion proteins, suggesting a common origin. ..
  6. Stadler K, Allison S, Schalich J, Heinz F. Proteolytic activation of tick-borne encephalitis virus by furin. J Virol. 1997;71:8475-81 pubmed
    ..In vivo, prM cleavage was blocked by a furin inhibitor, and infection of the furin-deficient cell line LoVo yielded only immature virions, suggesting that furin is essential for cleavage activation of flaviviruses. ..
  7. Stiasny K, Allison S, Marchler Bauer A, Kunz C, Heinz F. Structural requirements for low-pH-induced rearrangements in the envelope glycoprotein of tick-borne encephalitis virus. J Virol. 1996;70:8142-7 pubmed
    ..This region contains potential amphipathic alpha-helical and conserved structural elements whose interactions may contribute to the rearrangements which initiate the fusion process...
  8. Allison S, Schalich J, Stiasny K, Mandl C, Kunz C, Heinz F. Oligomeric rearrangement of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope proteins induced by an acidic pH. J Virol. 1995;69:695-700 pubmed
    ..This is consistent with a protective role of protein prM for protein E during intracellular transport of immature virions through acidic compartments of the trans-Golgi network...
  9. Rendi Wagner P, Paulke Korinek M, Kundi M, Wiedermann U, Laaber B, Kollaritsch H. Antibody persistence following booster vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis: 3-year post-booster follow-up. Vaccine. 2007;25:5097-101 pubmed
  10. Heinz F, Holzmann H, Essl A, Kundi M. Field effectiveness of vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis. Vaccine. 2007;25:7559-67 pubmed
    ..Our data confirm the excellent performance of TBE vaccine under field conditions and provide evidence that, in Austria, about 2800 cases were prevented by vaccination in the years 2000-2006. ..
  11. Schrauf S, Schlick P, Skern T, Mandl C. Functional analysis of potential carboxy-terminal cleavage sites of tick-borne encephalitis virus capsid protein. J Virol. 2008;82:2218-29 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study further illuminates the specificity of the TBEV protease and reveals that the carboxy-terminal region of protein C has a remarkable functional flexibility in its role in the assembly of infectious virions. ..
  12. Fischl W, Elshuber S, Schrauf S, Mandl C. Changing the protease specificity for activation of a flavivirus, tick-borne encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2008;82:8272-82 pubmed publisher
  13. Rendi Wagner P. Advances in vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Systematic TBE case monitoring by raising problem awareness, both inside and outside endemic regions, appears essential to provide evidence for a widely accepted TBE travel-vaccination recommendation in the future. ..
  14. Kiermayr S, Stiasny K, Heinz F. Impact of quaternary organization on the antigenic structure of the tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope glycoprotein E. J Virol. 2009;83:8482-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We have thus identified several important factors that influence the antigenicity of the flavivirus E protein and have an impact on the interaction with neutralizing antibodies. ..
  15. Pöllabauer E, Pavlova B, Löw Baselli A, Fritsch S, Prymula R, Angermayr R, et al. Comparison of immunogenicity and safety between two paediatric TBE vaccines. Vaccine. 2010;28:4680-5 pubmed publisher
    ..01) and second (p<0.001) vaccination with Encepur Children than with FSME-IMMUN Junior, affecting half the children in the former group: 22.4% and 10.2% with FSME-IMMUN Junior vs. 49.0% and 51.0% for Encepur Children. ..
  16. Seidel M, Grohmann E, Sadeghi K, Pollak A, Heitger A, Forster Waldl E. Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis virus tests specific IgG production ability in patients under immunoglobulin substitution therapy. Vaccine. 2010;28:6621-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TBE vaccination may be used to test B-cell function under IgG replacement therapy because IgG substitution appears insufficient to yield protective TBE-specific antibody levels in children. ..
  17. Gehrke R, Heinz F, Davis N, Mandl C. Heterologous gene expression by infectious and replicon vectors derived from tick-borne encephalitis virus and direct comparison of this flavivirus system with an alphavirus replicon. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:1045-53 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the VEEV vector is superior with respect to achieving high expression levels, but the TBEV system may be advantageous for applications that require a moderate, but more enduring, gene expression. ..
  18. Stiasny K, Heinz F. Effect of membrane curvature-modifying lipids on membrane fusion by tick-borne encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2004;78:8536-42 pubmed
    ..These data emphasize, however, the importance of the composition of the target membrane in its interactions with the fusion peptide that are crucial for the initiation of fusion. ..
  19. Rendi Wagner P, Kundi M, Zent O, Dvorak G, Jaehnig P, Holzmann H, et al. Persistence of protective immunity following vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis--longer than expected?. Vaccine. 2004;22:2743-9 pubmed
    ..This study indicates that after multiple TBE (booster) immunizations protection surpasses the currently advised TBE booster interval of 3 years, thus supporting reconsideration of the recommendations for booster intervals. ..
  20. Kunz C. TBE vaccination and the Austrian experience. Vaccine. 2003;21 Suppl 1:S50-5 pubmed
    ..The Austrian experience shows that containment of a tick-borne viral disease is feasible, provided a well-tolerated and effective vaccine is available that is widely accepted by the general population. ..
  21. Elshuber S, Allison S, Heinz F, Mandl C. Cleavage of protein prM is necessary for infection of BHK-21 cells by tick-borne encephalitis virus. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:183-91 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the results illustrate that mutation of the furin cleavage site is a convenient way to produce single-round infectious flavivirus particles, which may be useful in vaccine and vector development. ..
  22. Kofler R, Leitner A, O Riordain G, Heinz F, Mandl C. Spontaneous mutations restore the viability of tick-borne encephalitis virus mutants with large deletions in protein C. J Virol. 2003;77:443-51 pubmed
  23. Mandl C, Allison S, Holzmann H, Meixner T, Heinz F. Attenuation of tick-borne encephalitis virus by structure-based site-specific mutagenesis of a putative flavivirus receptor binding site. J Virol. 2000;74:9601-9 pubmed
    ..The information obtained in this study is relevant for the development of specific attenuated flavivirus strains that may serve as future live vaccines. ..
  24. Heinz F, Allison S, Stiasny K, Schalich J, Holzmann H, Mandl C, et al. Recombinant and virion-derived soluble and particulate immunogens for vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis. Vaccine. 1995;13:1636-42 pubmed
  25. Wallner G, Mandl C, Kunz C, Heinz F. The flavivirus 3'-noncoding region: extensive size heterogeneity independent of evolutionary relationships among strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus. Virology. 1995;213:169-78 pubmed publisher
  26. Heinz F. Molecular aspects of TBE virus research. Vaccine. 2003;21 Suppl 1:S3-S10 pubmed
  27. Hoenninger V, Rouha H, Orlinger K, Miorin L, Marcello A, Kofler R, et al. Analysis of the effects of alterations in the tick-borne encephalitis virus 3'-noncoding region on translation and RNA replication using reporter replicons. Virology. 2008;377:419-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a rational basis for the construction of TBEV-based vectors or vaccines as well as molecular tools for studying flavivirus replication. ..
  28. Mandl C, Holzmann H, Meixner T, Rauscher S, Stadler P, Allison S, et al. Spontaneous and engineered deletions in the 3' noncoding region of tick-borne encephalitis virus: construction of highly attenuated mutants of a flavivirus. J Virol. 1998;72:2132-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, 3'-NCR deletions represent a useful technique for achieving stable attenuation of flaviviruses that can be included in the rational design of novel flavivirus live vaccines. ..
  29. Mandl C, Heinz F, St ckl E, Kunz C. Genome sequence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (Western subtype) and comparative analysis of nonstructural proteins with other flaviviruses. Virology. 1989;173:291-301 pubmed
    ..Other characteristics, such as the potential N-glycosylation sites of protein NS1 and a potential proteolytic cleavage site within protein NS4B, are conserved within the mosquito-borne group, but differ in the TBE virus sequence...