Experts and Doctors on synapses in Switzerland


Locale: Switzerland
Topic: synapses

Top Publications

  1. Poglia L, Muller D, Nikonenko I. Ultrastructural modifications of spine and synapse morphology by SAP97. Hippocampus. 2011;21:990-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Liao G, Maillard M, Kiraly M. Ion channels involved in the presynaptic hyperexcitability induced by herpes virus suis in rat superior cervical ganglion. Neuroscience. 1991;41:797-807 pubmed
    ..Possible factors as well as mechanisms inducing such an increase in excitability are discussed. ..
  3. Schneider Gasser E, Straub C, Panzanelli P, Weinmann O, Sassoè Pognetto M, Fritschy J. Immunofluorescence in brain sections: simultaneous detection of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins in identified neurons. Nat Protoc. 2006;1:1887-97 pubmed
    ..The most sophisticated of these protocols can be associated with electrophysiology for correlative studies of synapse structure and function. These protocols require 2-3 consecutive days for completion. ..
  4. Steullet P, Neijt H, Cuenod M, Do K. Synaptic plasticity impairment and hypofunction of NMDA receptors induced by glutathione deficit: relevance to schizophrenia. Neuroscience. 2006;137:807-19 pubmed
    ..Thus, glutathione deficit could be one causal factor for the hypofunction of NMDA receptors in schizophrenia. ..
  5. Ulrich D, Bettler B. GABA(B) receptors: synaptic functions and mechanisms of diversity. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2007;17:298-303 pubmed
    ..Finally, we provide possible explanations for the perplexing situation that GABA(B) receptor subtypes that have indistinguishable properties in vitro generate distinct GABA(B) responses in vivo. ..
  6. Wrobel L, Reymond Marron I, DuPre A, Raggenbass M. Oxytocin and vasopressin enhance synaptic transmission in the hypoglossal motor nucleus of young rats by acting on distinct receptor types. Neuroscience. 2010;165:723-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that in young rats, oxytocin and vasopressin may function as neuromodulators in brainstem motor circuits responsible of tongue movements. ..
  7. Hermida D, Mateos J, Elezgarai I, Puente N, Bilbao A, Bueno López J, et al. Spatial compartmentalization of AMPA glutamate receptor subunits at the calyx of Held synapse. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:163-74 pubmed publisher
  8. Toyoizumi T, Pfister J, Aihara K, Gerstner W. Optimality model of unsupervised spike-timing-dependent plasticity: synaptic memory and weight distribution. Neural Comput. 2007;19:639-71 pubmed
    ..The formulation of synaptic dynamics through an optimality criterion provides a simple graphical argument for the stability of synapses, necessary for synaptic memory. ..
  9. Kropf M, Rey G, Glauser L, Kulangara K, Johnsson K, Hirling H. Subunit-specific surface mobility of differentially labeled AMPA receptor subunits. Eur J Cell Biol. 2008;87:763-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that surface mobility is regulated by different subunit compositions of AMPA receptors. ..

More Information


  1. Schätzle P, Wuttke R, Ziegler U, Sonderegger P. Automated quantification of synapses by fluorescence microscopy. J Neurosci Methods. 2012;204:144-149 pubmed publisher
    ..The method can be applied to all datasets containing a pre- and postsynaptic labeling plus a dendritic or cell surface marker. ..
  2. Nyffeler M, Zhang W, Feldon J, Knuesel I. Differential expression of PSD proteins in age-related spatial learning impairments. Neurobiol Aging. 2007;28:143-55 pubmed
  3. Rose T, Schoenenberger P, Jezek K, Oertner T. Developmental refinement of vesicle cycling at Schaffer collateral synapses. Neuron. 2013;77:1109-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that synapses in CA1 undergo a prominent refinement of vesicle use during early postnatal development that is not recapitulated in dissociated neuronal culture. ..
  4. Grabs D, Bergmann M, Rager G. Developmental expression of amphiphysin in the retinotectal system of the chick: from mRNA to protein. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:1545-53 pubmed
  5. Zhang Y, Oertner T. Optical induction of synaptic plasticity using a light-sensitive channel. Nat Methods. 2007;4:139-41 pubmed
    ..Pairing of light stimulation with postsynaptic depolarization induced long-term potentiation, making this technique ideal for genetic and pharmacological dissection of synaptic plasticity. ..
  6. Kopp C, Longordo F, Nicholson J, Lüthi A. Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12456-65 pubmed
    ..We establish a framework for cellular models of cognitive impairment related to sleep loss, a major problem in modern society. ..
  7. Rovó Z, Matyas F, Bartho P, Slézia A, Lecci S, Pellegrini C, et al. Phasic, nonsynaptic GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition entrains thalamocortical oscillations. J Neurosci. 2014;34:7137-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that nonsynaptic GABA-ARs are recruited in a phasic manner specifically during burst firing of nRT cells and provide sufficient GABA-AR activation to control major thalamocortical oscillations. ..
  8. Leng A, Feldon J, Ferger B. Long-term social isolation and medial prefrontal cortex: dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004;77:371-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, social isolation leads only to moderate changes in the dopaminergic system in the mPFC, whereas the cholinergic system remains unaffected. ..
  9. Zuber B, Nikonenko I, Klauser P, Muller D, Dubochet J. The mammalian central nervous synaptic cleft contains a high density of periodically organized complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:19192-7 pubmed
    ..2-nm periodic transcleft complexes. Previously undescribed structures of presynaptic and postsynaptic elements are also described. ..
  10. Lefort S, Tomm C, Floyd Sarria J, Petersen C. The excitatory neuronal network of the C2 barrel column in mouse primary somatosensory cortex. Neuron. 2009;61:301-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data set provides the first functional description of the excitatory synaptic wiring diagram of a physiologically relevant and anatomically well-defined cortical column at single-cell resolution. ..
  11. Kralic J, Sidler C, Parpan F, Homanics G, Morrow A, Fritschy J. Compensatory alteration of inhibitory synaptic circuits in cerebellum and thalamus of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit knockout mice. J Comp Neurol. 2006;495:408-21 pubmed
    ..In addition, clustering of gephyrin at synaptic sites in cerebellum and thalamus appears to be dependent on expression of a GABA(A) receptor subtype localized postsynaptically. ..
  12. Tyagarajan S, Fritschy J. Gephyrin: a master regulator of neuronal function?. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014;15:141-56 pubmed publisher
  13. Holbro N, Grunditz A, Oertner T. Differential distribution of endoplasmic reticulum controls metabotropic signaling and plasticity at hippocampal synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15055-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, spine microanatomy is a reliable indicator for the presence of specific signaling cascades that govern plasticity on a micrometer scale. ..
  14. Yuan T, Mameli M, O Connor E, Dey P, Verpelli C, Sala C, et al. Expression of cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity by GluN3A-containing NMDA receptors. Neuron. 2013;80:1025-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide insight into the early cocaine-driven reorganization of glutamatergic transmission onto DA neurons and offer GluN3A-containing NMDARs as new targets in drug addiction. ..
  15. Lardi Studler B, Smolinsky B, Petitjean C, Koenig F, Sidler C, Meier J, et al. Vertebrate-specific sequences in the gephyrin E-domain regulate cytosolic aggregation and postsynaptic clustering. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1371-82 pubmed
  16. Perrig S, Iglesias J, Shaposhnyk V, Chibirova O, Dutoit P, Cabessa J, et al. Functional interactions in hierarchically organized neural networks studied with spatiotemporal firing patterns and phase-coupling frequencies. Chin J Physiol. 2010;53:382-95 pubmed
    ..The results suggest some interpretations of changes and plasticity of functional interactions between cortical areas driven by external stimuli and by learning/cognitive ..
  17. Fritschy J, Panzanelli P, Tyagarajan S. Molecular and functional heterogeneity of GABAergic synapses. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:2485-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we discuss the contribution of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex to the molecular and functional heterogeneity of GABAergic synapses. ..
  18. Vogels T, Froemke R, Doyon N, Gilson M, Haas J, Liu R, et al. Inhibitory synaptic plasticity: spike timing-dependence and putative network function. Front Neural Circuits. 2013;7:119 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present recent experimental and theoretical findings concerning the rules of spike timing-dependent inhibitory plasticity and their putative network function. This is a summary of a workshop at the COSYNE conference 2012. ..
  19. Bormann P, Zumsteg V, Roth L, Reinhard E. Target contact regulates GAP-43 and alpha-tubulin mRNA levels in regenerating retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci Res. 1998;52:405-19 pubmed
    ..In contrast, distinct mechanisms may control the extent and maintenance of increased mRNA levels of these genes. ..
  20. Meier T, Marangi P, Moll J, Hauser D, Brenner H, Ruegg M. A minigene of neural agrin encoding the laminin-binding and acetylcholine receptor-aggregating domains is sufficient to induce postsynaptic differentiation in muscle fibres. Eur J Neurosci. 1998;10:3141-52 pubmed
  21. Fritschy J, Panzanelli P, Kralic J, Vogt K, Sassoè Pognetto M. Differential dependence of axo-dendritic and axo-somatic GABAergic synapses on GABAA receptors containing the alpha1 subunit in Purkinje cells. J Neurosci. 2006;26:3245-55 pubmed
    ..In contrast, maintenance of axo-somatic GABAergic synapses does not depend on functional GABAA receptors, suggesting differential regulation in distinct subcellular compartments. ..
  22. Lüscher C, Huber K. Group 1 mGluR-dependent synaptic long-term depression: mechanisms and implications for circuitry and disease. Neuron. 2010;65:445-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss how mGluRs lead to plasticity of neural circuits and how the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of mGluR plasticity provides insight into brain disease. ..
  23. Wycisk K, Budde B, Feil S, Skosyrski S, Buzzi F, Neidhardt J, et al. Structural and functional abnormalities of retinal ribbon synapses due to Cacna2d4 mutation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:3523-30 pubmed
  24. van Rijnsoever C, Sidler C, Fritschy J. Internalized GABA-receptor subunits are transferred to an intracellular pool associated with the postsynaptic density. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:327-38 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the close association of gephyrin with internalized GABAA receptors suggests a role in intracellular receptor trafficking. ..
  25. Elhajj Z, Cachot A, Müller T, Riederer I, Riederer B. Effects of postmortem delays on protein composition and oxidation. Brain Res Bull. 2016;121:98-104 pubmed publisher
    ..When studying human brain tissue, some proteins are more susceptible to degradation than others, while ubiquitination and carbonylation were little affected during the first 24h after death. ..
  26. Boyan G, Ball E. The grasshopper, Drosophila and neuronal homology (advantages of the insect nervous system for the neuroscientist). Prog Neurobiol. 1993;41:657-82 pubmed
  27. Brünig I, Suter A, Knuesel I, Luscher B, Fritschy J. GABAergic terminals are required for postsynaptic clustering of dystrophin but not of GABA(A) receptors and gephyrin. J Neurosci. 2002;22:4805-13 pubmed
    ..We suggest that selective signaling from GABAergic terminals contributes to postsynaptic clustering of dystrophin. ..
  28. Gogolla N, Galimberti I, Deguchi Y, Caroni P. Wnt signaling mediates experience-related regulation of synapse numbers and mossy fiber connectivities in the adult hippocampus. Neuron. 2009;62:510-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, behavioral experience specifically regulates adult global stratum lucidum synapse numbers and hippocampal network structure through Wnt signaling. ..
  29. Pauls D, Selcho M, Gendre N, Stocker R, Thum A. Drosophila larvae establish appetitive olfactory memories via mushroom body neurons of embryonic origin. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10655-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this approach, we define 10 subdomains of the larval mushroom body that may be implicated in mediating specific interactions between the olfactory pathway, modulatory neurons, and neuronal output. ..
  30. Longordo F, Kopp C, Mishina M, Lujan R, Lüthi A. NR2A at CA1 synapses is obligatory for the susceptibility of hippocampal plasticity to sleep loss. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9026-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings could advance pharmacological strategies aiming to sustain hippocampal function during sleep restriction. ..
  31. Crochet S, Poulet J, Kremer Y, Petersen C. Synaptic mechanisms underlying sparse coding of active touch. Neuron. 2011;69:1160-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Sparse action potential firing within synchronized cortical layer 2/3 microcircuits therefore appears to robustly signal each active touch response. ..
  32. Tyagarajan S, Ghosh H, Yevenes G, Nikonenko I, Ebeling C, Schwerdel C, et al. Regulation of GABAergic synapse formation and plasticity by GSK3beta-dependent phosphorylation of gephyrin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings identify gephyrin as synaptogenic molecule regulating GABAergic synaptic plasticity, likely contributing to the therapeutic action of lithium. ..
  33. Fritschy J, Harvey R, Schwarz G. Gephyrin: where do we stand, where do we go?. Trends Neurosci. 2008;31:257-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Unraveling the biology of gephyrin will further our understanding of glycinergic and GABAergic synapses in health and disease. ..
  34. Nikonenko I, Boda B, Steen S, Knott G, Welker E, Muller D. PSD-95 promotes synaptogenesis and multiinnervated spine formation through nitric oxide signaling. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:1115-27 pubmed publisher
    ..NOS blockade also reduced spine and synapse density in developing hippocampal cultures. These results indicate that the postsynaptic site, through an NOS-PSD-95 interaction and NO signaling, promotes synapse formation with nearby axons. ..
  35. Min R, Nevian T. Astrocyte signaling controls spike timing-dependent depression at neocortical synapses. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:746-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings describe the retrograde signaling cascade underlying neocortical t-LTD. The critical involvement of astrocytes in this process highlights their importance for experience-dependent sensory remodeling. ..
  36. Krueger S, Ghisu G, Cinelli P, Gschwend T, Osterwalder T, Wolfer D, et al. Expression of neuroserpin, an inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator, in the developing and adult nervous system of the mouse. J Neurosci. 1997;17:8984-96 pubmed
    ..During development, neuroserpin may attenuate extracellular proteolysis related to processes such as neuronal migration, axogenesis, or the formation of mature synaptic connections. ..
  37. Madani R, Hulo S, Toni N, Madani H, Steimer T, Muller D, et al. Enhanced hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning by increased neuronal expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator in transgenic mice. EMBO J. 1999;18:3007-12 pubmed
    ..Extracellular proteolysis catalysed by tPA may facilitate synaptic micro-remodelling, and thereby play a role in activity-dependent neuronal plasticity and learning. ..
  38. Frey D, Schneider C, Xu L, Borg J, Spooren W, Caroni P. Early and selective loss of neuromuscular synapse subtypes with low sprouting competence in motoneuron diseases. J Neurosci. 2000;20:2534-42 pubmed
  39. Wolff S, Gründemann J, Tovote P, Krabbe S, Jacobson G, Muller C, et al. Amygdala interneuron subtypes control fear learning through disinhibition. Nature. 2014;509:453-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that associative learning is dynamically regulated by the stimulus-specific activation of distinct disinhibitory microcircuits through precise interactions between different subtypes of local interneurons. ..
  40. Binzegger T, Douglas R, Martin K. A quantitative map of the circuit of cat primary visual cortex. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8441-53 pubmed
  41. Thomanetz V, Angliker N, Cloëtta D, Lustenberger R, Schweighauser M, Oliveri F, et al. Ablation of the mTORC2 component rictor in brain or Purkinje cells affects size and neuron morphology. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:293-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our experiments show that mTORC2 has a particularly important role in the brain and that it affects size, morphology, and function of neurons. ..
  42. Vigot R, Barbieri S, Brauner Osborne H, Turecek R, Shigemoto R, Zhang Y, et al. Differential compartmentalization and distinct functions of GABAB receptor variants. Neuron. 2006;50:589-601 pubmed
    ..The constitutive absence of GABAB1a but not GABAB1b results in impaired synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent memory, emphasizing molecular differences in synaptic GABAB functions. ..
  43. Astori S, Lüthi A. Synaptic plasticity at intrathalamic connections via CaV3.3 T-type Ca2+ channels and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors. J Neurosci. 2013;33:624-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, oscillatory burst discharge of reticular neurons is typical for sleep-related rhythms, suggesting that sleep contributes to strengthening intrathalamic circuits. ..
  44. Müller M, Zheng F, Werner S, Alzheimer C. Transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative activin receptor IB in forebrain neurons reveal novel functions of activin at glutamatergic synapses. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:29076-84 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration that activin receptor signaling is essential to optimize the performance of neuronal circuits in the mature brain under physiological conditions. ..
  45. Kovács K, Steullet P, Steinmann M, Do K, Magistretti P, Halfon O, et al. TORC1 is a calcium- and cAMP-sensitive coincidence detector involved in hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4700-5 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that TORC1 is involved in L-LTP maintenance at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus. ..
  46. Michalski N, Babai N, Renier N, Perkel D, Chedotal A, Schneggenburger R. Robo3-driven axon midline crossing conditions functional maturation of a large commissural synapse. Neuron. 2013;78:855-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism might be relevant to human disease caused by mutations in the ROBO3 gene. ..
  47. Mousavi S, Chauvin A, Pascaud F, Kellenberger S, Farmer E. GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE genes mediate leaf-to-leaf wound signalling. Nature. 2013;500:422-6 pubmed publisher
  48. Brown M, Tan K, O Connor E, Nikonenko I, Muller D, Lüscher C. Ventral tegmental area GABA projections pause accumbal cholinergic interneurons to enhance associative learning. Nature. 2012;492:452-6 pubmed publisher
    ..VTA GABA projection neurons thus emerge as orchestrators of dopaminergic and cholinergic modulation in the NAc. ..
  49. Ruediger S, Vittori C, Bednarek E, Genoud C, Strata P, Sacchetti B, et al. Learning-related feedforward inhibitory connectivity growth required for memory precision. Nature. 2011;473:514-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results further relate plasticity and feedforward inhibition growth at hippocampal mossy fibres to the precision of hippocampus-dependent memories. ..
  50. Paolicelli R, Jawaid A, Henstridge C, Valeri A, Merlini M, Robinson J, et al. TDP-43 Depletion in Microglia Promotes Amyloid Clearance but Also Induces Synapse Loss. Neuron. 2017;95:297-308.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data suggest that dysfunctional microglia might play a causative role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, critically modulating the early stages of cognitive decline. ..
  51. Pralong E, Magistretti P. Noradrenaline reduces synaptic responses in normal and tottering mouse entorhinal cortex via alpha 2 receptors. Neurosci Lett. 1994;179:145-8 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that NA can inhibit via an alpha 2 receptor-mediated action synaptic responses in the superficial layers of the EC. ..
  52. Meier T, Hauser D, Chiquet M, Landmann L, Ruegg M, Brenner H. Neural agrin induces ectopic postsynaptic specializations in innervated muscle fibers. J Neurosci. 1997;17:6534-44 pubmed
    ..Thus, a motor neuron-specific agrin isoform is sufficient to induce a full ectopic postsynaptic apparatus in muscle fibers kept electrically active at their original endplate sites. ..
  53. Frischknecht R, Fejtova A, Viesti M, Stephan A, Sonderegger P. Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1568-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Thereby, neurotrypsin may play a role in activity-dependent remodeling of the synaptic circuitry that is key to adaptive synaptic changes in the context of cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. ..
  54. Stephan A, Mateos J, Kozlov S, Cinelli P, Kistler A, Hettwer S, et al. Neurotrypsin cleaves agrin locally at the synapse. FASEB J. 2008;22:1861-73 pubmed publisher
  55. Ferezou I, Haiss F, Gentet L, Aronoff R, Weber B, Petersen C. Spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical sensorimotor integration in behaving mice. Neuron. 2007;56:907-23 pubmed
    ..Sensory processing in motor cortex may therefore contribute significantly to active tactile sensory perception. ..
  56. Huh K, Fuhrer C. Clustering of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from the neuromuscular junction to interneuronal synapses. Mol Neurobiol. 2002;25:79-112 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the current knowledge about formation and stabilization of the postsynaptic apparatus at the neuromuscular junction and extends this to explore the synaptic structures of interneuronal cholinergic synapses. ..
  57. Marangi P, Wieland S, Fuhrer C. Laminin-1 redistributes postsynaptic proteins and requires rapsyn, tyrosine phosphorylation, and Src and Fyn to stably cluster acetylcholine receptors. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:883-95 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the laminin and agrin signaling pathways overlap intracellularly, which may be important for neuromuscular synapse formation. ..
  58. Mori M, Gerber U. Slow feedback inhibition in the CA3 area of the rat hippocampus by synergistic synaptic activation of mGluR1 and mGluR5. J Physiol. 2002;544:793-9 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may allow interneurons to monitor activity levels from populations of neighbouring principal cells to adapt inhibitory tone to the state of the network. ..
  59. Reif R, Sales S, Hettwer S, Dreier B, Gisler C, Wölfel J, et al. Specific cleavage of agrin by neurotrypsin, a synaptic protease linked to mental retardation. FASEB J. 2007;21:3468-78 pubmed
    ..Therefore, dysregulation of agrin processing is a good candidate for a pathogenetic mechanism underlying mental retardation. In turn, these results may also shed light on mechanisms involved in cognitive functions. ..
  60. Back J, Chalifour A, Scarpellino L, Held W. Stable masking by H-2Dd cis ligand limits Ly49A relocalization to the site of NK cell/target cell contact. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3978-83 pubmed
    ..This property renders Ly49A NK cells more sensitive to react to diseased host cells. ..
  61. Bezakova G, Ruegg M. New insights into the roles of agrin. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003;4:295-308 pubmed
    ..So the activities of agrin might be of broader significance than previously anticipated. ..
  62. Studer R, von Boehmer L, Haenggi T, Schweizer C, Benke D, Rudolph U, et al. Alteration of GABAergic synapses and gephyrin clusters in the thalamic reticular nucleus of GABAA receptor alpha3 subunit-null mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:1307-15 pubmed
    ..The absence of GABAA-mediated transmission in the nRT may have a significant impact on the function of the thalamo-cortical loop of alpha3(0/0) mice. ..
  63. Boncristiano S, Calhoun M, Howard V, Bondolfi L, Kaeser S, Wiederhold K, et al. Neocortical synaptic bouton number is maintained despite robust amyloid deposition in APP23 transgenic mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26:607-13 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that cerebral amyloidosis is not sufficient to account for the global synapse loss in AD. Alternatively, a putative trophic effect of APP may prevent, compensate, or delay a loss of synapses in this mouse model. ..
  64. Hill S, Wang Y, Riachi I, Schürmann F, Markram H. Statistical connectivity provides a sufficient foundation for specific functional connectivity in neocortical neural microcircuits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2885-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests that random alignment of axonal and dendritic arbors provides a sufficient foundation for specific functional connectivity to emerge in local neural microcircuits. ..
  65. Mittaud P, Camilleri A, Willmann R, Erb Vögtli S, Burden S, Fuhrer C. A single pulse of agrin triggers a pathway that acts to cluster acetylcholine receptors. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7841-54 pubmed
    ..Second, a kinase mechanism rapidly activated by agrin acts thereafter autonomously in agrin's absence to further increase MuSK phosphorylation and cluster AChRs. ..
  66. Lacazette E, Le Calvez S, Gajendran N, Brenner H. A novel pathway for MuSK to induce key genes in neuromuscular synapse formation. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:727-36 pubmed
    ..The same pathways are used to regulate synaptic expression of AChR epsilon. We propose that the novel pathway stabilizes the synapse early in development, whereas the NRG/ErbB pathway supports maintenance of the mature synapse. ..
  67. Essrich C, Lorez M, Benson J, Fritschy J, Luscher B. Postsynaptic clustering of major GABAA receptor subtypes requires the gamma 2 subunit and gephyrin. Nat Neurosci. 1998;1:563-71 pubmed
    ..The gamma 2 subunit and gephyrin are thus interdependent components of the same synaptic complex that is critical for postsynaptic clustering of abundant subtypes of GABAA receptors in vivo. ..
  68. Conquet F, Bashir Z, Davies C, Daniel H, Ferraguti F, Bordi F, et al. Motor deficit and impairment of synaptic plasticity in mice lacking mGluR1. Nature. 1994;372:237-43 pubmed
    ..mGluR1-deficient mice should therefore be valuable models for studying synaptic plasticity. ..
  69. Poulet J, Hedwig B. The cellular basis of a corollary discharge. Science. 2006;311:518-22 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this neuron represents a corollary discharge interneuron that provides a neuronal basis for the central control of sensory responses. ..
  70. Su C, Tharin S, Jin Y, Wightman B, Spector M, Meili D, et al. The short coiled-coil domain-containing protein UNC-69 cooperates with UNC-76 to regulate axonal outgrowth and normal presynaptic organization in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Biol. 2006;5:9 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans. As both proteins are conserved through evolution, we suggest that the mammalian homologs of UNC-69 and UNC-76 (SCOCO and FEZ, respectively) may function similarly. ..
  71. Galimberti I, Bednarek E, Donato F, Caroni P. EphA4 signaling in juveniles establishes topographic specificity of structural plasticity in the hippocampus. Neuron. 2010;65:627-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, plastic synapse specification in juveniles defines sites of synaptic remodeling in the adult, and hippocampal circuit plasticity follows unexpected topographic principles. ..
  72. Kato A, Punnakkal P, Pernía Andrade A, von Schoultz C, Sharopov S, Nyilas R, et al. Endocannabinoid-dependent plasticity at spinal nociceptor synapses. J Physiol. 2012;590:4717-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Both findings may have important implications for our understanding of endogenous pain control mechanisms and of analgesia evoked by cannabinoid receptor agonists. ..
  73. Ksiazek I, Burkhardt C, Lin S, Seddik R, Maj M, Bezakova G, et al. Synapse loss in cortex of agrin-deficient mice after genetic rescue of perinatal death. J Neurosci. 2007;27:7183-95 pubmed
    ..In summary, our results provide strong evidence that agrin plays an important role in the formation and/or the maintenance of excitatory synapses in the brain, and we provide evidence that this function involves MAP kinase signaling. ..
  74. Mameli M, Balland B, Lujan R, Lüscher C. Rapid synthesis and synaptic insertion of GluR2 for mGluR-LTD in the ventral tegmental area. Science. 2007;317:530-3 pubmed
    ..The synaptic insertion of GluR2 depends on de novo protein synthesis via rapid messenger RNA translation of GluR2. Regulated synthesis of GluR2 in the VTA is therefore required to reverse cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity. ..
  75. Bednarek E, Caroni P. ?-Adducin is required for stable assembly of new synapses and improved memory upon environmental enrichment. Neuron. 2011;69:1132-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence that synapse disassembly and the establishment of new synapses are both critically important for augmented long-term learning and memory upon environmental enrichment. ..
  76. Bot N, Schweizer C, Ben Halima S, Fraering P. Processing of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule neurexin-3beta by Alzheimer disease alpha- and gamma-secretases. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:2762-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We further report that this processing is altered by several PS1 mutations in the catalytic subunit of the ?-secretase that cause early-onset familial Alzheimer disease. ..
  77. Zhang Y, Holbro N, Oertner T. Optical induction of plasticity at single synapses reveals input-specific accumulation of alphaCaMKII. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12039-44 pubmed publisher
  78. Landers M, Knott G, Lipp H, Poletaeva I, Welker E. Synapse formation in adult barrel cortex following naturalistic environmental enrichment. Neuroscience. 2011;199:143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that naturalistic experience alters the synaptic circuitry in layer IV of the somatosensory cortex, the first cortical relay of sensory information, leaving a lasting trace that may guide subsequent behavior. ..