Experts and Doctors on siderophores in United States


Locale: United States
Topic: siderophores

Top Publications

  1. Gauthier G, Sullivan T, Gallardo S, Brandhorst T, Vanden Wymelenberg A, Cuomo C, et al. SREB, a GATA transcription factor that directs disparate fates in Blastomyces dermatitidis including morphogenesis and siderophore biosynthesis. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000846 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first gene identified that promotes the conversion from yeast to mold in the dimorphic fungi, and may shed light on environmental persistence of these pathogens. ..
  2. Franco A, Hu L, Grim C, Gopinath G, Sathyamoorthy V, Jarvis K, et al. Characterization of putative virulence genes on the related RepFIB plasmids harbored by Cronobacter spp. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:3255-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that these plasmids have evolved from a single archetypical plasmid backbone through the cointegration, or deletion, of specific virulence traits in each species. ..
  3. Kustusch R, Kuehl C, Crosa J. The ttpC gene is contained in two of three TonB systems in the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, but only one is active in iron transport and virulence. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:3250-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, in the absence of TonB1, TtpC2 is essential for a fully virulent phenotype as demonstrated using 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) experiments in mice. ..
  4. Naka H, López C, Crosa J. Reactivation of the vanchrobactin siderophore system of Vibrio anguillarum by removal of a chromosomal insertion sequence originated in plasmid pJM1 encoding the anguibactin siderophore system. Environ Microbiol. 2008;10:265-77 pubmed
    ..Our results underscore the importance of the anguibactin system in the survival of V. anguillarum 775 under conditions of iron limitation. ..
  5. Jean Gilles Beaubrun J, Gopinath G, Kothary M, Franco A, Curtis S, Eribo B, et al. Influence of iron-chelated growth conditions on outer membrane protein production and virulence of Vibrio tubiashii. Food Microbiol. 2011;28:1409-13 pubmed publisher
    ..tubiashii which is similar to those produced by other marine vibrios, many of which are pathogenic for humans. ..
  6. Rondon M, Ballering K, Thomas M. Identification and analysis of a siderophore biosynthetic gene cluster from Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Microbiology. 2004;150:3857-66 pubmed
    ..tumefaciens C58 will have a unique chemical structure. Production of the siderophore was not required for virulence of A. tumefaciens when tested with a standard stem inoculation assay. ..
  7. Forman S, Paulley J, Fetherston J, Cheng Y, Perry R. Yersinia ironomics: comparison of iron transporters among Yersinia pestis biotypes and its nearest neighbor, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Biometals. 2010;23:275-94 pubmed publisher
    ..pestis CO92 (epidemic orientalis biovar). Experimental studies failed to identify a role for hemin uptake systems in the virulence of pneumonic plague and suggest that Y. pestis CO92 does not make a siderophore other than Ybt. ..
  8. Wyckoff E, Boulette M, Payne S. Genetics and environmental regulation of Shigella iron transport systems. Biometals. 2009;22:43-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of oxygen are also seen in infection of cultured cells by Shigella flexneri; the Sit and Iuc systems support plaque formation under aerobic conditions, whereas Feo allows plaque formation anaerobically. ..
  9. Ryndak M, Wang S, Smith I, Rodriguez G. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis high-affinity iron importer, IrtA, contains an FAD-binding domain. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:861-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a model in which the amino terminus of IrtA functions to couple iron transport and assimilation. ..

More Information


  1. Sidebottom A, Johnson A, Karty J, Trader D, Carlson E. Integrated metabolomics approach facilitates discovery of an unpredicted natural product suite from Streptomyces coelicolor M145. ACS Chem Biol. 2013;8:2009-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the identified siderophores represent the unexplored metabolic potential of both well-studied and new organisms that could be uncovered with our sensitive and robust approach. ..
  2. Bergeron R, Bharti N, Singh S, McManis J, Wiegand J, Green L. Vibriobactin antibodies: a vaccine strategy. J Med Chem. 2009;52:3801-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are consistent with the idea that the isolated adducts of siderophores covalently linked to their bacterial outer membrane receptors represent a credible target for vaccine development. ..
  3. Gao W, Liu Y, Giometti C, Tollaksen S, Khare T, Wu L, et al. Knock-out of SO1377 gene, which encodes the member of a conserved hypothetical bacterial protein family COG2268, results in alteration of iron metabolism, increased spontaneous mutation and hydrogen peroxide sensitivity in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:76 pubmed
    ..Our results showed that the knock-out of SO1377 gene had pleiotropic effects and suggested that SO1377 may play a role in iron homeostasis and oxidative damage protection in S. oneidensis MR-1. ..
  4. Benson H, Boncompagni E, Guerinot M. An iron uptake operon required for proper nodule development in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum-soybean symbiosis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2005;18:950-9 pubmed
    ..As ferrichrome is a fungal siderophore not likely to be available in nodules, the symbiotic defect suggests that the fegAB operon is serving a different function in planta, possibly one involved in signaling between the two partners. ..
  5. Timmerman M, Woods J. Potential role for extracellular glutathione-dependent ferric reductase in utilization of environmental and host ferric compounds by Histoplasma capsulatum. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7671-8 pubmed
    ..Both ferrioxamine and ferrichrome served as iron sources for yeast- and mold-phase growth, the latter presumably by some other acquisition mechanism(s). ..
  6. Perry R, Balbo P, Jones H, Fetherston J, DeMoll E. Yersiniabactin from Yersinia pestis: biochemical characterization of the siderophore and its role in iron transport and regulation. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 5):1181-90 pubmed
    ..In contrast to Y. pestis, in which a psn mutation does not repress synthesis of Ybt siderophore or expression of the iron-regulated HMWP1 and HMWP2 proteins, the same mutation in Y. pseudotuberculosis partially repressed these products. ..
  7. Ahmadi M, Fawaz S, Fang L, Yu Z, Pfeifer B. Molecular variation of the nonribosomal peptide-polyketide siderophore yersiniabactin through biosynthetic and metabolic engineering. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2016;113:1067-74 pubmed publisher
    ..A final series of experiments enhanced endogenous anthranilate towards complete pathway formation of the associated analog which showed a selective ability to bind gold. ..
  8. Perrin R, Fedorova N, Bok J, Cramer R, Wortman J, Kim H, et al. Transcriptional regulation of chemical diversity in Aspergillus fumigatus by LaeA. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e50 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that LaeA is a novel target for comprehensive modification of chemical diversity and pathogenicity...
  9. Wyckoff E, Mey A, Payne S. Iron acquisition in Vibrio cholerae. Biometals. 2007;20:405-16 pubmed
    ..The redundancy in iron transport systems has made it more difficult to determine the role of individual systems in vivo and in vitro, but it may reflect the overall importance of iron in the growth and survival of V. cholerae...
  10. Wichard T, Bellenger J, Loison A, Kraepiel A. Catechol siderophores control tungsten uptake and toxicity in the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:2408-13 pubmed
    ..vinelandii to discriminate in its uptake of essential metals, such as Fe and Mo, over that of toxic metals, such as W, and to sustain high growth rates under adverse environmental conditions...
  11. Harrison K, Marzluf G. Characterization of DNA binding and the cysteine rich region of SRE, a GATA factor in Neurospora crassa involved in siderophore synthesis. Biochemistry. 2002;41:15288-95 pubmed
    ..The combined results of mobility shift assays, siderophore synthesis assays, and ornithine oxygenase enzyme activity determinations demonstrate that these mutants with cysteine substitutions have a dominant repressor phenotype. ..
  12. Di Lorenzo M, Stork M, Tolmasky M, Actis L, Farrell D, Welch T, et al. Complete sequence of virulence plasmid pJM1 from the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum strain 775. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5822-30 pubmed
    ..We also show that there is considerable microheterogeneity in pJM1-like plasmids from virulent strains of V. anguillarum isolated from different geographical sources...
  13. Bergeron R, Xin M, Weimar W, Smith R, Wiegand J. Significance of asymmetric sites in choosing siderophores as deferration agents. J Med Chem. 2001;44:2469-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, by altering the stereochemistry of certain microbial siderophores, it is possible to generate deferration agents that are still effective at clearing iron from animals, yet do not promote microbial growth. ..
  14. Ghosh P, Rathinasabapathi B, Ma L. Arsenic-resistant bacteria solubilized arsenic in the growth media and increased growth of arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:8756-61 pubmed publisher
    ..5-2.2 to 3.4-4.2 g/plant dw by ARB and by arsenic was associated with arsenic-induced plant P uptake. Arsenic resistant bacteria may have potential to enhance phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils by P. vittata...
  15. Tolmasky M, Actis L, Crosa J. A single amino acid change in AngR, a protein encoded by pJM1-like virulence plasmids, results in hyperproduction of anguibactin. Infect Immun. 1993;61:3228-33 pubmed
    ..Therefore, AngR may also function in V. anguillarum as an EntE-like enzyme for the biosynthesis of anguibactin...
  16. Liu Z, Velpula K, Devireddy L. 3-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase-2 and ferritin-H synergistically regulate intracellular iron. FEBS J. 2014;281:2410-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that the siderophore and ferritin synergistically regulate cellular iron levels. ..
  17. Zhang F, Barns K, Hoffmann F, Braun D, Andes D, Bugni T. Thalassosamide, a Siderophore Discovered from the Marine-Derived Bacterium Thalassospira profundimaris. J Nat Prod. 2017;80:2551-2555 pubmed publisher
    ..Thalassosamide showed moderate in vivo efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
  18. Russo T, Page M, Beanan J, Olson R, Hujer A, Hujer K, et al. In vivo and in vitro activity of the siderophore monosulfactam BAL30072 against Acinetobacter baumannii. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:867-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Both BAL30072 and BAL30072 with meropenem were equally effective in vivo. These data support the continued evaluation of BAL30072 for use in the treatment of infections caused by MDR A. baumannii. ..
  19. Devireddy L, Hart D, Goetz D, Green M. A mammalian siderophore synthesized by an enzyme with a bacterial homolog involved in enterobactin production. Cell. 2010;141:1006-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Siderophore-depleted mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos fail to synthesize heme, an iron-dependent mitochondrial process. Our results reveal features of intracellular iron homeostasis that are conserved from bacteria through humans. ..
  20. Ohlemacher S, Giblin D, d Avignon D, Stapleton A, Trautner B, Henderson J. Enterobacteria secrete an inhibitor of Pseudomonas virulence during clinical bacteriuria. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:4018-4030 pubmed publisher
    ..Future UTI-preventive probiotic strains may benefit by retaining the escherichelin biosynthetic capacity of the Yersinia HPI while eliminating the Ybt biosynthetic capacity. ..
  21. Liu Z, Lanford R, Mueller S, Gerhard G, Luscieti S, Sanchez M, et al. Siderophore-mediated iron trafficking in humans is regulated by iron. J Mol Med (Berl). 2012;90:1209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide a new and an unanticipated mechanism by which iron regulates its intracellular trafficking. ..
  22. Naka H, Liu M, Crosa J. Two ABC transporter systems participate in siderophore transport in the marine pathogen Vibrio anguillarum 775 (pJM1). FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013;341:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that fvtB, fvtC, fvtD, and fvtE are essential for ferric-vanchrobactin and ferric-enterobactin transport...
  23. Wells R, Jones C, Xi Z, Speer A, Danilchanka O, Doornbos K, et al. Discovery of a siderophore export system essential for virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003120 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study identified the first components of novel siderophore export systems which are essential for virulence of Mtb...
  24. Leal S, Roy S, Vareechon C, Carrion S, Clark H, López Berges M, et al. Targeting iron acquisition blocks infection with the fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003436 pubmed publisher
  25. Wyckoff E, Valle A, Smith S, Payne S. A multifunctional ATP-binding cassette transporter system from Vibrio cholerae transports vibriobactin and enterobactin. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:7588-96 pubmed
    ..These mutations reduced, but did not completely eliminate, vibriobactin utilization. This suggests that V. cholerae contains genes in addition to viuPDGC that function in the transport of catechol siderophores...
  26. Chakraborty R, Storey E, van der Helm D. Molecular mechanism of ferricsiderophore passage through the outer membrane receptor proteins of Escherichia coli. Biometals. 2007;20:263-74 pubmed
  27. Chen Q, Actis L, Tolmasky M, Crosa J. Chromosome-mediated 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid is a precursor in the biosynthesis of the plasmid-mediated siderophore anguibactin in Vibrio anguillarum. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:4226-34 pubmed
    ..Our bioassay and complementation experiments with this mutant demonstrate that the chromosome-mediated 2,3-DHBA is a precursor of the pJM1 plasmid-mediated siderophore anguibactin. ..
  28. Wyckoff E, Stoebner J, Reed K, Payne S. Cloning of a Vibrio cholerae vibriobactin gene cluster: identification of genes required for early steps in siderophore biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:7055-62 pubmed
    ..cholerae strain with a chromosomal mutation in vibA was constructed by marker exchange. This strain was unable to produce vibriobactin or DHBA, confirming that in V. cholerae VibA catalyzes an early step in vibriobactin biosynthesis...
  29. Rodriguez G, Voskuil M, Gold B, Schoolnik G, Smith I. ideR, An essential gene in mycobacterium tuberculosis: role of IdeR in iron-dependent gene expression, iron metabolism, and oxidative stress response. Infect Immun. 2002;70:3371-81 pubmed
  30. Kosman D. Molecular mechanisms of iron uptake in fungi. Mol Microbiol. 2003;47:1185-97 pubmed
    ..The integration of these multiple uptake mechanisms and their regulation into over-all iron homeostasis in yeast concludes this brief review. ..
  31. Roberts L, Pierson A, Panaviene Z, Walker E. Yellow stripe1. Expanded roles for the maize iron-phytosiderophore transporter. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:112-20 pubmed
    ..YS1 is capable of transporting copper-PS, but expression data suggest that the copper-PS uptake has limited significance in primary uptake of copper. ..
  32. Liu Z, Petersen R, DEVIREDDY L. Impaired neutrophil function in 24p3 null mice contributes to enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infections. J Immunol. 2013;190:4692-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the heightened sensitivity of 24p3(-/-) mice to these pathogens is not due to sequestration of siderophores limiting iron availability, but is a consequence of impaired neutrophil function...
  33. Welch T, Chai S, Crosa J. The overlapping angB and angG genes are encoded within the trans-acting factor region of the virulence plasmid in Vibrio anguillarum: essential role in siderophore biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6762-73 pubmed
    ..Our results also show that the regulatory functions of the TAF are encoded in a region, TAFr, which is distinct from and independent of the angB and angG genes. ..
  34. Correnti C, Strong R. Mammalian siderophores, siderophore-binding lipocalins, and the labile iron pool. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:13524-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Candidate endogenous siderophores include compounds that only effectively transport iron as ternary complexes with siderocalin, explaining pleiotropic activities in normal cellular processes and specific disease states. ..
  35. Purdy G, Payne S. The SHI-3 iron transport island of Shigella boydii 0-1392 carries the genes for aerobactin synthesis and transport. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4176-82 pubmed publisher
    ..An S. boydii aerobactin synthesis mutant, 0-1392 iucB, was constructed and was similar to the wild type in tissue culture assays of invasion and intercellular spread...
  36. Beaumont F, Kang H, Brickman T, Armstrong S. Identification and characterization of alcR, a gene encoding an AraC-like regulator of alcaligin siderophore biosynthesis and transport in Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:862-70 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that AlcR is involved in the regulation of Bordetella alcaligin biosynthesis and transport genes and is required for their full expression. ..
  37. Smith D, Kitner J, Norbeck A, Clauss T, Lipton M, Schwalbach M, et al. Transcriptional and translational regulatory responses to iron limitation in the globally distributed marine bacterium Candidatus pelagibacter ubique. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10487 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which the RNA-binding activity of CspE and CspL selectively enables protein synthesis of the iron acquisition protein SfuC during transient growth-limiting episodes of iron scarcity...
  38. Liu Z, Ciocea A, Devireddy L. Endogenous siderophore 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid deficiency promotes anemia and splenic iron overload in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:2533-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Although BDH2 has been proposed to oxidize ketone bodies, we found that BDH2 deficiency did not alter ketone body metabolism in vivo. In sum, our findings demonstrate a key role for BDH2 in erythropoiesis. ..
  39. Budde A, Leong S. Characterization of siderophores from Ustilago maydis. Mycopathologia. 1989;108:125-33 pubmed
    ..Repression of biosynthesis of extracellular siderophores occurred at 10(-5) M iron. Ferrichrome was found intracellularly at all iron concentrations employed; in general, ferrichrome A was not found to be cell-associated. ..
  40. Naikare H, Butcher J, Flint A, Xu J, Raymond K, Stintzi A. Campylobacter jejuni ferric-enterobactin receptor CfrA is TonB3 dependent and mediates iron acquisition from structurally different catechol siderophores. Metallomics. 2013;5:988-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results further highlight the importance of iron transport for efficient C. jejuni colonization...
  41. Fetherston J, Lillard J, Perry R. Analysis of the pesticin receptor from Yersinia pestis: role in iron-deficient growth and possible regulation by its siderophore. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:1824-33 pubmed
    ..HMWP2 likely participates in synthesis of a siderophore which may induce expression of the receptor for pesticin and the siderophore...
  42. Brickman T, Armstrong S. Bordetella pertussis fur gene restores iron repressibility of siderophore and protein expression to deregulated Bordetella bronchiseptica mutants. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:268-70 pubmed
    ..The fur gene of Bordetella pertussis was cloned by genetic complementation of this deregulated phenotype and confirmed as fur by nucleotide sequence analysis. ..
  43. Crosa L, Crosa J, Heffron F. Iron transport in Francisella in the absence of a recognizable TonB protein still requires energy generated by the proton motive force. Biometals. 2009;22:337-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggest that alternative pathways to internalize iron might exist in Francisella...
  44. Brickman T, Armstrong S. Essential role of the iron-regulated outer membrane receptor FauA in alcaligin siderophore-mediated iron uptake in Bordetella species. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5958-66 pubmed
    ..FauA is a 79-kDa iron-regulated outer membrane receptor protein required for transport and utilization of ferric alcaligin siderophore complexes by Bordetella species...
  45. Brickman T, Kang H, Armstrong S. Transcriptional activation of Bordetella alcaligin siderophore genes requires the AlcR regulator with alcaligin as inducer. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:483-9 pubmed publisher
  46. Wyckoff E, Payne S. The Vibrio cholerae VctPDGC system transports catechol siderophores and a siderophore-free iron ligand. Mol Microbiol. 2011;81:1446-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that VctPDGC is the previously unidentified siderophore-independent iron transporter in V. cholerae, and this appears to complete the list of iron transport systems in V. cholerae...
  47. Jones C, Niederweis M. Role of porins in iron uptake by Mycobacterium smegmatis. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:6411-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide, to our knowledge, the first experimental evidence that general porins are indeed the outer membrane conduit of low-affinity iron acquisition systems in bacteria...
  48. Holmes M, Paulsene W, Jide X, Ratledge C, Strong R. Siderocalin (Lcn 2) also binds carboxymycobactins, potentially defending against mycobacterial infections through iron sequestration. Structure. 2005;13:29-41 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis: carboxymycobactins. Siderocalin employs a degenerate recognition mechanism to cross react with these dissimilar types of siderophores, broadening the potential utility of this innate immune defense. ..
  49. Alice A, López C, Crosa J. Plasmid- and chromosome-encoded redundant and specific functions are involved in biosynthesis of the siderophore anguibactin in Vibrio anguillarum 775: a case of chance and necessity?. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:2209-14 pubmed
    ..We also identified in this cluster a chromosomal angA gene that is essential in anguibactin biosynthesis. ..
  50. Drake E, Cao J, Qu J, Shah M, Straubinger R, Gulick A. The 1.8 A crystal structure of PA2412, an MbtH-like protein from the pyoverdine cluster of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:20425-34 pubmed
    ..The PA2412 deletion strain is able to use exogenously produced pyoverdine, showing that there is no defect in the uptake or utilization of the iron-pyoverdine complex. ..
  51. Meneely K, Lamb A. Biochemical characterization of a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent monooxygenase, ornithine hydroxylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggests a novel reaction mechanism. Biochemistry. 2007;46:11930-7 pubmed
  52. Di Lorenzo M, Stork M, Naka H, Tolmasky M, Crosa J. Tandem heterocyclization domains in a nonribosomal peptide synthetase essential for siderophore biosynthesis in Vibrio anguillarum. Biometals. 2008;21:635-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of the angN gene follows the patterns observed at the iron transport-biosynthesis promoter with angN transcription repressed in the presence of iron and enhanced by AngR and trans-acting factor (TAF) under iron limitation. ..