Experts and Doctors on retinaldehyde in United States


Locale: United States
Topic: retinaldehyde

Top Publications

  1. Masutomi K, Chen C, Nakatani K, Koutalos Y. All-trans retinal mediates light-induced oxidation in single living rod photoreceptors. Photochem Photobiol. 2012;88:1356-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Its removal through reduction to all-trans retinol protects photoreceptor outer segments against light-induced oxidative damage. ..
  2. Lee S, Belyaeva O, Popov I, Kedishvili N. Overproduction of bioactive retinoic acid in cells expressing disease-associated mutants of retinol dehydrogenase 12. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:35621-8 pubmed
  3. Liang L, Yan R, Li X, Chimento M, Wang S. Reprogramming progeny cells of embryonic RPE to produce photoreceptors: development of advanced photoreceptor traits under the induction of neuroD. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:4145-53 pubmed publisher
  4. Brueggemann L, Sullivan J. HEK293S cells have functional retinoid processing machinery. J Gen Physiol. 2002;119:593-612 pubmed
    ..These physiological findings are evidence for the presence of intrinsic retinoid processing machinery in WT-HEK293S cells similar to what occurs in the mammalian eye. ..
  5. Ablonczy Z, Dahrouj M, Tang P, Liu Y, Sambamurti K, Marmorstein A, et al. Human retinal pigment epithelium cells as functional models for the RPE in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:8614-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a utility for both cell types in understanding distinct, particular aspects of RPE function. ..
  6. Krebs M, Holden D, Joshi P, Clark C, Lee A, Kaushal S. Molecular mechanisms of rhodopsin retinitis pigmentosa and the efficacy of pharmacological rescue. J Mol Biol. 2010;395:1063-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that pharmacological rescue is promising as a broadly effective therapy for rhodopsin RP, particularly if implemented in a way that minimizes the photoactivity of the mutant proteins. ..
  7. Janz J, Farrens D. Engineering a functional blue-wavelength-shifted rhodopsin mutant. Biochemistry. 2001;40:7219-27 pubmed
    ..Mutant T118A/E122D/A292S thus offers the possibility of a rhodopsin protein that can be worked with and studied using more ambient lighting conditions, and facilitates further study by fluorescence spectroscopy. ..
  8. Kono M, Crouch R, Oprian D. A dark and constitutively active mutant of the tiger salamander UV pigment. Biochemistry. 2005;44:799-804 pubmed
    ..Binding the chromophore appears to trap the pigment in two or more conformations. The triple mutant reported here represents the first example of a dark-active cone pigment and constitutively active cone opsin. ..
  9. Babu K, Dukkipati A, Birge R, Knox B. Regulation of phototransduction in short-wavelength cone visual pigments via the retinylidene Schiff base counterion. Biochemistry. 2001;40:13760-6 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that in short-wavelength sensitive cone visual pigments, the counterion is necessary for the characteristic rapid production and decay of the active MetaII state. ..

More Information


  1. Jastrzebska B, Orban T, Golczak M, Engel A, Palczewski K. Asymmetry of the rhodopsin dimer in complex with transducin. FASEB J. 2013;27:1572-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a clear functional distinction between monomers of family A GPCRs in their oligomeric form. ..
  2. Orban T, Jastrzebska B, Palczewski K. Structural approaches to understanding retinal proteins needed for vision. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2014;27:32-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacology combined with structural biology of membrane proteins holds great promise for developing innovative accessible therapies for millions robbed of their sight or progressing toward blindness. ..
  3. Maeda T, Golczak M, Maeda A. Retinal photodamage mediated by all-trans-retinal. Photochem Photobiol. 2012;88:1309-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We also review recent imaging technologies to monitor retinal health status as well as novel therapeutic strategies preventing all-trans-RAL-associated retinal photodamage. ..
  4. Geiser A, Sievert M, Guo L, Grant J, Krebs M, Fotiadis D, et al. Bacteriorhodopsin chimeras containing the third cytoplasmic loop of bovine rhodopsin activate transducin for GTP/GDP exchange. Protein Sci. 2006;15:1679-90 pubmed
    ..This Galphat-activating bR/Rh chimera is highly likely to be a useful tool for studying GPCR/G-protein interactions. ..
  5. Nannenga B, Baneyx F. Reprogramming chaperone pathways to improve membrane protein expression in Escherichia coli. Protein Sci. 2011;20:1411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of our results on the interplay of TF, SRP, YidC, and SecYEG in membrane protein biogenesis are discussed. ..
  6. Peck R, Johnson E, Krebs M. Identification of a lycopene beta-cyclase required for bacteriorhodopsin biogenesis in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:2889-97 pubmed
    ..Comparative sequence analysis yields a topological model of the protein and provides a plausible evolutionary connection between heterodimeric lycopene cyclases in bacteria and bifunctional lycopene cyclase-phytoene synthases in fungi...
  7. Sexton T, Golczak M, Palczewski K, Van Gelder R. Melanopsin is highly resistant to light and chemical bleaching in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:20888-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The data support a model in which retinal is continuously covalently bound to melanopsin and may function through a reversible, bistable mechanism. ..
  8. Rohrer B, Goletz P, Znoiko S, Ablonczy Z, Ma J, Redmond T, et al. Correlation of regenerable opsin with rod ERG signal in Rpe65-/- mice during development and aging. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:310-5 pubmed
    ..The remaining opsin is structurally intact, and the components of the phototransduction cascade and the retinal circuitry remain functional, despite the absence of normal photoreceptor activity. ..
  9. Maeda T, Cideciyan A, Maeda A, Golczak M, Aleman T, Jacobson S, et al. Loss of cone photoreceptors caused by chromophore depletion is partially prevented by the artificial chromophore pro-drug, 9-cis-retinyl acetate. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:2277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that chronic lack of chromophore leads to progressive loss of cones in mice and humans. Therapy for LCA patients should be geared toward early adequate delivery of chromophore to cone photoreceptors...
  10. Kunchithapautham K, Coughlin B, Crouch R, Rohrer B. Cone outer segment morphology and cone function in the Rpe65-/- Nrl-/- mouse retina are amenable to retinoid replacement. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4858-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we determine the consequences of 11-cis retinal withdrawal and supplementation on cone development in the all-cone Nrl(-/-) retina...
  11. Fan J, Rohrer B, Frederick J, Baehr W, Crouch R. Rpe65-/- and Lrat-/- mice: comparable models of leber congenital amaurosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:2384-9 pubmed publisher
  12. Golczak M, Maeda A, Bereta G, Maeda T, Kiser P, Hunzelmann S, et al. Metabolic basis of visual cycle inhibition by retinoid and nonretinoid compounds in the vertebrate retina. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9543-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide evidence for a crucial role of lecithin: retinol acyltransferase activity in mediating tissue specific absorption and long lasting therapeutic effects of retinoid-based visual cycle inhibitors. ..
  13. Kono M, Crouch R. Probing human red cone opsin activity with retinal analogues. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:391-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the red cone opsin has a more open structure in the chromophore binding region than rhodopsin and its activation or deactivation as a G-protein receptor may be less selective than rhodopsin...
  14. Billings S, Pierzchalski K, Butler Tjaden N, Pang X, Trainor P, KANE M, et al. The retinaldehyde reductase DHRS3 is essential for preventing the formation of excess retinoic acid during embryonic development. FASEB J. 2013;27:4877-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the reduction of retinaldehyde by DHRS3 is critical for preventing formation of excess ATRA during embryonic development...
  15. Sommer M, Smith W, Farrens D. Dynamics of arrestin-rhodopsin interactions: acidic phospholipids enable binding of arrestin to purified rhodopsin in detergent. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:9407-17 pubmed
    ..We anticipate that this new ability to study these proteins in a defined, purified system will facilitate further structural and dynamic studies of arrestin-rhodopsin interactions...
  16. Katz M, Redmond T. Effect of Rpe65 knockout on accumulation of lipofuscin fluorophores in the retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:3023-30 pubmed
    ..Even an excessive accumulation of retinyl fatty acid esters in the RPE of Rpe65 knockout mice did not contribute to lipofuscin accumulation. ..
  17. Harrison E. Mechanisms involved in the intestinal absorption of dietary vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1821:70-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphisms in genes for these proteins lead to individual variability in the metabolism and transport of vitamin A and carotenoids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism. ..
  18. Manathunga M, Yang X, Luk H, Gozem S, Frutos L, Valentini A, et al. Probing the Photodynamics of Rhodopsins with Reduced Retinal Chromophores. J Chem Theory Comput. 2016;12:839-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a further expansion of these studies may lead to low-cost QM/MM rhodopsin models that may be used as effective tools in high-throughput in silico mutant screening. ..
  19. Fan J, Rohrer B, Moiseyev G, Ma J, Crouch R. Isorhodopsin rather than rhodopsin mediates rod function in RPE65 knock-out mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13662-7 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that a pathway exists in the eye for the generation of 9-cis-retinal that is independent of RPE65 and light. ..
  20. Wu B, Chen Y, Chen Y, Fan J, Rohrer B, Crouch R, et al. Cloning and characterization of a novel all-trans retinol short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase from the RPE. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:3365-72 pubmed
    ..RDH10 is a novel retinol oxidase expressed in the RPE. This enzyme can generate all-trans retinal from all-trans retinol and may play an important role in the photic visual cycle. ..
  21. Jastrzebska B, Palczewski K, Golczak M. Role of bulk water in hydrolysis of the rhodopsin chromophore. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18930-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, small molecules (and presumably, water) enter the Rho structure from the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. Thus, this work indicates two distinct origins of water vital for Rho function...
  22. Kiser P, Golczak M, Maeda A, Palczewski K. Key enzymes of the retinoid (visual) cycle in vertebrate retina. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1821:137-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism. ..
  23. Maeda A, Maeda T, Golczak M, Palczewski K. Retinopathy in mice induced by disrupted all-trans-retinal clearance. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26684-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide direct evidence that aberrant production of toxic condensation byproducts of the visual cycle in mice can lead to rapid, progressive retinal degeneration...
  24. Chen Y, Okano K, Maeda T, Chauhan V, Golczak M, Maeda A, et al. Mechanism of all-trans-retinal toxicity with implications for stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:5059-69 pubmed publisher
    ..A similar mechanism may be operative in human Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration...
  25. Maeda A, Golczak M, Chen Y, Okano K, Kohno H, Shiose S, et al. Primary amines protect against retinal degeneration in mouse models of retinopathies. Nat Chem Biol. 2011;8:170-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Kohno H, Chen Y, Kevany B, Pearlman E, Miyagi M, Maeda T, et al. Photoreceptor proteins initiate microglial activation via Toll-like receptor 4 in retinal degeneration mediated by all-trans-retinal. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:15326-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway is likely to represent an underlying common pathology in degenerative retinal disorders. ..
  27. Palczewski K. Retinoids for treatment of retinal diseases. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2010;31:284-95 pubmed publisher
  28. Van Hooser J, Liang Y, Maeda T, Kuksa V, Jang G, He Y, et al. Recovery of visual functions in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19173-82 pubmed
  29. Alexander N, Katayama K, Sun W, Salom D, Gulati S, Zhang J, et al. Complex binding pathways determine the regeneration of mammalian green cone opsin with a locked retinal analogue. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:10983-10997 pubmed publisher
    ..These results and our structural modeling indicate that a more complex binding pathway determines the regeneration of mammalian green cone opsin with chromophore analogues such as 11-cis-6mr-retinal. ..
  30. Das J, Crouch R, Ma J, Oprian D, Kono M. Role of the 9-methyl group of retinal in cone visual pigments. Biochemistry. 2004;43:5532-8 pubmed
    ..However, for the red cone pigment, the 9-methyl group of retinal appears to be critical in the deactivation pathway...
  31. Peck R, Echavarri Erasun C, Johnson E, Ng W, Kennedy S, Hood L, et al. brp and blh are required for synthesis of the retinal cofactor of bacteriorhodopsin in Halobacterium salinarum. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5739-44 pubmed
    ..The level of beta-carotene increased approximately 5.3-fold. The simplest interpretation of these results is that brp and blh encode similar proteins that catalyze or regulate the conversion of beta-carotene to retinal. ..
  32. Znoiko S, Rohrer B, Lu K, Lohr H, Crouch R, Ma J. Downregulation of cone-specific gene expression and degeneration of cone photoreceptors in the Rpe65-/- mouse at early ages. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:1473-9 pubmed
    ..Early administration of 9- or 11-cis retinal can partially prevent cone loss, suggesting that the absence of 11-cis chromophore may be responsible for the early cone degeneration. ..
  33. Zhu L, Imanishi Y, Filipek S, Alekseev A, Jastrzebska B, Sun W, et al. Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa and E150K mutation in the opsin gene. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22289-98 pubmed
    ..This result is consistent with the recessive pattern of inheritance of this mutation. Thus, our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism for retinal degeneration that results from deficient export of opsin from the Golgi apparatus. ..
  34. Corson D, Kefalov V, Cornwall M, Crouch R. Effect of 11-cis 13-demethylretinal on phototransduction in bleach-adapted rod and cone photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol. 2000;116:283-97 pubmed
  35. Ray K, Robishaw J. Cloning and sequencing of a rat heart cDNA encoding a G-protein beta subunit related to the human retinal beta 3 subunit. Gene. 1994;149:337-40 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis revealed that the major mRNA corresponding to the rat pJ5 cDNA is 2.0 kb in length. It is expressed at a high level in the heart and at a much lower level in the brain. ..
  36. Wang X, Penzes P, Napoli J. Cloning of a cDNA encoding an aldehyde dehydrogenase and its expression in Escherichia coli. Recognition of retinal as substrate. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:16288-93 pubmed
    ..These data support a function for RalDH(II) in the pathway of retinoic acid biogenesis. ..
  37. Boyer N, Higbee D, Currin M, Blakeley L, Chen C, Ablonczy Z, et al. Lipofuscin and N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) accumulate in retinal pigment epithelium in absence of light exposure: their origin is 11-cis-retinal. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:22276-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The physiological role of Abca4 may include the translocation of 11-cis-retinal complexes across the disk membrane...
  38. Ablonczy Z, Crouch R, Goletz P, Redmond T, Knapp D, Ma J, et al. 11-cis-retinal reduces constitutive opsin phosphorylation and improves quantum catch in retinoid-deficient mouse rod photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40491-8 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that opsin, which has not been exposed to 11-cis-retinal, does not generate the activity generally associated with the bleached apoprotein. ..
  39. Haeseleer F, Jang G, Imanishi Y, Driessen C, Matsumura M, Nelson P, et al. Dual-substrate specificity short chain retinol dehydrogenases from the vertebrate retina. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45537-45546 pubmed publisher
    ..These newly identified enzymes add new elements to important retinoid metabolic pathways that have not been explained by previous genetic and biochemical studies. ..
  40. Hanneken A, Neikirk T, Johnson J, Kono M. Biochemical Measurements of Free Opsin in Macular Degeneration Eyes: Examining the 11-CIS Retinal Deficiency Hypothesis of Delayed Dark Adaptation (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2017;115:T1 pubmed
    ..Methods have been developed to study dark adaptation in human autopsy eyes. Eyes with age-related macular degeneration do not show a deficiency of 11-cis retinal or an excess of apo-opsin within rod outer segments. ..
  41. Imanishi Y, Sun W, Maeda T, Maeda A, Palczewski K. Retinyl ester homeostasis in the adipose differentiation-related protein-deficient retina. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25091-102 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that Adfp plays a unique role in vision by maintaining proper storage and trafficking of retinoids within the eye. ..
  42. Sommer M, Smith W, Farrens D. Dynamics of arrestin-rhodopsin interactions: arrestin and retinal release are directly linked events. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6861-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, arrestin may serve to both attenuate rhodopsin signaling and protect the cell from excessive retinal levels under bright light conditions. ..
  43. Palczewski K. Chemistry and biology of vision. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1612-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, other nonconventional retinal opsins such as the circadian rhythm regulator melanopsin also initiate light-activated signaling based on similar photochemistry...
  44. Chai X, Zhai Y, Napoli J. cDNA cloning and characterization of a cis-retinol/3alpha-hydroxysterol short-chain dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:33125-31 pubmed
    ..These data also illustrate the multifunctional nature of short-chain dehydrogenases and provide a potential mechanism for androgen-retinoid interactions. ..
  45. Sawada O, Perusek L, Kohno H, Howell S, Maeda A, Matsuyama S, et al. All-trans-retinal induces Bax activation via DNA damage to mediate retinal cell apoptosis. Exp Eye Res. 2014;123:27-36 pubmed publisher
    ..atRAL-induced oxidative stress results in DNA damage leading to the activation of Bax by phosphorylated p53. This cascade is closely associated with an apoptotic cell death mechanism rather than necrosis...
  46. Pan Y, MARTINEZ DE LUNA R, Lou C, Nekkalapudi S, Kelly L, Sater A, et al. Regulation of photoreceptor gene expression by the retinal homeobox (Rx) gene product. Dev Biol. 2010;339:494-506 pubmed publisher
    ..This establishes a direct role for Rx in regulation of genes expressed in a differentiated cell type...
  47. Shiose S, Chen Y, Okano K, Roy S, Kohno H, Tang J, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 is required for development of retinopathy caused by impaired all-trans-retinal clearance in mice. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:15543-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that endogenous products from degenerating retina stimulate TLR3 that causes cellular apoptosis and retinal inflammation and that loss of TLR3 protects mice from CORD...
  48. Vought B, Salcedo E, Chadwell L, Britt S, Birge R, Knox B. Characterization of the primary photointermediates of Drosophila rhodopsin. Biochemistry. 2000;39:14128-37 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the binding site of Drosophila rhodopsin is similar to that of bovine rhodopsin and is characterized by a protonated Schiff base chromophore stabilized via a single negatively charged counterion. ..
  49. Kowatz T, Babino D, Kiser P, Palczewski K, von Lintig J. Characterization of human ?,?-carotene-15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1) as a soluble monomeric enzyme. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013;539:214-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Establishment of a protocol that yields highly active homogenous BCMO1 is an important step towards clarifying the lipophilic substrate interaction, reaction mechanism and structure of this vitamin A forming enzyme. ..
  50. Kono M, Crouch R. In vitro assays of rod and cone opsin activity: retinoid analogs as agonists and inverse agonists. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;652:85-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The understanding of the effects of ligands on cone opsin activity can potentially be applied to future therapeutic agents targeting opsins...
  51. Maeda A, Maeda T, Golczak M, Chou S, Desai A, Hoppel C, et al. Involvement of all-trans-retinal in acute light-induced retinopathy of mice. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings further understanding of the mechanisms involved in light-induced retinal degeneration...
  52. Huntress M, Gozem S, Malley K, Jailaubekov A, Vasileiou C, Vengris M, et al. Toward an understanding of the retinal chromophore in rhodopsin mimics. J Phys Chem B. 2013;117:10053-70 pubmed publisher
    ..It also indicates directions for improving the QM/MM models so that they could be more effectively used to assist the bottom-up design of genetically encodable probes and actuators employing the retinal chromophore. ..
  53. Gao S, Maeda T, Okano K, Palczewski K. A microparticle/hydrogel combination drug-delivery system for sustained release of retinoids. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:6314-23 pubmed
  54. Chen M, Kuemmel C, Birge R, Knox B. Rapid release of retinal from a cone visual pigment following photoactivation. Biochemistry. 2012;51:4117-25 pubmed publisher
  55. Pang J, Chang B, Hawes N, Hurd R, Davisson M, Li J, et al. Retinal degeneration 12 (rd12): a new, spontaneously arising mouse model for human Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Mol Vis. 2005;11:152-62 pubmed
    ..A naturally arising mouse Rpe65 mutation provides a good model for studying the pathology of human RPE65 mutations and the effects of retinyl ester accumulation. ..
  56. Maeda A, Maeda T, Imanishi Y, Kuksa V, Alekseev A, Bronson J, et al. Role of photoreceptor-specific retinol dehydrogenase in the retinoid cycle in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18822-32 pubmed
    ..We conclude that prRDH is an enzyme that catalyzes reduction of all-trans-retinal in the rod outer segment, most noticeably at higher light intensities and prolonged illumination, but is not an essential enzyme of the retinoid cycle. ..
  57. Nawrot M, West K, Huang J, Possin D, Bretscher A, Crabb J, et al. Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein interacts with ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 in retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:393-401 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a structural basis for apical localization of a retinoid-processing complex in RPE cells and offer insight into the cell biology of retinoid processing and trafficking in RPE. ..
  58. Gonzalez Fernandez F. Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein--an old gene for new eyes. Vision Res. 2003;43:3021-36 pubmed
    ..The present review will summarize what is known about the structure and function of IRBP to anticipate future avenues of research. ..
  59. Batni S, Scalzetti L, Moody S, Knox B. Characterization of the Xenopus rhodopsin gene. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:3179-86 pubmed
    ..These results locate transcriptional control elements upstream of the Xenopus rhodopsin gene and show the feasibility of embryo transfections for promoter analysis of rod-specific genes. ..
  60. Maeda T, Dong Z, Jin H, Sawada O, Gao S, Utkhede D, et al. QLT091001, a 9-cis-retinal analog, is well-tolerated by retinas of mice with impaired visual cycles. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:455-66 pubmed publisher
  61. Bandyopadhyay M, Rohrer B. Photoreceptor structure and function is maintained in organotypic cultures of mouse retinas. Mol Vis. 2010;16:1178-85 pubmed
    ..Here, we further examined rod and cone development, chromophore production by the RPE, and photoreceptor signaling to the inner retina under organ culture conditions...
  62. Tang P, Fan J, Goletz P, Wheless L, Crouch R. Effective and sustained delivery of hydrophobic retinoids to photoreceptors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:5958-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments are the first to show a sustained delivery of retinoids in mice and suggest a strategy for potential clinical therapeutic development. ..
  63. Maeda A, Maeda T, Palczewski K. Improvement in rod and cone function in mouse model of Fundus albipunctatus after pharmacologic treatment with 9-cis-retinal. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:4540-6 pubmed
    ..Rod and cone visual function improved significantly in the mouse model of F. albipunctatus after treatment with 9-cis-retinal, suggesting a potential approach to slow the progression of cone dystrophy in affected humans. ..