Genomes and Genes
Experts and Doctors on poly a in United States
Locale: United States
Topic: poly a
- Wickens M, Goldstrohm A. Molecular biology. A place to die, a place to sleep. Science. 2003;300:753-5 pubmed
- Steinmetz E, Conrad N, Brow D, Corden J. RNA-binding protein Nrd1 directs poly(A)-independent 3'-end formation of RNA polymerase II transcripts. Nature. 2001;413:327-31 pubmed..The same proteins are required for maintaining normal levels of Nrd1 mRNA, indicating that these proteins may control elongation of a subset of mRNA transcripts. ..
- Browne D, Dodgson J. The gene encoding chicken chromosomal protein HMG-14a is transcribed into multiple mRNAs. Gene. 1993;124:199-206 pubmed..Expression studies confirm earlier results suggesting that the gene is expressed at low levels in most tissue types. ..
- Huang N, Cogburn L, Agarwal S, Marks H, Burnside J. Overexpression of a truncated growth hormone receptor in the sex-linked dwarf chicken: evidence for a splice mutation. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:1391-8 pubmed..A cDNA clone encoding this transcript has been isolated from a liver library prepared from a normal chicken.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
- Li D, Johnson L. A mouse thymidylate synthase pseudogene derived from an aberrantly processed RNA molecule. Gene. 1989;82:363-70 pubmed..S1-nuclease protection assays showed that about 10% of TS mRNA isolated from mouse cells was spliced at the alternative site. ..
- Li X, Wu Y, North R, Forte M. Cloning, functional expression, and developmental regulation of a neuropeptide Y receptor from Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:9-12 pubmed..The molecular characterization of this receptor should lead to a better understanding of the functional role of this important family of hormone receptors in adult organisms and during development. ..
- Murray E, Schoenberg D. Assays for determining poly(A) tail length and the polarity of mRNA decay in mammalian cells. Methods Enzymol. 2008;448:483-504 pubmed publisher..Finally, it requires only a short sequence for target recognition and quantitation. Therefore, it can be applied to determining the decay polarity of a mRNA by measuring the decay rates of different portions of that mRNA. ..
- Liu P, Gucwa A, Stover M, Buck E, Lichtler A, Rowe D. Analysis of inhibitory action of modified U1 snRNAs on target gene expression: discrimination of two RNA targets differing by a 1 bp mismatch. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:2329-39 pubmed..It may complement other anti-target strategies to reduce the cellular load of a mutant transcript. ..
- Song J, McGivern J, Nichols K, Markley J, Sheets M. Structural basis for RNA recognition by a type II poly(A)-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15317-22 pubmed publisher..These findings advance our understanding of RRM domain regulation, poly(A) recognition, and are relevant to understanding how type II PABPs function in mRNA processing and human disease. ..
- Cheng S, Gallie D. eIF4G, eIFiso4G, and eIF4B bind the poly(A)-binding protein through overlapping sites within the RNA recognition motif domains. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25247-58 pubmed..These results support the notion that eIF4G, eIFiso4G, and eIF4B interact with distinct molecules of PABP to increase the stability of the interaction between the termini of an mRNA. ..
- Peterson M, Bingham G, Cowan C. Multiple features contribute to the use of the immunoglobulin M secretion-specific poly(A) signal but are not required for developmental regulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:6762-71 pubmed..Expression of wild-type and modified mu genes in HeLa cells overexpressing U1A also failed to demonstrate that U1A contributes to mus poly(A) signal regulation. ..
- Bagga P, Arhin G, Wilusz J. DSEF-1 is a member of the hnRNP H family of RNA-binding proteins and stimulates pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:5343-50 pubmed..These observations suggest that DSEF-1 is an auxiliary factor that assists in the assembly of the general 3'-end processing factors onto the core elements of the polyadenylation signal. ..
- Mueller Hill K, Loeb D. Previously unsuspected cis-acting sequences for DNA replication revealed by characterization of a chimeric heron/duck hepatitis B virus. J Virol. 1996;70:8310-7 pubmed..Our findings suggest that a specific higher-order template structure is involved in the mechanism of hepadnavirus DNA replication...
- Gao M, Wilusz C, Peltz S, Wilusz J. A novel mRNA-decapping activity in HeLa cytoplasmic extracts is regulated by AU-rich elements. EMBO J. 2001;20:1134-43 pubmed..The stimulation of decapping by AREs requires sequence-specific ARE-binding proteins. These data suggest that cap recognition and decapping play key roles in mediating mRNA turnover in mammalian cells. ..
- Ash J, Ke Y, Korb M, Johnson L. Introns are essential for growth-regulated expression of the mouse thymidylate synthase gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:1565-71 pubmed..These sequences appear to be associated with sequences that are important for splicing and to function in cooperation with upstream regulatory elements to bring about normal S-phase-specific expression. ..
- Gu H, Schoenberg D. U2AF modulates poly(A) length control by the poly(A)-limiting element. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6264-71 pubmed..This reverted to a discrete, <20 nt poly(A) tail in cells expressing U2AF65. Our results suggest that U2AF modulates the function of the PLE, perhaps by facilitating the binding of another protein to the element. ..
- Kwak J, Wang L, Ballantyne S, Kimble J, Wickens M. Mammalian GLD-2 homologs are poly(A) polymerases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4407-12 pubmed..We use the same tethered assay to identify human and mouse poly(A) polymerases related to GLD-2. This may provide entrees to previously uncharacterized modes of polyadenylation in mammalian cells. ..
- Ray B, Ray A. Complementary DNA cloning and nucleotide sequence of rabbit serum amyloid A protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;178:68-72 pubmed
- Guastella J, Nelson N, Nelson H, Czyzyk L, Keynan S, Miedel M, et al. Cloning and expression of a rat brain GABA transporter. Science. 1990;249:1303-6 pubmed..Therefore, GAT-1 appears to be a member of a previously uncharacterized family of transport molecules. ..
- Natalizio B, Muniz L, Arhin G, Wilusz J, Lutz C. Upstream elements present in the 3'-untranslated region of collagen genes influence the processing efficiency of overlapping polyadenylation signals. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42733-40 pubmed..Taken together, these data demonstrate that USEs are important auxiliary polyadenylation elements in mammalian genes. ..
- Hook B, Goldstrohm A, Seay D, Wickens M. Two yeast PUF proteins negatively regulate a single mRNA. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:15430-8 pubmed..Combinatorial action of the two regulatory proteins may allow responses to specific environmental cues and be common in 3'-untranslated region-mediated control. ..
- Hicar M, Liu Y, Allen C, Wu L. Structure of the human zinc finger protein HIVEP3: molecular cloning, expression, exon-intron structure, and comparison with paralogous genes HIVEP1 and HIVEP2. Genomics. 2001;71:89-100 pubmed
- Gao M, Fritz D, Ford L, Wilusz J. Interaction between a poly(A)-specific ribonuclease and the 5' cap influences mRNA deadenylation rates in vitro. Mol Cell. 2000;5:479-88 pubmed..Third, the addition of cap binding protein eIF4E inhibits deadenylation in vitro. These data provide insights into the early steps of substrate recognition that target an mRNA for degradation. ..
- Olsen P, Ambros V. The lin-4 regulatory RNA controls developmental timing in Caenorhabditis elegans by blocking LIN-14 protein synthesis after the initiation of translation. Dev Biol. 1999;216:671-80 pubmed
- Chritton J, Wickens M. A role for the poly(A)-binding protein Pab1p in PUF protein-mediated repression. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33268-78 pubmed publisher..Finally, we demonstrate two separable mechanisms of translational repression employed by Puf5p: a Pab1p-dependent mechanism and a Pab1p-independent mechanism. ..
- Andrews S, Snowflack D, Clark I, Gavis E. Multiple mechanisms collaborate to repress nanos translation in the Drosophila ovary and embryo. RNA. 2011;17:967-77 pubmed publisher..We propose that the use of multiple modes of repression ensures inactivation of nos RNA that is translated at earlier stages of oogenesis and maintenance of this inactivate state throughout late oogenesis into embryogenesis. ..
- Ji Z, Luo W, Li W, Hoque M, Pan Z, Zhao Y, et al. Transcriptional activity regulates alternative cleavage and polyadenylation. Mol Syst Biol. 2011;7:534 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our results indicate that polyA site usage is generally coupled to transcriptional activity, leading to regulation of alternative polyadenylation by transcription. ..
- Gelfand R, Attardi G. Synthesis and turnover of mitochondrial ribonucleic acid in HeLa cells: the mature ribosomal and messenger ribonucleic acid species are metabolically unstable. Mol Cell Biol. 1981;1:497-511 pubmed..Furthermore, these results are consistent with a previously proposed model of H-strand transcription in the form of a single polycistronic molecule. ..
- Kang I, Wang J. Design of structure-based reverse transcriptase inhibitors. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:12024-31 pubmed..The effective inhibitor concentrations (EC50) were found to be 0.2-2.6 microgram/ml. No toxic effect on the host cells was found even at 100-1000-fold higher inhibitor concentrations...
- Smith W, Milam A, Dugger D, Arendt A, Hargrave P, Palczewski K. A splice variant of arrestin. Molecular cloning and localization in bovine retina. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:15407-10 pubmed..This specificity of localization to the outer segment is consistent with a role of p44 in the phototransduction cascade. ..
- Torisky R, Griffin J, Yenofsky R, Polacco J. A single gene (Eu4) encodes the tissue-ubiquitous urease of soybean. Mol Gen Genet. 1994;242:404-14 pubmed..In agreement with this notion, the mutant phenotype of eu4/eu4 callus was partially corrected by the LC4 urease gene introduced by particle bombardment...
- Zhang H, Martin DeLeon P. Mouse epididymal Spam1 (pH-20) is released in the luminal fluid with its lipid anchor. J Androl. 2003;24:51-8 pubmed
- Bullard D, Schimenti J. Molecular structure of Tcp-10 genes from the t complex responder locus. Mamm Genome. 1991;1:228-34 pubmed..However, no major sequence differences were found within the coding sequence to conclude that Tcp-10pst is a pseudogene. ..
- Mikulecky P, Kaw M, Brescia C, Takach J, Sledjeski D, Feig A. Escherichia coli Hfq has distinct interaction surfaces for DsrA, rpoS and poly(A) RNAs. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:1206-14 pubmed..Our model explains how Hfq can simultaneously bind a ncRNA and its mRNA target to facilitate the strand displacement reaction required for Hfq-dependent translational regulation. ..
- Viswanathan P, Ohn T, Chiang Y, Chen J, Denis C. Mouse CAF1 can function as a processive deadenylase/3'-5'-exonuclease in vitro but in yeast the deadenylase function of CAF1 is not required for mRNA poly(A) removal. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23988-95 pubmed..These results indicate that at least in yeast the CAF1 RNase activity is not required for its in vivo function. ..
- Kaufman E, Fryer A, Jacoby D. Toll-like receptor 7 agonists are potent and rapid bronchodilators in guinea pigs. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:462-9 pubmed publisher..Respiratory tract viral infections result in asthma exacerbations. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 is a receptor for viral single-stranded RNA and is expressed at high levels in the lungs...
- Tian B, Manley J. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation: the long and short of it. Trends Biochem Sci. 2013;38:312-20 pubmed publisher..As such, alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) is an important layer of gene regulation impacting mRNA metabolism. Here, we review our current understanding of APA and recent progress in this field. ..
- Chang P, Dignam J. Primary structure of alanyl-tRNA synthetase and the regulation of its mRNA levels in Bombyx mori. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:20898-906 pubmed..Genomic Southern blot analysis using a nick-translated cDNA probe revealed hybridization to single fragments when B. mori genomic DNA was digested with various restriction endonucleases. ..
- Wang L, Eckmann C, Kadyk L, Wickens M, Kimble J. A regulatory cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature. 2002;419:312-6 pubmed..We suggest that GLD-2 is the prototype for a class of regulatory cytoplasmic PAPs that are recruited to specific mRNAs by a binding partner, thereby targeting those mRNAs for polyadenylation and increased expression. ..
- Cheng S, Gallie D. Competitive and noncompetitive binding of eIF4B, eIF4A, and the poly(A) binding protein to wheat translation initiation factor eIFiso4G. Biochemistry. 2010;49:8251-65 pubmed publisher..These observations reveal an important function of the C-terminal eIF4A binding domain in maintaining the interaction of multiple partner proteins with eIFiso4G despite the substantial divergence in its size and domain organization. ..
- Cali J, Balcueva E, Rybalkin I, Robishaw J. Selective tissue distribution of G protein gamma subunits, including a new form of the gamma subunits identified by cDNA cloning. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:24023-7 pubmed..Thus, the gamma 5 and gamma 7 subunits are the first G protein gamma subunits known that could participate in the regulation of widely distributed signal transduction pathways. ..
- Mendrysa S, McElwee M, Perry M. Characterization of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions in murine mdm2 mRNAs. Gene. 2001;264:139-46 pubmed..The 3' UTRs do not affect either initiation codon use or translation efficiency. Thus, the murine 5' UTR, but not the 3'UTR, influences the ratio of the two MDM2 proteins but neither UTR affects MDM2 abundance significantly. ..
- Strathmann M, Wilkie T, Simon M. Alternative splicing produces transcripts encoding two forms of the alpha subunit of GTP-binding protein Go. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:6477-81 pubmed..GoA alpha transcripts are present in a variety of tissues but are most abundant in brain. The GoB alpha transcript is expressed at highest levels in brain and testis. It is possible that GoA alpha and GoB alpha have different functions. ..
- Reineke L, Merrick W. Characterization of the functional role of nucleotides within the URE2 IRES element and the requirements for eIF2A-mediated repression. RNA. 2009;15:2264-77 pubmed publisher..These data provide valuable insights into the mRNA requirements for internal initiation in yeast, and insights into the mechanism of eIF2A-mediated suppression. ..
- Callahan K, Butler J. TRAMP complex enhances RNA degradation by the nuclear exosome component Rrp6. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3540-7 pubmed publisher..These findings identify TRAMP as an exosome-independent enhancer of Rrp6 activity. ..
- Thomas P, Wu X, Liu M, Gaffney B, Ji G, Li Q, et al. Genome-wide control of polyadenylation site choice by CPSF30 in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:4376-88 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these studies provide new insights into the mechanisms and consequences of CPSF30-mediated alternative polyadenylation. ..
- Jia H, Wang X, Anderson J, Jankowsky E. RNA unwinding by the Trf4/Air2/Mtr4 polyadenylation (TRAMP) complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7292-7 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest a model for coordination between unwinding and polyadenylation activities by TRAMP that reveals remarkable synergy between helicase and poly(A) polymerase. ..
- Jha S, Rollins M, Fuchs G, Procter D, HALL E, Cozzolino K, et al. Trans-kingdom mimicry underlies ribosome customization by a poxvirus kinase. Nature. 2017;546:651-655 pubmed publisher..Our findings provide insight into ribosome customization through trans-kingdom mimicry and the mechanics of species-specific leader activity that underlie poxvirus polyA-leaders. ..
- Lee J, Ji Z, Tian B. Phylogenetic analysis of mRNA polyadenylation sites reveals a role of transposable elements in evolution of the 3'-end of genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:5581-90 pubmed publisher..Our results establish a conservation pattern for alternative poly(A) sites in several vertebrate species, and indicate that the 3'-end of genes can be dynamically modified by TEs through evolution. ..
- Tian B, Graber J. Signals for pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2012;3:385-96 pubmed publisher..Here we review histories and current models of these elements in a broad range of species. ..
- Xu X, Rose A, Muthuswamy S, Jeong S, Venkatakrishnan S, Zhao Q, et al. NUCLEAR PORE ANCHOR, the Arabidopsis homolog of Tpr/Mlp1/Mlp2/megator, is involved in mRNA export and SUMO homeostasis and affects diverse aspects of plant development. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1537-48 pubmed
- Zhu H, Zhou H, Hasman R, Lou H. Hu proteins regulate polyadenylation by blocking sites containing U-rich sequences. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:2203-10 pubmed..These studies identify a novel group of mammalian polyadenylation regulators. Furthermore, they define a previously unknown nuclear function of Hu proteins. ..
- Grandy D, Leduc R, Makam H, Flanagan T, Diliberto E, Civelli O, et al. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of bovine adrenal medulla chromogranin B (secretogranin I). Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1992;12:185-92 pubmed..4. The carboxyl terminus of bovine chromogranin B, including BAM-1745, was found to be the most conserved region of the polypeptide and may identify it as an important functional domain. ..
- Steinmetz E, Brow D. Ssu72 protein mediates both poly(A)-coupled and poly(A)-independent termination of RNA polymerase II transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6339-49 pubmed..These findings extend the parallels between the two termination pathways and suggest that they share a common mechanism to signal Pol II termination. ..
- Ford V, Stringer C, Kennel S. Thrombomodulin is preferentially expressed in Balb/c lung microvessels. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:5446-50 pubmed..It is suggested that expression of TM is highest in cells from continuous endothelium. ..
- Das S, Flanders K, Andrews G, Dey S. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms (beta 2 and beta 3) in the mouse uterus: analysis of the periimplantation period and effects of ovarian steroids. Endocrinology. 1992;130:3459-66 pubmed..In comparison, neither an injection of E2 nor one of P4 exerted significant effects on TGF beta 3 mRNA levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
- Ensor C, Yang J, Okita R, Tai H. Cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA for human placental NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:14888-91 pubmed..4 kilobases and the other of 2.0 kilobases. Isolation of the cDNA for 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase should facilitate studies on the structure, function, and regulation of this enzyme. ..
- Dinchuk J, Henderson N, Burn T, Huber R, Ho S, Link J, et al. Aspartyl beta -hydroxylase (Asph) and an evolutionarily conserved isoform of Asph missing the catalytic domain share exons with junctin. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:39543-54 pubmed..This unusual form of exon sharing suggests that the functions of junctin, BAH, and humbug may be linked. ..
- Filippov V, Filippova M, Gill S. Functional characterization of RNase H1 from Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;240:844-9 pubmed
- Anderson J, Paddy M, Swanson M. PUB1 is a major nuclear and cytoplasmic polyadenylated RNA-binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:6102-13 pubmed..These results suggest that PUB1 is both an hnRNP and an mRNP and that it may be stably bound to a translationally inactive subpopulation of mRNAs within the cytoplasm. ..
- Harendza C, Johnson L. Polyadenylylation signal of the mouse thymidylate synthase gene was created by insertion of an L1 repetitive element downstream of the open reading frame. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:2531-5 pubmed..Thus the polyadenylylation signal of the present mouse TS gene was created by the transposition of a repetitive element downstream of a cryptic polyadenylylation signal. ..
- Yang M, Allen H, Dicioccio R. A mutation generating a stop codon in the alpha-L-fucosidase gene of a fucosidosis patient. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;189:1063-8 pubmed..Analysis of cDNA and genomic DNA derived from lymphoid cells of mother JT revealed her to be heterozygous (G and T) at position 1141. The G1141-->T mutation is probably responsible for disease in JT...
- Glenney J. The sequence of human caveolin reveals identity with VIP21, a component of transport vesicles. FEBS Lett. 1992;314:45-8 pubmed..118, 1003-1014], a putative vesicle transport protein isolated from MDCK cells. Genomic Southern blots suggest that caveolin is present in a single copy, and Northern blots confirm that the caveolin mRNA is elevated in muscle. ..
- Post T, Liszewski M, Adams E, Tedja I, Miller E, Atkinson J. Membrane cofactor protein of the complement system: alternative splicing of serine/threonine/proline-rich exons and cytoplasmic tails produces multiple isoforms that correlate with protein phenotype. J Exp Med. 1991;174:93-102 pubmed..The expression in a single cell of four distinct protein species with variable STP-rich regions and cytoplasmic tails represents an interesting example of the use of alternative splicing to provide variability in a mammalian protein. ..
- Quan F, Forte M. Two forms of Drosophila melanogaster Gs alpha are produced by alternate splicing involving an unusual splice site. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:910-7 pubmed..Additional Gs alpha transcript heterogeneity reflects the use of multiple polyadenylation sites. ..
- Chen B, Liang G, Whelan J, Hai T. ATF3 and ATF3 delta Zip. Transcriptional repression versus activation by alternatively spliced isoforms. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:15819-26 pubmed..It is possible that ATF3 delta Zip is a physiologically important regulator and that it, together with ATF3, regulates the expression of specific target genes. ..
- Funderburgh J, Funderburgh M, Brown S, Vergnes J, Hassell J, Mann M, et al. Sequence and structural implications of a bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan core protein. Protein 37B represents bovine lumican and proteins 37A and 25 are unique. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:11874-80 pubmed..Sequences obtained from 37A and 25 core proteins were absent in bovine lumican, thus predicting a unique primary structure and separate mRNA for each of the three bovine KSPG core proteins. ..
- McConnell K, Beveridge D. Molecular dynamics simulations of B '-DNA: sequence effects on A-tract-induced bending and flexibility. J Mol Biol. 2001;314:23-40 pubmed..The MD results are found to be consistent with the directionality of bending inferred for DNA sequences from gel retardation and cyclization experiments. ..
- Das B, Butler J, Sherman F. Degradation of normal mRNA in the nucleus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5502-15 pubmed..We propose that certain normal mRNAs retained in the nucleus are degraded by the DRN system, similar to degradation of transcripts with 3' end formation defects in certain mutants. ..
- Hillier L, Reinke V, Green P, Hirst M, Marra M, Waterston R. Massively parallel sequencing of the polyadenylated transcriptome of C. elegans. Genome Res. 2009;19:657-66 pubmed publisher..Although most sequences align with protein-coding genes, a small fraction falls in introns and intergenic regions. One notable region on the X chromosome encodes a noncoding transcript of >10 kb localized to somatic nuclei. ..
- Deleault N, Geoghegan J, Nishina K, Kascsak R, Williamson R, Supattapone S. Protease-resistant prion protein amplification reconstituted with partially purified substrates and synthetic polyanions. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26873-9 pubmed..Thus, one possible set of minimal components for efficient conversion of PrP molecules in vitro may be surprisingly simple, consisting of PrP27-30, PrPC, and a stimulatory polyanionic compound. ..
- Glover Cutter K, Kim S, Espinosa J, Bentley D. RNA polymerase II pauses and associates with pre-mRNA processing factors at both ends of genes. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:71-8 pubmed..We propose a dual-pausing model wherein elongation arrests near the transcription start site and in the 3' flank to allow co-transcriptional processing by factors recruited to the pol II ternary complex. ..