Genomes and Genes
Experts and Doctors on oxidoreductases in Sweden
- Enwall K, Throbäck I, Stenberg M, Soderstrom M, Hallin S. Soil resources influence spatial patterns of denitrifying communities at scales compatible with land management. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:2243-50 pubmed publisher..Our findings constitute a first step in identifying niches for denitrifiers at scales relevant to land management. ..
- Sultana A, Alexeev I, Kursula I, Mäntsälä P, Niemi J, Schneider G. Structure determination by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction of aclacinomycin oxidoreductase: indications of multidomain pseudomerohedral twinning. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2007;63:149-59 pubmed..Both twin operators coincide with noncrystallographic symmetry axes that may promote twinning. ..
- Ibrahim V, Mamo G. Enzymatic monitoring of lignin and lignin derivatives biooxidation. J Microbiol Methods. 2016;120:53-5 pubmed publisher..The efficiency was comparable to the commonly used gas chromatography method. The assay was fast and inexpensive. ..
- Huang Y, Reimann J, Lepp H, Drici N, Adelroth P. Vectorial proton transfer coupled to reduction of O2 and NO by a heme-copper oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20257-62 pubmed publisher..This would occur by a reversal of the proton pathway normally used for release of pumped protons. The consequences of our results for the general pumping mechanism in all HCuOs are discussed. ..
- Throbäck I, Enwall K, Jarvis A, Hallin S. Reassessing PCR primers targeting nirS, nirK and nosZ genes for community surveys of denitrifying bacteria with DGGE. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2004;49:401-17 pubmed publisher..By use of the new nirS primers it was demonstrated that agricultural soil harbours a substantial diversity of nirS denitrifiers. ..
- Schedin S, Sindelar P, Pentchev P, Brunk U, Dallner G. Peroxisomal impairment in Niemann-Pick type C disease. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:6245-51 pubmed..It appears that the peroxisomal impairment is an early event in the process and could be a factor in the development of Niemann-Pick type C disease. ..
- Bäcklund A, Bohlin J, Gustavsson N, Nilsson T. Periplasmic c cytochromes and chlorate reduction in Ideonella dechloratans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:2439-45 pubmed publisher..Peptide sequences obtained indicate that the 6-kDa cytochrome c protein is similar to c cytochromes from the chlorate-reducing bacterium Dechloromonas aromatica. ..
- Björkelid C, Bergfors T, Unge T, Mowbray S, Jones T. Structural studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis DXR in complex with the antibiotic FR-900098. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2012;68:134-43 pubmed publisher..The substrate-binding site is highly conserved in a number of pathogens that use this pathway, so any new inhibitor that is designed for the M. tuberculosis enzyme is likely to exhibit broad-spectrum activity. ..
- Díez B, Bauer K, Bergman B. Epilithic cyanobacterial communities of a marine tropical beach rock (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef): diversity and diazotrophy. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:3656-68 pubmed..These data stress the occurrence and importance of nonheterocystous epilithic cyanobacteria, and it is hypothesized that such epilithic cyanobacteria are the principal nitrogen fixers of the Heron Island beach rock. ..
- Ricagno S, Grolle S, Bringer Meyer S, Sahm H, Lindqvist Y, Schneider G. Crystal structure of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase from Zymomonas mobilis at 1.9-A resolution. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1698:37-44 pubmed..However, there are differences in the recognition of the adenine ring of NADPH in the two enzymes. ..
- Hedlund J, Jornvall H, Persson B. Subdivision of the MDR superfamily of medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases through iterative hidden Markov model refinement. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010;11:534 pubmed publisher..The web site also makes our findings directly useful also for non-bioinformaticians. ..
- Pelmenschikov V, Blomberg M, Siegbahn P, Crabtree R. A mechanism from quantum chemical studies for methane formation in methanogenesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:4039-49 pubmed..Heterodisulfide CoB-S-S-CoM formation is proposed in the final step in which nickel is reduced back to Ni(I). The suggested mechanism agrees well with experimental observations. ..
- Potamitou A, Neubauer P, Holmgren A, Vlamis Gardikas A. Expression of Escherichia coli glutaredoxin 2 is mainly regulated by ppGpp and sigmaS. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17775-80 pubmed..Furthermore, Grx2 levels were elevated in an oxyR(-) strain. In accordance with the role of Grx2 as a stationary phase protein, null mutants for grxB were shown to lyse under starvation conditions and exhibited a distorted morphology. ..
- Henriksson L, Unge T, Carlsson J, Aqvist J, Mowbray S, Jones T. Structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase provide new insights into catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19905-16 pubmed..The conformation of fosmidomycin bound to the metal ion is different from that reported in a previously published structure and indicates that a rearrangement of the intermediate is not required during catalysis. ..
- Nobel C, Dunås F, Abrahmsen L. Purification of full-length recombinant human and rat type 1 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases with retained oxidoreductase activities. Protein Expr Purif. 2002;26:349-56 pubmed..Both enzymes were 90-95% pure and exhibited dehydrogenase and reductase activities with K(M) values in agreement with those reported in the literature. ..
- Karlsson F, Fåk F, Nookaew I, Tremaroli V, Fagerberg B, Petranovic D, et al. Symptomatic atherosclerosis is associated with an altered gut metagenome. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1245 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that the gut metagenome is associated with the inflammatory status of the host and patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis harbor characteristic changes in the gut metagenome. ..
- Lillig C, Berndt C, Vergnolle O, Lönn M, Hudemann C, Bill E, et al. Characterization of human glutaredoxin 2 as iron-sulfur protein: a possible role as redox sensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:8168-73 pubmed..We propose that the iron-sulfur cluster serves as a redox sensor for the activation of Grx2 during conditions of oxidative stress when free radicals are formed and the glutathione pool becomes oxidized. ..
- Lundberg M, Fernandes A, Kumar S, Holmgren A. Cellular and plasma levels of human glutaredoxin 1 and 2 detected by sensitive ELISA systems. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;319:801-9 pubmed..This effect was shown to occur at the transcriptional level. The secretion of Grx1 and its presence in plasma suggests extracellular functions as found for mammalian thioredoxin 1. ..
- Fernandes A, Fladvad M, Berndt C, Andrésen C, Lillig C, Neubauer P, et al. A novel monothiol glutaredoxin (Grx4) from Escherichia coli can serve as a substrate for thioredoxin reductase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24544-52 pubmed..Grx4 was highly elevated upon iron depletion, suggesting an iron-related function for the protein. ..
- Lillig C, Lönn M, Enoksson M, Fernandes A, Holmgren A. Short interfering RNA-mediated silencing of glutaredoxin 2 increases the sensitivity of HeLa cells toward doxorubicin and phenylarsine oxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13227-32 pubmed..These results indicate a crucial role of Grx2 in the regulation of the mitochondrial redox status and regulation of cell death at the mitochondrial checkpoint. ..
- Fernandes A, Holmgren A. Glutaredoxins: glutathione-dependent redox enzymes with functions far beyond a simple thioredoxin backup system. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2004;6:63-74 pubmed..Glutaredoxins also catalyze formation of mixed disulfides (glutathionylation), which is an important redox regulatory mechanism, particularly in mammalian cells under oxidative stress conditions, to sense cellular redox potential. ..
- Lysell J, Stjernholm Vladic Y, Ciarlo N, Holmgren A, Sahlin L. Immunohistochemical determination of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin distribution in the human cervix, and possible relation to cervical ripening. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2003;17:303-10 pubmed..g. transcription factors and enzymes. Secreted Trx may participate in removing inhibitors of collagen-degrading metalloproteinases. ..
- Thorell H, Stenklo K, Karlsson J, Nilsson T. A gene cluster for chlorate metabolism in Ideonella dechloratans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:5585-92 pubmed..The present work reveals that the genes encoding the enzymes catalyzing both these reactions are in close proximity...
- Nordling E, Jornvall H, Persson B. Medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (MDR). Family characterizations including genome comparisons and active site modeling. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:4267-76 pubmed..Finally, sequence patterns were derived that are diagnostic for the different families and can be used in genome annotations. ..
- Rodriguez Caballero A, Hallin S, Pahlson C, Odlare M, Dahlquist E. Ammonia oxidizing bacterial community composition and process performance in wastewater treatment plants under low temperature conditions. Water Sci Technol. 2012;65:197-204 pubmed publisher..This was likely a response to differences in NH(4)(+)-N and organic loading. ..
- Matsson M, Hederstedt L. The carboxin-binding site on Paracoccus denitrificans succinate:quinone reductase identified by mutations. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2001;33:99-105 pubmed..The block would be either by direct exclusion of ubiquinone from the active site or by occlusion of a pore that leads to the active site...
- Göthlin Eremo A, Wegman P, Stal O, Nordenskjold B, Fornander T, Wingren S. Wwox expression may predict benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen in randomized breast cancer patients. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:1467-74 pubmed publisher..31, 95% CI 0.10-0.98 and HR=0.28, 95% CI 0.08-0.97, respectively). Our results indicate that patients with high expression of Wwox may gain more benefit from treatment with tamoxifen. ..
- Aronsson H, Schöttler M, Kelly A, Sundqvist C, Dormann P, Karim S, et al. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol deficiency in Arabidopsis affects pigment composition in the prolamellar body and impairs thylakoid membrane energization and photoprotection in leaves. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:580-92 pubmed publisher..Thus, the pH-dependent activation of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and of the PsbS protein is impaired. ..
- Jordan A, Pontis E, Aslund F, Hellman U, Gibert I, Reichard P. The ribonucleotide reductase system of Lactococcus lactis. Characterization of an NrdEF enzyme and a new electron transport protein. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:8779-85 pubmed..The NrdEF enzymes use NrdH proteins as electron transporter in place of thioredoxin or glutaredoxin used by NrdAB enzymes. The two classes also differ in their allosteric regulation by dATP...
- Axelsson R, Oxelfelt F, Lindblad P. Transcriptional regulation of Nostoc uptake hydrogenase. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999;170:77-81 pubmed..muscorum. However, the level of hoxH transcripts did not change significantly during the induction of the H2-uptake activity. ..
- Friden H, Hederstedt L. Role of His residues in Bacillus subtilis cytochrome b558 for haem binding and assembly of succinate: quinone oxidoreductase (complex II). Mol Microbiol. 1990;4:1045-56 pubmed..His-70 and His-155 may be ligands to the same haem. ..
- Vlamis Gardikas A, Aslund F, Spyrou G, Bergman T, Holmgren A. Cloning, overexpression, and characterization of glutaredoxin 2, an atypical glutaredoxin from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:11236-43 pubmed..Grx2 being radically different from the presently known glutaredoxins in terms of molecular weight, amino acid sequence, catalytic activity, and lack of a consensus GSH-binding site is the first member of a novel class of glutaredoxins. ..
- Fladvad M, Bellanda M, Fernandes A, Mammi S, Vlamis Gardikas A, Holmgren A, et al. Molecular mapping of functionalities in the solution structure of reduced Grx4, a monothiol glutaredoxin from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24553-61 pubmed..Structural and functional implications are discussed with particular emphasis on identifying common monothiol glutaredoxin properties in substrate specificity and ligand binding events, linking the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. ..
- Aagaard A, Gilderson G, Gomes C, Teixeira M, Brzezinski P. Dynamics of the binuclear center of the quinol oxidase from Acidianus ambivalens. Biochemistry. 1999;38:10032-41 pubmed..ambivalens quinol oxidase and adaptation to different living conditions...
- Potamitou A, Holmgren A, Vlamis Gardikas A. Protein levels of Escherichia coli thioredoxins and glutaredoxins and their relation to null mutants, growth phase, and function. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18561-7 pubmed..The levels of Grx2 and Grx3 behaved exactly the opposite, suggesting that the transcription factor OxyR does not regulate their expression. ..
- Matsson M, Ackrell B, Cochran B, Hederstedt L. Carboxin resistance in Paracoccus denitrificans conferred by a mutation in the membrane-anchor domain of succinate:quinone reductase. Arch Microbiol. 1998;170:27-37 pubmed..It is likely that this loop is located in the neighborhood of the [3Fe-4S] cluster...
- Carlsson P, Van Laer L, Borg E, Bondeson M, Thys M, Fransen E, et al. The influence of genetic variation in oxidative stress genes on human noise susceptibility. Hear Res. 2005;202:87-96 pubmed..No significant differences were found between susceptible and resistant groups, providing no support for a major role of genetic variation of antioxidant enzymes in the susceptibility to NIHL. ..
- Wilcke M, Alexson S. Differential induction of peroxisomal populations in subcellular fractions of rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1544:358-69 pubmed..The various peroxisome populations that can be separated by subcellular fractionation may represent peroxisomes at different stages of biogenesis...
- Lachmann P, Huang Y, Reimann J, Flock U, Adelroth P. Substrate control of internal electron transfer in bacterial nitric-oxide reductase. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:25531-7 pubmed publisher..Thus, NO must bind to its inhibitory site before electrons redistribute to the active site. The further implications of our data for the mechanism of NO reduction by NOR are discussed. ..
- Qian H, Sahlman L, Eriksson P, Hambraeus C, Edlund U, Sethson I. NMR solution structure of the oxidized form of MerP, a mercuric ion binding protein involved in bacterial mercuric ion resistance. Biochemistry. 1998;37:9316-22 pubmed..Structural differences between the oxidized and reduced forms may help explain why the reduced form is stable in the periplasm, which is considered to be an oxidizing environment. ..
- Johansson C, Lillig C, Holmgren A. Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin reduces S-glutathionylated proteins with high affinity accepting electrons from either glutathione or thioredoxin reductase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7537-43 pubmed..These results suggest an important role for Grx2 in protection and recovery from oxidative stress. ..
- Jordan A, Aslund F, Pontis E, Reichard P, Holmgren A. Characterization of Escherichia coli NrdH. A glutaredoxin-like protein with a thioredoxin-like activity profile. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:18044-50 pubmed..We also show that NrdI, encoded by all nrdEF operons, has a stimulatory effect on ribonucleotide reduction. ..
- Hamberg M. Isolation and structures of two divinyl ether fatty acids from Clematis vitalba. Lipids. 2004;39:565-9 pubmed..vitalba of a new divinyl ether synthase acting on 9-lipoxygenase-generated hydroperoxides. A close structural relationship between this enzyme and the well-studied divinyl ether synthase in the potato and tomato seems likely...
- Sagemark J, Elgán T, Burglin T, Johansson C, Holmgren A, Berndt K. Redox properties and evolution of human glutaredoxins. Proteins. 2007;68:879-92 pubmed..The highly stabilizing nonactive site disulfide observed in hGrx2 is found to be a conserved feature within the deuterostomes and appears to be the only additional conserved intramolecular disulfide within the glutaredoxins. ..
- Lee H, Adelroth P. The heme-copper oxidase superfamily shares a Zn2+-binding motif at the entrance to a proton pathway. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:770-4 pubmed publisher..Despite this, we show here that heavy metal ions such as Zn(2+) inhibit O2-reduction very similarly in C-type as in A-type HCuOs, and furthermore that the binding site shares the same Glu-His motif...
- Lundberg M, Johansson C, Chandra J, Enoksson M, Jacobsson G, Ljung J, et al. Cloning and expression of a novel human glutaredoxin (Grx2) with mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26269-75 pubmed..We further showed that one of the mRNA isoforms corresponding to Grx2a encoded a functional N-terminal mitochondrial translocation signal. ..
- Holmgren A, Johansson C, Berndt C, Lönn M, Hudemann C, Lillig C. Thiol redox control via thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33:1375-7 pubmed..Here, we give a brief overview of the human Trx and Grx systems. The main part focuses on our current knowledge about mitochondrial Grx2, which facilitates mitochondrial redox homoeostasis during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. ..
- Bennett M, Guan Z, Laurberg M, Su X. Bacillus subtilis arsenate reductase is structurally and functionally similar to low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:13577-82 pubmed..A "triple cysteine redox relay" is proposed for the arsenate reduction mechanism. ..
- Henriksson L, Björkelid C, Mowbray S, Unge T. The 1.9 A resolution structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, a potential drug target. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2006;62:807-13 pubmed..Furthermore, the new structure represents an intermediate conformation between the open apo form and the closed holo form observed previously, giving insights into the conformational changes associated with catalysis. ..
- Dopson M, Lindström E, Hallberg K. ATP generation during reduced inorganic sulfur compound oxidation by Acidithiobacillus caldus is exclusively due to electron transport phosphorylation. Extremophiles. 2002;6:123-9 pubmed..The data presented here suggest that during the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds by At. caldus, all ATP is synthesized by oxidative phosphorylation via a membrane-bound F0F1 ATPase driven by a proton gradient...
- Hammarberg T, Hamberg M, Wetterholm A, Hansson H, Samuelsson B, Haeggstrom J. Mutation of a critical arginine in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 shifts the isomerase activity to a reductase activity that converts prostaglandin H2 into prostaglandin F2alpha. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:301-5 pubmed publisher..Our data show that Arg-126 is a catalytic residue in mPGES-1 and suggest that MAPEG enzymes share significant structural components of their active sites. ..
- Reimann J, Flock U, Lepp H, Honigmann A, Adelroth P. A pathway for protons in nitric oxide reductase from Paracoccus denitrificans. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1767:362-73 pubmed..denitrificans in order to search for such a pathway. A plausible pathway, consisting of conserved protonatable residues, is suggested. ..
- Flock U, Lachmann P, Reimann J, Watmough N, Adelroth P. Exploring the terminal region of the proton pathway in the bacterial nitric oxide reductase. J Inorg Biochem. 2009;103:845-50 pubmed publisher..We propose that the E198 and E267 are involved in terminating the proton pathway in the region close to the active site in NOR. ..
- Holmqvist M, Stensjö K, Oliveira P, Lindberg P, Lindblad P. Characterization of the hupSL promoter activity in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:54 pubmed publisher..To further investigate the hupSL promoter, truncated versions of the hupSL promoter were fused to either gfp or luxAB, encoding the reporter proteins Green Fluorescent Protein and Luciferase, respectively...
- Aslund F, Nordstrand K, Berndt K, Nikkola M, Bergman T, Ponstingl H, et al. Glutaredoxin-3 from Escherichia coli. Amino acid sequence, 1H AND 15N NMR assignments, and structural analysis. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:6736-45 pubmed..Thus, despite an identical active site disulfide motif and a similar secondary structure and tertiary fold, Grx3 and Grx1 display large functional differences in in vitro protein disulfide oxido-reduction reactions. ..
- Törnroth S, Yankovskaya V, Cecchini G, Iwata S. Purification, crystallisation and preliminary crystallographic studies of succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1553:171-6 pubmed..coli QFR (fumarate reductase) as a search model. The packing suggests that E. coli SQR is a crystallographic trimer rather than a dimer as observed for the E. coli QFR. ..
- Lundberg M, Holmgren A, Johansson M. Human glutaredoxin 2 affinity tag for recombinant peptide and protein purification. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;45:37-42 pubmed..However, the failure of purifying either green fluorescent protein or beta-galactosidase fused to Grx2 suggests that the use of Grx2 as an affinity tag for recombinant protein purification is limited. ..
- Hagerhall C, Hederstedt L. A structural model for the membrane-integral domain of succinate: quinone oxidoreductases. FEBS Lett. 1996;389:25-31 pubmed..The structure can be applied to a larger group of membrane-integral cytochromes of b-type and has evolutionary and functional implications. ..
- Enoksson M, Fernandes A, Prast S, Lillig C, Holmgren A, Orrenius S. Overexpression of glutaredoxin 2 attenuates apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;327:774-9 pubmed..We propose that Grx2 facilitates the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis upon treatment with apoptotic agents, thereby preventing cardiolipin oxidation and cytochrome c release. ..
- Flock U, Thorndycroft F, Matorin A, Richardson D, Watmough N, Adelroth P. Defining the proton entry point in the bacterial respiratory nitric-oxide reductase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3839-45 pubmed
- Flock U, Watmough N, Adelroth P. Electron/proton coupling in bacterial nitric oxide reductase during reduction of oxygen. Biochemistry. 2005;44:10711-9 pubmed..6. This group is presumably an amino acid residue that is crucial for proton transfer to the catalytic site also during NO reduction. ..
- Andersson M, Nordlund P. A revised model of the active site of alternative oxidase. FEBS Lett. 1999;449:17-22 pubmed
- Andaloussi M, Lindh M, Björkelid C, Suresh S, Wieckowska A, Iyer H, et al. Substitution of the phosphonic acid and hydroxamic acid functionalities of the DXR inhibitor FR900098: an attempt to improve the activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:5403-7 pubmed publisher..The best inhibitors provided IC(50) values in the micromolar range, with a best value of 41 ?M. ..
- Kondo K, Kai M, Setoguchi Y, Eggertsen G, Sjoblom P, Setoguchi T, et al. Cloning and expression of cDNA of human delta 4-3-oxosteroid 5 beta-reductase and substrate specificity of the expressed enzyme. Eur J Biochem. 1994;219:357-63 pubmed..The substrate specificity of the human enzyme is considerably narrower than that of the rat enzyme, and the enzyme seems to be more important for bile acid biosynthesis than for metabolism of steroid hormones. ..