Experts and Doctors on lethal dose 50 in United States


Locale: United States
Topic: lethal dose 50

Top Publications

  1. DeLorenzo M, Keller J, Arthur C, Finnegan M, Harper H, Winder V, et al. Toxicity of the antimicrobial compound triclosan and formation of the metabolite methyl-triclosan in estuarine systems. Environ Toxicol. 2008;23:224-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest triclosan poses low acute toxicity risk to estuarine organisms; however, the potential for chronic, sublethal, and metabolite effects should be investigated. ..
  2. Nasongkla N, Wiedmann A, Bruening A, Beman M, Ray D, Bornmann W, et al. Enhancement of solubility and bioavailability of beta-lapachone using cyclodextrin inclusion complexes. Pharm Res. 2003;20:1626-33 pubmed
    ..Animal studies in mice showed that the LD50 value of beta-lap in an HPbeta-CD inclusion complex is between 50 and 60 mg/kg. Complexation of beta-lap with HPbeta-CD offers a major improvement in drug solubility and bioavailability. ..
  3. Barash J, Arnon S. Dual toxin-producing strain of Clostridium botulinum type Bf isolated from a California patient with infant botulism. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1713-5 pubmed
    ..This unique strain represented 0.12% of the California infant botulism case isolates from 1976 to 2003. The relative concentrations of type B and F toxins produced were temperature dependent. ..
  4. Wei Y, Appel A, Moar W, Liu N. Pyrethroid resistance and cross-resistance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L). Pest Manag Sci. 2001;57:1055-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that fipronil could be a valuable tool in integrated resistance management of German cockroaches. ..
  5. Scotcher M, Cheng L, Stanker L. Detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B at sub mouse LD(50) levels by a sandwich immunoassay and its application to toxin detection in milk. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11047 pubmed publisher
    ..This immunoassay has a detection limit of 100 fg BoNT/B, fifty times more sensitive than the mouse bioassay detection limit of 5 pg BoNT/B. Additionally, this assay detected as little as 39 pg/mL of toxin in skim, 2% and whole milk. ..
  6. Gelhaus H, Anderson M, Fisher D, Flavin M, Xu Z, Sanford D. Efficacy of post exposure administration of doxycycline in a murine model of inhalational melioidosis. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1146 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude the BALB/c mouse is a useful model of melioidosis. Furthermore, the data generated in this mouse model indicate that doxycycline is likely to be effective in post-exposure prophylaxis of melioidosis. ..
  7. Kustusch R, Kuehl C, Crosa J. The ttpC gene is contained in two of three TonB systems in the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, but only one is active in iron transport and virulence. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:3250-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, in the absence of TonB1, TtpC2 is essential for a fully virulent phenotype as demonstrated using 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) experiments in mice. ..
  8. Morgan J, Potter W, Oseroff A. Comparison of photodynamic targets in a carcinoma cell line and its mitochondrial DNA-deficient derivative. Photochem Photobiol. 2000;71:747-57 pubmed
  9. Isayev O, Rasulev B, Gorb L, Leszczynski J. Structure-toxicity relationships of nitroaromatic compounds. Mol Divers. 2006;10:233-45 pubmed
    ..The toxicity LD50 parameter for rats has been utilized for the first time for QSAR analysis of nitrobenzenes. The predictive ability of the models is determined by a cross-validation "leave-one-out" method. ..

More Information


  1. Tepp W, Lin G, Johnson E. Purification and characterization of a novel subtype a3 botulinum neurotoxin. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:3108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that BoNT/A3 has novel biochemical and pharmacological properties compared to those of other subtype A toxins. ..
  2. Munro N. Toxicity of the organophosphate chemical warfare agents GA, GB, and VX: implications for public protection. Environ Health Perspect. 1994;102:18-38 pubmed
    ..Control limits for exposure via surface contact of drinking water are needed, as are detection methods for low levels in water or foodstuffs. ..
  3. Colman J, Ramsdell J. The type B brevetoxin (PbTx-3) adversely affects development, cardiovascular function, and survival in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111:1920-5 pubmed
    ..Consequently, we observed differing cardiovascular responses in the embryos, wherein embryos exposed to PbTx-3 exhibited persistent tachycardia, whereas embryos exposed to PbTx-1 displayed bradycardia, the onset of which was delayed. ..
  4. Dorsey W, Tchounwou P. CYP1a1, HSP70, P53, and c-fos expression in human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) exposed to pentachlorophenol. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2003;39:389-96 pubmed
    ..At lower level of exposure, PCP was found to be mitogenic. ..
  5. Long A, Colitz C, Bomser J. Apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms of stress-induced human lens epithelial cell death. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004;229:1072-80 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest UVB predominantly induces apoptosis in HLE cells, whereas H(2)O(2) and TBHP induce necrosis. ..
  6. Park J, Liu Y, Klaassen C. Protective effect of metallothionein against the toxicity of cadmium and other metals(1). Toxicology. 2001;163:93-100 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that MT is an important protein in the cellular defense against Cd toxicity and lethality, but it provides much less protection against the lethality of the other metals. ..
  7. Warren R, Lockman H, Barnewall R, Krile R, Blanco O, Vasconcelos D, et al. Cynomolgus macaque model for pneumonic plague. Microb Pathog. 2011;50:12-22 pubmed publisher
    ..pestis CO92 is similar to that of pneumonic plague in humans. Thus, the CM is an appropriate model to evaluate efficacy of a recombinant F1V vaccine candidate. ..
  8. Hu K, Yao X. The cytotoxicity of methyl protoneogracillin (NSC-698793) and gracillin (NSC-698787), two steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Dioscorea collettii var. hypoglauca, against human cancer cells in vitro. Phytother Res. 2003;17:620-6 pubmed
    ..Put all in together, methyl protoneogracillin has been selected as a potential anticancer candidate for hollow fi ber assay to nude mice, but gracillin will not be pursued due to lack of selectivity against human cancer diseases. ..
  9. Key P, Chung K, Siewicki T, Fulton M. Toxicity of three pesticides individually and in mixture to larval grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2007;68:272-7 pubmed
    ..Similarly, a fipronil/imidacloprid mixture did not show greater than additive toxicity. However, when atrazine was added to the fipronil/imidacloprid mix, greater than additive toxicity occurred. ..
  10. Finch B, Stubblefield W. Photo-enhanced toxicity of fluoranthene to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms at different larval ages and ultraviolet light intensities. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2016;35:1113-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from these experiments suggest that toxicity is dependent on age, pigmentation, UV light intensity, and fluoranthene concentration. ..
  11. Pitzer J, Kaufman P, Tenbroeck S. Assessing permethrin resistance in the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in Florida by using laboratory selections and field evaluations. J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:2258-63 pubmed
    ..Although an established stable fly colony collected from a local dairy previously expressed low level resistance to permethrin residues, five generations of laboratory permethrin selection increased resistance 15-fold...
  12. Broussard G, Ennis D. Mycobacterium marinum produces long-term chronic infections in medaka: a new animal model for studying human tuberculosis. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;145:45-54 pubmed
    ..We determined the course of infections in zebrafish is significantly more severe than in medaka. Together, these results indicate that the medaka-M. marinum model provides unique advantages for studying chronic mycobacteriosis...
  13. Overmyer J, Noblet R. Influences of a laboratory diet and natural seston on the bioavailability of carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and malathion to black fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) in an acute toxicity test. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003;45:209-15 pubmed
    ..3 microm; 1.1%). These results suggest that the concentration, as well as the physical and chemical component of the food source, are important factors in determining the effects of food on insecticide bioavailability in aquatic systems...
  14. Key P, Hoguet J, Reed L, Chung K, Fulton M. Effects of the statin antihyperlipidemic agent simvastatin on grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Environ Toxicol. 2008;23:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Both lethal and sublethal effects associated with simvastatin exposure were only observed at concentrations well above those reported in the environment...
  15. Woody M, DasGupta B. Effect of tetranitromethane on the biological activities of botulinum neurotoxin types A, B and E. Mol Cell Biochem. 1989;85:159-69 pubmed
    ..The toxoids produced with tetranitromethane may be considered second-generation toxoids, compared with the first-generation toxoids (crude preparation of neurotoxins detoxified with formaldehyde). ..
  16. Moyer T, Hunnicutt D. Susceptibility of zebra fish Danio rerio to infection by Flavobacterium columnare and F. johnsoniae. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;76:39-44 pubmed
    ..2 x 10(6) cfu injected and 1.1 x 10(6) cfu ml(-1) in bath experiments, including skin damage. The LD50 of F. columnare in zebra fish without skin damage was > 1 x 10(8), indicating an important effect of skin damage...
  17. Valles S, Woodson W. Group effects on insecticide toxicity in workers of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Pest Manag Sci. 2002;58:769-74 pubmed
    ..Possible mechanisms of insecticide transfer from insecticide-treated to untreated termites are discussed. ..
  18. Liu L, Qi X, Chen Z, Shaw L, Cai J, Smith L, et al. Targeting the IRE1?/XBP1 and ATF6 arms of the unfolded protein response enhances VEGF blockade to prevent retinal and choroidal neovascularization. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:1412-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, activation of the UPR sustains angiogenesis by preventing degradation of intracellular VEGF. The IRE1?/ATF6 arms of the UPR offer a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of pathological angiogenesis...
  19. Key P, Chung K, Hoguet J, Sapozhnikova Y, Fulton M. Effects of the anti-fouling herbicide Irgarol 1051 on two life stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. J Environ Sci Health B. 2008;43:50-5 pubmed
    ..Both lethal and sublethal effects associated with irgarol exposure were only observed at concentrations well above those reported in the environment...
  20. Lauer P, Hanson B, Lemmens E, Liu W, Luckett W, Leong M, et al. Constitutive Activation of the PrfA regulon enhances the potency of vaccines based on live-attenuated and killed but metabolically active Listeria monocytogenes strains. Infect Immun. 2008;76:3742-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results form the basis of a rationale for including the prfA(G155S) allele in future live-attenuated or KBMA L. monocytogenes vaccines advanced to the clinical setting. ..
  21. Baird T, DeLorenzo M. Descriptive and mechanistic toxicity of conazole fungicides using the model test alga Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae). Environ Toxicol. 2010;25:213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that green algae may be especially susceptible to nontarget effects of sterol-inhibiting fungicides in marine systems...
  22. Gibbs H, Mackessy S. Functional basis of a molecular adaptation: prey-specific toxic effects of venom from Sistrurus rattlesnakes. Toxicon. 2009;53:672-9 pubmed publisher
    ..They also emphasize the need to consider ecological and evolutionary factors other than diet alone as causes of variation in venom toxicity. ..
  23. McArdle J, Lentz T, Witzemann V, Schwarz H, Weinstein S, Schmidt J. Waglerin-1 selectively blocks the epsilon form of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;289:543-50 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that Waglerin-1 selectively blocks the mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor containing the epsilon-subunit. ..
  24. Kim J, Hatta M, Watanabe S, Neumann G, Watanabe T, Kawaoka Y. Role of host-specific amino acids in the pathogenicity of avian H5N1 influenza viruses in mice. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1284-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that some of these mutants exhibited enhanced pathogenicity in mice, suggesting the involvement of these host lineage-specific amino acids in the pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in mammals. ..
  25. Chen D, Hackbarth C, Ni Z, Wu C, Wang W, Jain R, et al. Peptide deformylase inhibitors as antibacterial agents: identification of VRC3375, a proline-3-alkylsuccinyl hydroxamate derivative, by using an integrated combinatorial and medicinal chemistry approach. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:250-61 pubmed
    ..v., p.o., or s.c. administration. The in vivo efficacy and low toxicity of VRC3375 suggest the potential for developing this class of compounds to be used in future antibacterial drugs. ..
  26. Prabhaker N, Castle S, Naranjo S, Toscano N, Morse J. Compatibility of two systemic neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, with various natural enemies of agricultural pests. J Econ Entomol. 2011;104:773-81 pubmed
    ..Our laboratory results contradict suggestions of little impact of these systemic neonicotinoids on parasitoids or predators but field studies will be needed to better quantify the levels of such impacts under natural conditions. ..
  27. Alzate O, Osorio C, Florez A, Dean D. Participation of valine 171 in alpha-Helix 5 of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin in translocation of toxin into Lymantria dispar midgut membranes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:7878-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an insect-specific mechanism; similar results were not observed in Manduca sexta, another Cry1Ab ?-endotoxin-susceptible insect. ..
  28. Ryan J, Cross C, Van Dolah F. Effects of COX inhibitors on neurodegeneration and survival in mice exposed to the marine neurotoxin domoic acid. Neurosci Lett. 2011;487:83-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that COX2 plays a role in DA induced neurodegeneration and death, and that inhibitors may be of value for treatment in human and wildlife DA exposure. ..
  29. Bargar T. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31:885-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed. ..
  30. Zobel Thropp P, Kerins A, Binford G. Sphingomyelinase D in sicariid spider venom is a potent insecticidal toxin. Toxicon. 2012;60:265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, SMase D and crude venom have comparable and high potency in immobilization assays on crickets. These data indicate that SMase D is a potent insecticidal toxin, the role for which it presumably evolved. ..
  31. Xu Y, Spurlock F, Wang Z, Gant J. Comparison of five methods for measuring sediment toxicity of hydrophobic contaminants. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:8394-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate thatthe use of C(free) reduces uncertainties caused by sediment variables such as OC properties and aging effects...
  32. Myers T, Langston J. Diet composition exacerbates or attenuates soman toxicity in rats: implied metabolic control of nerve agent toxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2011;32:342-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This increased glucose availability may enhance acetylcholine synthesis and/or utilization, thereby exacerbating peripheral and central soman toxicity. ..
  33. Forman S, Wulff C, Myers Morales T, Cowan C, Perry R, Straley S. yadBC of Yersinia pestis, a new virulence determinant for bubonic plague. Infect Immun. 2008;76:578-87 pubmed publisher
    ..pestis adherence, invasion, and virulence. We found that loss of yadBC caused a modest loss of invasiveness for epithelioid cells and a large decrease in virulence for bubonic plague but not for pneumonic plague in mice...
  34. Borisevich V, Seregin A, Nistler R, Mutabazi D, Yamshchikov V. Biological properties of chimeric West Nile viruses. Virology. 2006;349:371-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Chimeric viruses carrying the NY99 structural proteins were attenuated in neuroinvasiveness and demonstrated an immunogenicity superior to W956...
  35. Romero A, Potter M, Potter D, Haynes K. Insecticide resistance in the bed bug: a factor in the pest's sudden resurgence?. J Med Entomol. 2007;44:175-8 pubmed
    ..Without the development of new tactics for bed bug management, further escalation of this public health problem should be expected...
  36. Cai Z, Mehendale H. Lethal effects of CCl4 and its metabolism by Mongolian gerbils pretreated with chlordecone, phenobarbital, or mirex. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990;104:511-20 pubmed
    ..The reason gerbils may be refractory to CD amplification of CCl4 injury might be associated with other factors yet to be investigated. ..
  37. Fulton M, Scott G. The effect of certain intrinsic and extrinsic variables on the acute toxicity of selected organophosphorus insecticides to the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. J Environ Sci Health B. 1991;26:459-78 pubmed
    ..In general, all of the insecticide mixtures (azinphosmethyl/endosulfan, azinphosmethyl/fenvalerate and acephate/fenvalerate) tested exhibited simple additive toxicity...
  38. Luchi M, Morrison D. Comparable endotoxic properties of lipopolysaccharides are manifest in diverse clinical isolates of gram-negative bacteria. Infect Immun. 2000;68:1899-904 pubmed
    ..These relatively minor differences in LPS activity seem unlikely to explain the generally observed discrepancy between serum endotoxin levels and mortality in patients with gram-negative sepsis. ..
  39. Marra A, Lawson S, Asundi J, Brigham D, Hromockyj A. In vivo characterization of the psa genes from Streptococcus pneumoniae in multiple models of infection. Microbiology. 2002;148:1483-91 pubmed
    ..In addition, these mutants were unable to grow in an implanted peritoneal chamber, but growth was restored by the addition of manganese to the chambers...
  40. Karanth S, Pope C. Age-related effects of chlorpyrifos and parathion on acetylcholine synthesis in rat striatum. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2003;25:599-606 pubmed
    ..Selective changes in neurotransmitter synthesis may contribute to differential age-related toxicity of these agents. ..
  41. Parikh S, Litherland S, Clare Salzler M, Li W, Gulig P, Southwick F. CapG(-/-) mice have specific host defense defects that render them more susceptible than CapG(+/+) mice to Listeria monocytogenes infection but not to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Infect Immun. 2003;71:6582-90 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that specific motility deficits in macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils render CapG(-/-) mice more susceptible than CapG(+/+) mice to Listeria infection. ..
  42. Kennedy G. Review of the toxicology of three alkyl diamines. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2007;30:145-57 pubmed
    ..The main effects of this series of diamines appear related to their irritant properties, and attention needs to be paid to their delayed hypersensitivity potential...
  43. Bargar T. The relationship between total cholinesterase activity and mortality in four butterfly species. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31:2124-9 pubmed publisher
  44. Purushotham K, Lockard V, Mehendale H. Amplification of chloroform hepatotoxicity and lethality by dietary chlordecone (kepone) in mice. Toxicol Pathol. 1988;16:27-34 pubmed
    ..The amplification of CHCl3 hepatotoxicity by CD was also reflected by a 4.2-fold increase in lethality determined by 48-hour LD50.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  45. Bowden G, Baneyx F, Georgiou G. Abnormal fractionation of beta-lactamase in Escherichia coli: evidence for an interaction with the inner membrane in the absence of a leader peptide. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3407-10 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that even in the absence of a leader peptide, mature beta-lactamase is able to interact with the cytoplasmic membrane and be translocated into the periplasmic space, albeit with a low efficiency. ..
  46. Dharmagadda V, Naik S, Mittal P, Vasudevan P. Larvicidal activity of Tagetes patula essential oil against three mosquito species. Bioresour Technol. 2005;96:1235-40 pubmed
    ..A. aegypti (LC(50) 13.57, LC(90) 37.91) was most susceptible followed by An. stephensi (LC(50) 12.08, LC(90) 57.62) and C. quinquefaciatus (LC(50) 22.33, LC(90) 71.89)...
  47. Key P, Fulton M. Correlation between 96-h mortality and 24-h acetylcholinesterase inhibition in three grass shrimp larval life stages. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2006;63:389-92 pubmed
    ..994 and 95% confidence intervals 0.969-0.999). The LOEC/EC20 relationship yielded R2=0.962. For these grass shrimp life stages and pesticides, sublethal effect endpoints could be used as a predictor of 96-h mortality. ..
  48. Murray Gulde C, Heatley J, Schwartzman A, Rodgers J. Algicidal effectiveness of Clearigate, Cutrine-Plus, and copper sulfate and margins of safety associated with their use. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002;43:19-27 pubmed
    ..However, the margins of safety are minimal (< 0, 12.5, and 82.5 microg Cu/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to CuSO(4), Clearigate, and Cutrine-Plus, respectively) when they are applied according to their labels...
  49. Farah I, Begum R. Effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa L.) and oxidative stress on the survival pattern of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2003;39:359-64 pubmed
    ..Sativa alone or in combination with oxidative stress were found to be effective in vitro in inactivating MCF-7 breast cancer cells, unveiling opportunities for promising results in the field of prevention and treatment of cancer...
  50. Brunner J, Beers E, Dunley J, Doerr M, Granger K. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests. J Insect Sci. 2005;5:14 pubmed
    ..The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. ..
  51. Dechraoui M, Tiedeken J, Persad R, Wang Z, Granade H, Dickey R, et al. Use of two detection methods to discriminate ciguatoxins from brevetoxins: application to great barracuda from Florida Keys. Toxicon. 2005;46:261-70 pubmed
    ..Among 40 barracudas analyzed, 60% contained ciguatoxin levels in their liver measurable by the N2A assay with the most toxic fish containing 2.1ppb C-CTX-1 equivalents...
  52. Cai Z, Mehendale H. Hepatotoxicity and lethality of halomethanes in Mongolian gerbils pretreated with chlordecone, phenobarbital or mirex. Arch Toxicol. 1991;65:204-12 pubmed
    ..Evidence from histomorphometric studies was consistent with serum enzyme and 3H-T incorporation data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  53. Vale G, Grant I, Dewhurst C, Aigreau D. Biological and chemical assays of pyrethroids in cattle dung. Bull Entomol Res. 2004;94:273-82 pubmed
    ..About 1.6% of the deltamethrin applied was transferred to dung. Deltamethrin and alphacypermethrin in dung showed no detectable degradation in 64 days. Contamination levels threaten populations of slow-breeding beetles. ..
  54. Farese A, Brown C, Smith C, Gibbs A, Katz B, Johnson C, et al. The ability of filgrastim to mitigate mortality following LD50/60 total-body irradiation is administration time-dependent. Health Phys. 2014;106:39-47 pubmed publisher
  55. Diamond S, Mount D, Mattson V, Heinis L, Highland T, Adams A, et al. Photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon toxicity in medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos: relevance to environmental risk in contaminated sites. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:3015-23 pubmed
    ..00 to 271.6 cm under the conditions described above. These results suggest that PAH phototoxicity may be a risk factor in specific contaminated sites, and they provide a framework for assessing that risk. ..
  56. Biddinger D, Robertson J, Mullin C, Frazier J, Ashcraft S, Rajotte E, et al. Comparative toxicities and synergism of apple orchard pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72587 pubmed publisher
    ..mellifera cannot be extrapolated to responses of O.cornifrons, and that synergism of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides occurs using formulated product in mixtures as they are commonly applied in apple orchards. ..
  57. Hoheisel S, Diamond S, Mount D. Comparison of nanosilver and ionic silver toxicity in Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31:2557-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This in turn suggests that regulatory approaches based on the toxicity of ionic silver to aquatic life would not be underprotective for environmental releases of nanosilver...
  58. Wu J, Wade W, Taylor R. Evaluation of cholera vaccines formulated with toxin-coregulated pilin peptide plus polymer adjuvant in mice. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7695-702 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that specific regions of TcpA, including those delineated by the peptides used in this study, have the potential to be incorporated into an effective defined subunit vaccine for cholera. ..
  59. Hermens J, Bradbury S, Broderius S. Influence of cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase induction on the acute toxicity to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) of primary aromatic amines. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1990;20:156-66 pubmed
    ..The 96-hr LC50's of aniline and 4-chloroaniline were not affected by pretreatment with Aroclor 1254, suggesting that metabolic activation does not necessarily play a role in the acute toxicity of aromatic amines to fish. ..
  60. Arkoosh M, Clemons E, Myers M, Casillas E. Suppression of B-cell mediated immunity in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) after exposure to either a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon or to polychlorinated biphenyls. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1994;16:293-314 pubmed
  61. Cantrell C, Berhow M, Phillips B, Duval S, Weisleder D, Vaughn S. Bioactive crude plant seed extracts from the NCAUR oilseed repository. Phytomedicine. 2003;10:325-33 pubmed
    ..Chemical analysis of these extracts resulted in the isolation of oleanolic acid (1) and 4-epi-hederagenin (2) from C. religiosa, isodiospyrin (3) from D. dichrophylla, and santalbic acid (4) from O. subscorpioidea...
  62. Kszos L, Morris G, Konetsky B. Source of toxicity in storm water: zinc from commonly used paint. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2004;23:12-6 pubmed
    ..Rainwater collected directly from the painted cylinders contained up to 13 mg Zn/L. Laboratory and field tests showed that topcoating the cylinders would reduce the amount of zinc in the runoff from the cylinders...
  63. Roy C, Reed D, Wilhelmsen C, Hartings J, Norris S, Steele K. Pathogenesis of aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus infection in guinea pigs. Virol J. 2009;6:170 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that guinea pigs experimentally infected by aerosolized EEEV recapitulate several key features of fatal human infection and thus should serve as a suitable animal model for aerosol exposure to EEEV...
  64. Ankley G, Kuehl D, Kahl M, Jensen K, Butterworth B, Nichols J. Partial life-cycle toxicity and bioconcentration modeling of perfluorooctanesulfonate in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2004;23:2745-55 pubmed
    ..Overall, our studies suggest that R. pipiens is not exceptionally sensitive to PFOS in terms of either direct toxicity or bioconcentration potential of the chemical...
  65. Rajini P, Melstrom P, Williams P. A comparative study on the relationship between various toxicological endpoints in Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to organophosphorus insecticides. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71:1043-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, ranking of these endpoints with respect to the OP insecticides studied indicates that these parameters in C. elegans are predictive of OP insecticides mammalian neurotoxicity. ..