Experts and Doctors on isoflavones in United States


Locale: United States
Topic: isoflavones

Top Publications

  1. Jefferson W, Williams C. Circulating levels of genistein in the neonate, apart from dose and route, predict future adverse female reproductive outcomes. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;31:272-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies of reproductive function in human populations exposed to high levels of phytoestrogens during development are warranted. ..
  2. Sherrill J, Sparks M, Dennis J, Mansour M, Kemppainen B, Bartol F, et al. Developmental exposures of male rats to soy isoflavones impact Leydig cell differentiation. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:488-501 pubmed publisher
  3. Kang N, Lee K, Rogozin E, Cho Y, Heo Y, Bode A, et al. Equol, a metabolite of the soybean isoflavone daidzein, inhibits neoplastic cell transformation by targeting the MEK/ERK/p90RSK/activator protein-1 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:32856-66 pubmed
    ..These findings are the first to reveal a molecular basis for the anticancer action of equol and may partially account for the reported chemopreventive effects of soybean. ..
  4. Mead J, McNair N. Antiparasitic activity of flavonoids and isoflavones against Cryptosporidium parvum and Encephalitozoon intestinalis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;259:153-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, induction of apoptosis by these compounds was studied but not observed to be a significant mechanism of action. ..
  5. Kagan I. Effects of pH, sample size, and solvent partitioning on recovery of soluble phenolic acids and isoflavonoids in leaves and stems of red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland). Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6:1657-60 pubmed
    ..In extracts prepared from 250, 120, or 60 mg of tissue, peak areas of methanolic extracts were directly proportional to the amount of tissue extracted. ..
  6. Ma Y, Lovekamp Swan T, Bekele W, Dohi A, Schreihofer D. Hypoxia-inducible factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are targets of dietary soy during acute stroke in female rats. Endocrinology. 2013;154:1589-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that soy isoflavones target events early in the ischemic cascade as part of their neuroprotective actions and counterbalance some of the detrimental effects of the endogenous response to cerebral injury. ..
  7. Prasain J, Jones K, Kirk M, Wilson L, Smith Johnson M, Weaver C, et al. Profiling and quantification of isoflavonoids in kudzu dietary supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:4213-8 pubmed
    ..Puerarin, rather than daidzin, was the most abundant component (8.44-30.60 mg/capsule) in commercially available KDS. ..
  8. Nelson H, Vesco K, Haney E, Fu R, Nedrow A, Miller J, et al. Nonhormonal therapies for menopausal hot flashes: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2006;295:2057-71 pubmed
    ..These therapies may be most useful for highly symptomatic women who cannot take estrogen but are not optimal choices for most women. ..
  9. Song N, Lee E, Byun S, Kim J, Mottamal M, Park J, et al. Isoangustone A, a novel licorice compound, inhibits cell proliferation by targeting PI3K, MKK4, and MKK7 in human melanoma. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013;6:1293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..This insight into the biologic actions of IAA provides a molecular basis for the potential development of a new chemotherapeutic agent. ..

More Information


  1. Rasbach K, Schnellmann R. Isoflavones promote mitochondrial biogenesis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;325:536-43 pubmed publisher
  2. Leonard E, Koffas M. Engineering of artificial plant cytochrome P450 enzymes for synthesis of isoflavones by Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:7246-51 pubmed
    ..This novel biological device is a strategy for the utilization of laboratory bacteria to robustly manufacture high-value plant P450 products. ..
  3. Russell L, Hicks G, Low A, Shepherd J, Brown C. Phytoestrogens: a viable option?. Am J Med Sci. 2002;324:185-8 pubmed
    ..Their use, mechanism of action, and adverse effects are outlined. ..
  4. Akingbemi B, Braden T, Kemppainen B, Hancock K, Sherrill J, Cook S, et al. Exposure to phytoestrogens in the perinatal period affects androgen secretion by testicular Leydig cells in the adult rat. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4475-88 pubmed
    ..Thus, phytoestrogens have the ability to regulate Leydig cells, and additional studies to assess potential adverse effects of dietary soy-based products on reproductive tract development in neonates are warranted. ..
  5. Barnes S. The biochemistry, chemistry and physiology of the isoflavones in soybeans and their food products. Lymphat Res Biol. 2010;8:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These various properties may explain the much lower incidence of hormonally-dependent breast cancer in Asian populations compared to Americans and Europeans. ..
  6. Zhou M, Hamza A, Zhan C, Thorson J. Assessing the regioselectivity of OleD-catalyzed glycosylation with a diverse set of acceptors. J Nat Prod. 2013;76:279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In all cases, molecular dynamics simulations were consistent with the determined product distribution and suggest the potential to develop a virtual screening model to identify additional OleD substrates. ..
  7. Hamilton Reeves J, Banerjee S, Banerjee S, Holzbeierlein J, Thrasher J, Kambhampati S, et al. Short-term soy isoflavone intervention in patients with localized prostate cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68331 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that short-term intake of soy isoflavones did not affect serum hormone levels, total cholesterol, or PSA. NCT00255125. ..
  8. Choueiri T, Wesolowski R, Mekhail T. Phenoxodiol: isoflavone analog with antineoplastic activity. Curr Oncol Rep. 2006;8:104-7 pubmed
    ..Hormone-refractory prostate cancer is another promising area in which phenoxodiol is being actively tested. Studies are ongoing to define the optimal use of this novel anticancer agent. ..
  9. Pendleton J, Tan W, Anai S, Chang M, Hou W, Shiverick K, et al. Phase II trial of isoflavone in prostate-specific antigen recurrent prostate cancer after previous local therapy. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:132 pubmed publisher
    ..This study may lend support to the literature that nutritional supplements have biologic activity in prostate cancer and therefore, further studies with these agents in randomized clinical trials should be encouraged. ..
  10. Jin Z, MacDonald R. Soy isoflavones increase latency of spontaneous mammary tumors in mice. J Nutr. 2002;132:3186-90 pubmed
    ..Hence, in the MMTV-neu mouse, soy isoflavones delayed mammary tumorigenesis. Further studies are warranted to define the cellular mechanisms through which these compounds affect mammary tumorigenesis in this model. ..
  11. Messing E, Gee J, Saltzstein D, Kim K, diSant Agnese A, Kolesar J, et al. A phase 2 cancer chemoprevention biomarker trial of isoflavone G-2535 (genistein) in presurgical bladder cancer patients. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012;5:621-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Genistein displayed a possible bimodal effect (more effective at the lower dose) on bladder cancer tissue EGFR phosphorylation that should be evaluated further, possibly in combination with other agents. ..
  12. Bedard K, Wang M, Proll S, Loo Y, Katze M, Gale M, et al. Isoflavone agonists of IRF-3 dependent signaling have antiviral activity against RNA viruses. J Virol. 2012;86:7334-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This report provides the first evidence that innate immune pathways dependent on IRF-3 can be successfully targeted by small-molecule drugs for the development of novel broad-spectrum antiviral compounds. ..
  13. Choueiri T, Mekhail T, Hutson T, Ganapathi R, Kelly G, Bukowski R. Phase I trial of phenoxodiol delivered by continuous intravenous infusion in patients with solid cancer. Ann Oncol. 2006;17:860-5 pubmed
    ..Pharmacokinetics suggested a linear relationship between dosage and mean steady-state plasma concentrations of phenoxodiol. A 7-day continuous infusion of phenoxodiol given every 2 weeks is well tolerated up to a dose of 27.0 mg/kg/day. ..
  14. Chemler J, Lim C, Daiss J, Koffas M. A versatile microbial system for biosynthesis of novel polyphenols with altered estrogen receptor binding activity. Chem Biol. 2010;17:392-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Structure activity relationships are suggested based on changes to binding affinities related to small variations on the isoflavone structure. ..
  15. Bajer M, Kunze M, Blees J, Bokesch H, Chen H, Brauss T, et al. Characterization of pomiferin triacetate as a novel mTOR and translation inhibitor. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014;88:313-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it might be an interesting lead structure for the development of mTOR- and translation-targeted anti-tumor therapies. ..
  16. Michelfelder A. Soy: a complete source of protein. Am Fam Physician. 2009;79:43-7 pubmed
    ..Overall, soy is well tolerated, and because it is a complete source of protein shown to lower cholesterol, it is recommended as a dietary substitution for higher-fat animal products. ..
  17. Lee D, Lee K, Jung S, Lee E, Hwang J, Lim T, et al. 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone inhibits HCT-116 human colon cancer cell proliferation by targeting CDK1 and CDK2. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insight into the biological actions of 6,7,4'-THIF and might establish a molecular basis for the development of new cancer therapeutic agents. ..
  18. Penetar D, Toto L, Farmer S, Lee D, Ma Z, Liu Y, et al. The isoflavone puerarin reduces alcohol intake in heavy drinkers: a pilot study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;126:251-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that alcohol consumption patterns are influenced by puerarin administration and this botanical medication may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of excessive alcohol intake. ..
  19. Walsh K, Failla M. Transport and metabolism of equol by Caco-2 human intestinal cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:8297-302 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that differences in the synthesis and efflux of equol conjugates may contribute to the marked variance in the bioavailability of equol in "producer" phenotype. ..
  20. Wang X, McKernan R, Kim K, Alvero A, Whiting A, Thompson J, et al. Triphendiol (NV-196), development of a novel therapy for pancreatic cancer. Anticancer Drugs. 2011;22:719-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data justify the commencement of clinical studies investigating the utility of combining triphendiol and gemcitabine in patients with early-stage and late-stage pancreatic cancer. ..
  21. Hurt R, Wilson T. Geriatric obesity: evaluating the evidence for the use of flavonoids to promote weight loss. J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr. 2012;31:269-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, flavonoids were evaluated for the treatment of obesity in geriatric populations as well as for safety concerns. ..
  22. Peng N, Prasain J, Dai Y, Moore R, Arabshahi A, Barnes S, et al. Chronic dietary kudzu isoflavones improve components of metabolic syndrome in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:7268-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that long-term dietary kudzu root extract supplementation can improve glucose, lipid, and blood pressure control in intact and ovariectomized SP-SHR. ..
  23. Hadden M, Galam L, Gestwicki J, Matts R, Blagg B. Derrubone, an inhibitor of the Hsp90 protein folding machinery. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:2014-8 pubmed
    ..The identification of 1 as an Hsp90 inhibitor provides a new natural product scaffold upon which the development of novel Hsp90 inhibitors can be pursued. ..
  24. Hastings J, Hadden M, Blagg B. Synthesis and evaluation of derrubone and select analogues. J Org Chem. 2008;73:369-73 pubmed
    ..Biological evaluation of derrubone and its analogues identified several compounds that exhibit low micromolar inhibitory activity against breast and colon cancer cell lines...
  25. Khanna S, Stewart R, Gnyawali S, Harris H, Balch M, Spieldenner J, et al. Phytoestrogen isoflavone intervention to engage the neuroprotective effect of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase against stroke. FASEB J. 2017;31:4533-4544 pubmed publisher
    ..Khanna, S., Stewart, R., Gnyawali, S., Harris, H., Balch, M., Spieldenner, J., Sen, C. K., Rink, C. Phytoestrogen isoflavone intervention to engage the neuroprotective effect of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase against stroke. ..
  26. Adams S, Aksenova M, Aksenov M, Mactutus C, Booze R. Soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein exert anti-apoptotic actions via a selective ER-mediated mechanism in neurons following HIV-1 Tat(1-86) exposure. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37540 pubmed publisher
  27. Lowry S, Sprague B, Aiello Bowles E, Hedman C, Hemming J, Hampton J, et al. Mammographic breast density and serum phytoestrogen levels. Nutr Cancer. 2012;64:783-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake. ..
  28. Pearce E, Braverman L. Environmental pollutants and the thyroid. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;23:801-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Organochlorine pesticides and dioxins may decrease serum T(4) half-life by activating hepatic enzymes. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the risk posed by these and other potentially thyroid-disrupting compounds. ..
  29. Li J, Pan L, Deng Y, Muñoz Acuña U, Yuan C, Lai H, et al. Sphenostylisins A-K: bioactive modified isoflavonoid constituents of the root bark of Sphenostylis marginata ssp. erecta. J Org Chem. 2013;78:10166-77 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these pure isolates were evaluated against a panel of in vitro bioassays, and among the results obtained, sphenostylisin A (1) was found to be a very potent NF-?B inhibitor (IC50 = 6 nM). ..
  30. Akond M, Liu S, Kantartzi S, Meksem K, Bellaloui N, Lightfoot D, et al. Quantitative trait loci for seed isoflavone contents in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62:1464-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Identified QTL could be functional in developing soybean with preferable isoflavone concentrations in the seeds through MAS. ..
  31. Xu J, Mukherjee D, Chang S. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of soybean protein nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization. Food Chem. 2018;240:1005-1013 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated that SPI, 7S, and 11S proteins can be used as effective emulsifiers in nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization. ..
  32. Venkataraman C, Haack B, Bondada S, Abu Kwaik Y. Identification of a Gal/GalNAc lectin in the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis as a potential receptor for attachment and invasion by the Legionnaires' disease bacterium. J Exp Med. 1997;186:537-47 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration of a potential receptor used by L. pneumophila to invade protozoa...
  33. Lee D, Lee K, Song N, Seo S, Heo Y, Kang N, et al. 7,3',4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced proliferation and transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells by suppressing cyclin-dependent kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21458-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These insights into the biological actions of 7,3',4'-THIF provide a molecular basis for the possible development of new chemoprotective agents. ..
  34. Kenny A, Mangano K, Abourizk R, Bruno R, Anamani D, Kleppinger A, et al. Soy proteins and isoflavones affect bone mineral density in older women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:234-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The negative correlation between dietary protein and bone turnover suggests that increasing protein intakes may suppress skeletal turnover. This trial was registered at as NCT00668447. ..
  35. Teas J, Hurley T, Hebert J, Franke A, Sepkovic D, Kurzer M. Dietary seaweed modifies estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. J Nutr. 2009;139:939-44 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). Equol producers also had a 315% increase in 2:16 ratio (P = 0.001) with SeaSoy. Seaweed favorably alters estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism and these changes likely include modulation of colonic bacteria. ..
  36. Avula B, Wang Y, Smillie T, Khan I. Quantitative determination of triterpenoids and formononetin in rhizomes of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and dietary supplements by using UPLC-UV/ELS detection and identification by UPLC-MS. Planta Med. 2009;75:381-6 pubmed publisher
  37. Collison M. Determination of total soy isoflavones in dietary supplements, supplement ingredients, and soy foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: collaborative study. J AOAC Int. 2008;91:489-500 pubmed
    ..6. This sample was deemed to be below the usable range of the method. The method provides accurate and precise results for analysis of soy isoflavones in dietary supplements and soy foods. ..
  38. Zhou H, Lin J, Johnson A, Morgan R, Zhong W, Ma W. Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopZ1 targets a host enzyme to suppress isoflavone biosynthesis and promote infection in soybean. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:177-186 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GmHID1 is a virulence target of HopZ1 to promote P. syringae infection of soybean. This work highlights the isoflavonoid biosynthesis pathway as an antibacterial defense mechanism and a direct T3SE target...
  39. Graham T, Graham M, Subramanian S, Yu O. RNAi silencing of genes for elicitation or biosynthesis of 5-deoxyisoflavonoids suppresses race-specific resistance and hypersensitive cell death in Phytophthora sojae infected tissues. Plant Physiol. 2007;144:728-40 pubmed
  40. Arjmandi B. The role of phytoestrogens in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in ovarian hormone deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20:398S-402S; discussion 417S-420S pubmed
    ..Although this paper primarily focuses on the effects of soy protein or its isoflavones on bone, additional statements regarding the role of flaxseed and dried plums, a rich source of polyphenols, with respect to bone will be made. ..
  41. Fanti P, Stephenson T, Kaariainen I, Rezkalla B, Tsukamoto Y, Morishita T, et al. Serum isoflavones and soya food intake in Japanese, Thai and American end-stage renal disease patients on chronic haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18:1862-8 pubmed
    ..A discrepancy is noted between accumulation of soya isoflavones and other more common lipid-soluble antioxidant micronutrients. ..
  42. Merritt R, Jenks B. Safety of soy-based infant formulas containing isoflavones: the clinical evidence. J Nutr. 2004;134:1220S-1224S pubmed
    ..Available evidence from adult human and infant populations indicates that dietary isoflavones in soy infant formulas do not adversely affect human growth, development, or reproduction...
  43. Bartke A, Peluso M, Moretz N, Wright C, Bonkowski M, Winters T, et al. Effects of Soy-derived diets on plasma and liver lipids, glucose tolerance, and longevity in normal, long-lived and short-lived mice. Horm Metab Res. 2004;36:550-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that dietary soy protein intake can improve plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, reduce fasting glucose, enhance capacity for glucose tolerance, and prolong life, but all of these effects are strongly genotype-dependent. ..
  44. Pham J, Brownlow B, Elbayoumi T. Mitochondria-specific pro-apoptotic activity of genistein lipidic nanocarriers. Mol Pharm. 2013;10:3789-800 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanistic evidence of the mitochondria specificity of our Gen-NE and Gen-Mic strongly indicates their potential as targeted delivery nanosystems to augment anticancer efficacy of many lipophilic chemotherapeutics...
  45. Browning A, Walle U, Walle T. Flavonoid glycosides inhibit oral cancer cell proliferation--role of cellular uptake and hydrolysis to the aglycones. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005;57:1037-42 pubmed
    ..In summary, dietary flavonoid glycosides may exert cellular effects in the oral cavity, but this varies greatly with the nature of the glycoside. ..
  46. Graham M. The diphenylether herbicide lactofen induces cell death and expression of defense-related genes in soybean. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:1784-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These various results are discussed in the context of singlet oxygen-induced responses and lactofen's potential as a disease resistance-inducing agent...
  47. Guttuso T. Effective and clinically meaningful non-hormonal hot flash therapies. Maturitas. 2012;72:6-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed with several of these nonhormonal compounds to replicate these findings and to also directly compare their efficacy and tolerability with those of hormone replacement therapy...
  48. Lipinski R, Bushman W. Identification of Hedgehog signaling inhibitors with relevant human exposure by small molecule screening. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:1404-9 pubmed publisher
  49. Choi H, Tostes R, Webb R. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase prevents ROS-induced vascular contraction in angiotensin-II hypertensive mice. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2011;5:154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Because tempol and catalase blocked the contractile response of the ALDH2 inhibitor, ROS generation by AngII may be decreased by ALDH2, thereby preventing ROS-induced contraction. ..
  50. Lee W, Butler A, Locniskar M, Fischer S. Signal transduction pathway(s) involved in phorbol ester and autocrine induction of interleukin-1 alpha mRNA in murine keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:17971-80 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that the activation of AP-1 may be a common event through which TPA and IL-1 alpha induce IL-1 alpha mRNA. ..
  51. Flythe M, Kagan I. Antimicrobial effect of red clover (Trifolium pratense) phenolic extract on the ruminal hyper ammonia-producing bacterium, Clostridium sticklandii. Curr Microbiol. 2010;61:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Both clover extracts and biochanin A inhibited the growth of C. sticklandii in broth culture, but formononetin had no effect. These results indicate that clover phenolic compounds may have a role in preventing amino acid fermentation...
  52. Landini S, Graham M, Graham T. Lactofen induces isoflavone accumulation and glyceollin elicitation competency in soybean. Phytochemistry. 2003;62:865-74 pubmed
    ..It is hypothesized that diphenyl ether-induced activated oxygen species mimic some aspects of hypersensitive cell death, which leads to elicitation competency in infected tissues. ..
  53. Ahn Jarvis J, Teegarden M, Schwartz S, Lee K, Vodovotz Y. Modulating conversion of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones using crude beta-glycosidase extracts from almonds and processed soy. Food Chem. 2017;237:685-692 pubmed publisher
    ..Manipulation of ?-glycosidase activity and isoflavone composition can be used to modulate aglycone content in soy food products. ..