Experts and Doctors on hypothalamus in United States


Locale: United States
Topic: hypothalamus

Top Publications

  1. Arbogast L, Soares M, Robertson M, Voogt J. A factor(s) from a trophoblast cell line increases tyrosine hydroxylase activity in fetal hypothalamic cell cultures. Endocrinology. 1993;133:111-20 pubmed
    ..Oxidation of Rcho-1 cell extracts with performic acid abolished THAF activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  2. Wiltbank M, Gumen A, Sartori R. Physiological classification of anovulatory conditions in cattle. Theriogenology. 2002;57:21-52 pubmed
  3. Makarenko I, Meguid M, Gatto L, Chen C, Ugrumov M. Decreased NPY innervation of the hypothalamic nuclei in rats with cancer anorexia. Brain Res. 2003;961:100-8 pubmed
    ..The data support the hypothesis of an altered hypothalamic NPY system at the onset of anorexia in TB rats and also reveal the hypothalamic nuclei through which NPY influences food intake. ..
  4. Wood C, Giroux D. Expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in the ovine fetal brain: alteration by hormonal and hemodynamic stimuli. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2006;13:329-37 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest the possibility that the neuroendocrine responses to estradiol and BCO are modulated by central nervous system (CNS) NO biosynthesis. ..
  5. Kim W, Jessen H, Auger A, Terasawa E. Postmenopausal increase in KiSS-1, GPR54, and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH-1) mRNA in the basal hypothalamus of female rhesus monkeys. Peptides. 2009;30:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, in the primate the reduction in the negative feedback control by ovarian steroids appears to be responsible for the aging changes in kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling and the elevated state of the LHRH-1 neuronal system. ..
  6. HERRINGA R, Phillips M, Almeida J, Insana S, Germain A. Post-traumatic stress symptoms correlate with smaller subgenual cingulate, caudate, and insula volumes in unmedicated combat veterans. Psychiatry Res. 2012;203:139-45 pubmed publisher
    ..PTSS are associated with abnormalities in limbic structures that may underlie the pathophysiology of PTSD. These abnormalities exist on a continuum with PTSS, beyond a diagnosis of PTSD. ..
  7. Roselli Rehfuss L, Mountjoy K, Robbins L, Mortrud M, Low M, Tatro J, et al. Identification of a receptor for gamma melanotropin and other proopiomelanocortin peptides in the hypothalamus and limbic system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:8856-60 pubmed
    ..The location and properties of this receptor provide a pharmacological basis for the action of POMC peptides produced in the brain and possibly a specific physiological role for gamma-MSH. ..
  8. Matsuura T, Harrison R, Westwell A, Nakamura H, Martynyuk A, Sumners C. Basal and angiotensin II-inhibited neuronal delayed-rectifier K+ current are regulated by thioredoxin. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C211-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these data suggest that TPOR may be a general mechanism for negatively regulating neuronal activity. ..
  9. Dickerson S, Cunningham S, Gore A. Prenatal PCBs disrupt early neuroendocrine development of the rat hypothalamus. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;252:36-46 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications277 found, 100 shown here

  1. Papke R, Meyer E, Nutter T, Uteshev V. alpha7 receptor-selective agonists and modes of alpha7 receptor activation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;393:179-95 pubmed
    ..The data, therefore, suggest that a sufficient level of agonist occupation can be retained on the receptor to promote activation for up to several hundred milliseconds. ..
  2. Sun Z, Cade R, Zhang Z, Alouidor J, Van H. Angiotensinogen gene knockout delays and attenuates cold-induced hypertension. Hypertension. 2003;41:322-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the role of the RAS in cold-induced hypertension may be mediated in part by its inhibition on NO production. The findings also reveal the possible relation between the RAS and NO in cardiovascular regulation. ..
  3. Frye C, Llaneza D. Corticosteroid and neurosteroid dysregulation in an animal model of autism, BTBR mice. Physiol Behav. 2010;100:264-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the hypothalamus of BTBR mice were significantly higher compared to C57/J and 129S1 mice. These findings suggest that neuroendocrine dysregulation among BTBR mice extends to 3alpha,5alpha-THP. ..
  4. Thaler J, Schwartz M. Minireview: Inflammation and obesity pathogenesis: the hypothalamus heats up. Endocrinology. 2010;151:4109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This article highlights molecular and cellular mechanisms by which hypothalamic inflammation predisposes to diet-induced obesity. ..
  5. Haring S, Harris R. The relation between dietary fructose, dietary fat and leptin responsiveness in rats. Physiol Behav. 2011;104:914-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus a high-fructose, low-fat diet induces peripheral leptin resistance in less than 4 weeks, but high dietary concentrations of fructose or glucose prevent peripheral leptin resistance in rats fed a high-fat diet. ..
  6. Nocjar C, Zhang J, Feng P, Panksepp J. The social defeat animal model of depression shows diminished levels of orexin in mesocortical regions of the dopamine system, and of dynorphin and orexin in the hypothalamus. Neuroscience. 2012;218:138-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that orexin and dynorphin function may be imbalanced between the hypothalamus and mesocortical dopaminergic brain regions in depression. ..
  7. Cai A, Hyde J. The human growth hormone-releasing hormone transgenic mouse as a model of modest obesity: differential changes in leptin receptor (OBR) gene expression in the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus after fasting and OBR localization in somatotrophs. Endocrinology. 1999;140:3609-14 pubmed
  8. Fraley G, Shimada I, Baumgartner J, Clifton D, Steiner R. Differential patterns of Fos induction in the hypothalamus of the rat following central injections of galanin-like peptide and galanin. Endocrinology. 2003;144:1143-6 pubmed
  9. Prevot V, Cornea A, Mungenast A, Smiley G, Ojeda S. Activation of erbB-1 signaling in tanycytes of the median eminence stimulates transforming growth factor beta1 release via prostaglandin E2 production and induces cell plasticity. J Neurosci. 2003;23:10622-32 pubmed
  10. Bhatt S, Siegel A. Potentiating role of interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) upon defensive rage behavior in the cat: role of neurokinin NK(1) receptors. Behav Brain Res. 2006;167:251-60 pubmed
    ..The present study thus demonstrates that IL-2 in the dorsal PAG potentiates defensive rage behavior and is mediated through an NK(1) receptor mechanism. ..
  11. Kelley A, Baldo B, Pratt W. A proposed hypothalamic-thalamic-striatal axis for the integration of energy balance, arousal, and food reward. J Comp Neurol. 2005;493:72-85 pubmed
  12. Kelley A, Baldo B, Pratt W, Will M. Corticostriatal-hypothalamic circuitry and food motivation: integration of energy, action and reward. Physiol Behav. 2005;86:773-95 pubmed
  13. Lima F, Henderson J, Reddy A, Tokuyama Y, Hubert G, Kuhar M, et al. Unique responses of midbrain CART neurons in macaques to ovarian steroids. Brain Res. 2008;1227:76-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the data suggest that CART neurons in the midbrain have a unique steroid response, which may be mediated by nuclear receptors, neuroactive steroids or interneurons. ..
  14. Muschamp J, Hollander J, Thompson J, Voren G, Hassinger L, Onvani S, et al. Hypocretin (orexin) facilitates reward by attenuating the antireward effects of its cotransmitter dynorphin in ventral tegmental area. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E1648-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify a unique cellular process by which orexin can occlude the reward threshold-elevating effects of coreleased dynorphin and thereby act in a permissive fashion to facilitate reward. ..
  15. Pitra S, Stern J. A-type K+ channels contribute to the prorenin increase of firing activity in hypothalamic vasopressin neurosecretory neurons. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313:H548-H557 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified A-type K+ channels as key molecular targets mediating prorenin stimulation of vasopressin neuronal activity, thus standing as a potential therapeutic target for neurohumoral activation in cardiovascular disease. ..
  16. Ye J, Mui W, Ren J, Hunt T, Wu W, Zbuzek V. Ondansetron exhibits the properties of a local anesthetic. Anesth Analg. 1997;85:1116-21 pubmed
    ..We found that it also causes numbness when injected under the skin. This new action may contribute to its role in "calming the stomach." We studied the effect of ondansetron on the isolated brain cells of live rats. ..
  17. Sohn E, Wolden Hanson T, Matsumoto A. Testosterone (T)-induced changes in arcuate nucleus cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript and NPY mRNA are attenuated in old compared to young male brown Norway rats: contribution of T to age-related changes in cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transc. Endocrinology. 2002;143:954-63 pubmed
  18. Qiu J, Bosch M, Tobias S, Grandy D, Scanlan T, Ronnekleiv O, et al. Rapid signaling of estrogen in hypothalamic neurons involves a novel G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor that activates protein kinase C. J Neurosci. 2003;23:9529-40 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this unique Gq-coupled estrogen receptor may be involved in rapid signaling in hypothalamic neurons that are critical for normal homeostatic functions. ..
  19. Tumer N, Scarpace P, Dogan M, Broxson C, Matheny M, Yurek D, et al. Hypothalamic rAAV-mediated GDNF gene delivery ameliorates age-related obesity. Neurobiol Aging. 2006;27:459-70 pubmed
    ..Our observations in aged rats suggest that GDNF may be especially effective in reducing obesity in aged obese rats. ..
  20. Ding M, Toth L. mRNA expression in mouse hypothalamus and basal forebrain during influenza infection: a novel model for sleep regulation. Physiol Genomics. 2006;24:225-34 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that strain- and infection-related alterations in sleep may be influenced by Temt expression and perhaps by subsequent effects on prostaglandin metabolism. ..
  21. Torto R, Boghossian S, Dube M, Kalra P, Kalra S. Central leptin gene therapy blocks ovariectomy-induced adiposity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14:1312-9 pubmed
  22. Ching S, Zhang H, Belevych N, He L, Lai W, Pu X, et al. Endothelial-specific knockdown of interleukin-1 (IL-1) type 1 receptor differentially alters CNS responses to IL-1 depending on its route of administration. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10476-86 pubmed
    ..These results show that the effects of intravenous and intracerebroventricular IL-1 are mediated by endothelial IL-1R1, whereas the effects of intraperitoneal IL-1 are partially dependent on endothelial IL-1R1. ..
  23. Qiu J, Fang Y, Rønnekleiv O, Kelly M. Leptin excites proopiomelanocortin neurons via activation of TRPC channels. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1560-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, leptin through a Jak2-PI3 kinase-PLCgamma pathway activates TRPC channels, and TRPC1, 4, and 5 appear to be the key channels mediating the depolarizing effects of leptin in POMC neurons. ..
  24. Muehlmann A, Kies S, Turner C, Wolfman S, Lewis M, Devine D. Self-injurious behaviour: limbic dysregulation and stress effects in an animal model. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2012;56:490-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results suggest brain targets that should be investigated further, and increase our understanding of the putative role that stress plays in the pathophysiology of SIB. ..
  25. Zhang X, Huang S, Sun W, Wang W. Rapid and robust resampling-based multiple-testing correction with application in a genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci study. Genetics. 2012;190:1511-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The software is available at ..
  26. Lee D, Blackshaw S. Functional implications of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2012;30:615-21 pubmed publisher
  27. Anthony J, Esper G, Ioachimescu A. Hypothalamic-pituitary sarcoidosis with vision loss and hypopituitarism: case series and literature review. Pituitary. 2016;19:19-29 pubmed publisher
    ..7 %. HP NS is a serious disease requiring multidisciplinary treatment and lifelong follow-up. Prospective multicentric studies are needed to determine a more standardized approach to HP NS and outline predictors of disease outcome. ..
  28. De Vries G, Rissman E, Simerly R, Yang L, Scordalakes E, Auger C, et al. A model system for study of sex chromosome effects on sexually dimorphic neural and behavioral traits. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9005-14 pubmed
    ..Moreover, two male groups differing only in the form of their Sry gene showed differences in behavior. The results show that sex chromosome genes contribute directly to the development of a sex difference in the brain. ..
  29. Raap D, Doncarlos L, Garcia F, Zhang Y, Muma N, Battaglia G, et al. Ovariectomy-induced increases in hypothalamic serotonin-1A receptor function in rats are prevented by estradiol. Neuroendocrinology. 2002;76:348-56 pubmed
    ..Results from the present study indicate a supersensitivity of 5-HT(1A) receptors after withdrawal of estradiol and suggest that estradiol suppresses 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling. ..
  30. Gottsch M, Cunningham M, Smith J, Popa S, Acohido B, Crowley W, et al. A role for kisspeptins in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion in the mouse. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4073-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling may be part of the hypothalamic circuitry that governs the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH. ..
  31. Van Meer P, Pfankuch T, Raber J. Reduced histamine levels and H3 receptor antagonist-induced histamine release in the amygdala of Apoe-/- mice. J Neurochem. 2007;103:124-30 pubmed
    ..Such changes were not seen in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, or cortex. In Apoe-/- mice, chronically decreased histamine levels and reduced histamine release in the amygdala might contribute to increased measures of anxiety. ..
  32. Wang Y, Garro M, Dantzler H, Taylor J, Kline D, Kuehl Kovarik M. Age affects spontaneous activity and depolarizing afterpotentials in isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4938-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, changes in the GnRH neuron during aging could lead to dysregulated activity, potentially resulting in the attenuated LH pulses observed in the transition to reproductive senescence. ..
  33. Noel S, Keen K, Baumann D, Filardo E, Terasawa E. Involvement of G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) in rapid action of estrogen in primate LHRH neurons. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, E(2) induces a rapid excitatory effect on primate LHRH neurons, and this rapid action of E(2) appears to be mediated, in part, through GPR30...
  34. Wu D, Gore A. Changes in androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, and sexual behavior with aging and testosterone in male rats. Horm Behav. 2010;58:306-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding that testosterone replacement in aging males has profound effects on hypothalamic receptors and behavior has potential medical implications for the treatment of age-related hypogonadism in men. ..
  35. Dudas B, Baker M, Rotoli G, Grignol G, Bohn M, Merchenthaler I. Distribution and morphology of the catecholaminergic neural elements in the human hypothalamus. Neuroscience. 2010;171:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the juxtapositions between the TH-IR and numerous peptidergic systems revealed by previous reports indicate mostly dopaminergic synapses. ..
  36. Stachowiak E, Oommen S, Vasu V, Srinivasan M, STACHOWIAK M, Gohil K, et al. Maternal obesity affects gene expression and cellular development in fetal brains. Nutr Neurosci. 2013;16:96-103 pubmed publisher
    ..These defects could underlie pathologies such as metabolic syndrome and possibly some neurological disorders in the offspring at a later age. ..
  37. Prendergast B, Mosinger B, Kolattukudy P, Nelson R. Hypothalamic gene expression in reproductively photoresponsive and photorefractory Siberian hamsters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16291-6 pubmed
  38. Saggu S, Lundy R. Forebrain neurons that project to the gustatory parabrachial nucleus in rat lack glutamic acid decarboxylase. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R52-7 pubmed
    ..If we assume that the influence of centrifugal input is mediated by direct projections to the gustatory region of the PBN, then GABAergic forebrain neurons apparently are not part of this descending pathway. ..
  39. Bergeon Burns C, Rosvall K, Ketterson E. Neural steroid sensitivity and aggression: comparing individuals of two songbird subspecies. J Evol Biol. 2013;26:820-31 pubmed publisher
  40. Vaill M, Desai B, Harris R. Blockade of the cerebral aqueduct in rats provides evidence of antagonistic leptin responses in the forebrain and hindbrain. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;306:E414-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support previous observations that low-level activation of hindbrain leptin receptors has the potential to blunt the catabolic effects of leptin in the third ventricle. ..
  41. Dube M, Kalra S, Kalra P. Food intake elicited by central administration of orexins/hypocretins: identification of hypothalamic sites of action. Brain Res. 1999;842:473-7 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that orexin A receptive sites for stimulation of food intake exist primarily in a narrow band of neural tissue within the hypothalamus that is known to be involved in control of energy homeostasis. ..
  42. Jureus A, Cunningham M, Li D, Johnson L, Krasnow S, Teklemichael D, et al. Distribution and regulation of galanin-like peptide (GALP) in the hypothalamus of the mouse. Endocrinology. 2001;142:5140-4 pubmed
    ..These observations demonstrate that GALP mRNA is induced by leptin through a direct action on the brain. ..
  43. Makarenko I, Meguid M, Gatto L, Chen C, Ramos E, Goncalves C, et al. Normalization of hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT 1B) receptor and NPY in cancer anorexia after tumor resection: an immunocytochemical study. Neurosci Lett. 2005;383:322-7 pubmed
    ..These data, discussed in context with our previous studies, support the hypothesis that tumor resection results not only in normalization of food intake but also in reversible changes of anorectic and orexigenic hypothalamic modulators...
  44. Erdos B, Broxson C, Cudykier I, Basgut B, Whidden M, Landa T, et al. Effect of high-fat diet feeding on hypothalamic redox signaling and central blood pressure regulation. Hypertens Res. 2009;32:983-8 pubmed publisher
  45. Bosch M, Xue C, Rønnekleiv O. Kisspeptin expression in guinea pig hypothalamus: effects of 17?-estradiol. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:2143-62 pubmed publisher
  46. Smith C. A hypothalamic stroke producing recurrent hemihyperhidrosis. Neurology. 2001;56:1394-6 pubmed
    ..MRI indicated a single linear hyperintensity in the right posterior hypothalamus, diminishing on a repeat scan. He continues to have episodes of left unilateral sweating precipitated by exercise or minor infection. ..
  47. Obrietan K, Gao X, van den Pol A. Excitatory actions of GABA increase BDNF expression via a MAPK-CREB-dependent mechanism--a positive feedback circuit in developing neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88:1005-15 pubmed
    ..Signaling via the MAPK cascade and the transcription factor CREB appear to play a substantial role in this process...
  48. Kalra S, Kalra P. Overlapping and interactive pathways regulating appetite and craving. J Addict Dis. 2004;23:5-21 pubmed
  49. Proneth B, Xiang Z, Pogozheva I, Litherland S, Gorbatyuk O, Shaw A, et al. Molecular mechanism of the constitutive activation of the L250Q human melanocortin-4 receptor polymorphism. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2006;67:215-29 pubmed
  50. Sharma A, Bartell S, Baile C, Chen B, Podolsky R, McIndoe R, et al. Hepatic gene expression profiling reveals key pathways involved in leptin-mediated weight loss in ob/ob mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12147 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation will be required to assess the possible use of these genes and their associated protein products as therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity. ..
  51. Ibrahim B, Tamrakar P, Gujar A, Cherian A, Briski K. Caudal fourth ventricular administration of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside regulates glucose and counterregulatory hormone profiles, dorsal vagal complex metabolosensory neuron function, and hypothalamic Fos expression. J Neurosci Res. 2013;91:1226-38 pubmed publisher
  52. Qi Y, Purtell L, Fu M, Lee N, Aepler J, Zhang L, et al. Snord116 is critical in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Sci Rep. 2016;6:18614 pubmed publisher
  53. Heinrich G, Russo L, Castaneda T, Pfeiffer V, Ghadieh H, Ghanem S, et al. Leptin Resistance Contributes to Obesity in Mice with Null Mutation of Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:11124-32 pubmed publisher
  54. Horton B, Solanki R, Rajneesh K, Kulesza P, Ardelt A. Localization of angiopoietin-1 and Tie2 immunoreactivity in rodent ependyma and adjacent blood vessels suggests functional relationships. J Histochem Cytochem. 2010;58:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..No gross E2 effect on the ependymal pattern of Angpt1 IR or cerebral Angpt1 protein content was observed. ..
  55. Loskutova N, Honea R, Brooks W, Burns J. Reduced limbic and hypothalamic volumes correlate with bone density in early Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20:313-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that lower BMD is associated with lower hypothalamic volume in early AD, suggesting that central mechanisms of bone remodeling may be disrupted by neurodegeneration. ..
  56. Erdos B, Kirichenko N, Whidden M, Basgut B, Woods M, Cudykier I, et al. Effect of age on high-fat diet-induced hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H164-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our experiments led to the surprising finding that HF diet has a more serious impact on cardiovascular regulation in young animals compared with old. ..
  57. Thaler J, Guyenet S, Dorfman M, Wisse B, Schwartz M. Hypothalamic inflammation: marker or mechanism of obesity pathogenesis?. Diabetes. 2013;62:2629-34 pubmed publisher
  58. Briski K. Pharmacological manipulation of central nitric oxide/guanylate cyclase activity alters Fos expression by rat hypothalamic vasopressinergic neurons during acute glucose deprivation. J Chem Neuroanat. 1999;17:13-9 pubmed
  59. Stocker S, Wilson M, Madden C, Lone U, Sved A. Intravenous 6-hydroxydopamine attenuates vasopressin and oxytocin secretion stimulated by hemorrhage and hypotension but not hyperosmolality in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R59-67 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that catecholaminergic fibers located outside the blood-brain barrier contribute to VP and OT secretion during hemorrhage and arterial hypotension. ..
  60. Lerant A, Demaria J, Freeman M. Decreased expression of fos-related antigens (FRAs) in the hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons after immunoneutralization of endogenous prolactin. Endocrine. 2001;16:181-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that elimination of endogenous prolactin from the circulation lowers the activity and/or prevents the reactivation of neuroendocrine dopaminergic neurons at the beginning of the dark phase. ..
  61. Marriott L, McGann Gramling K, Hauss Wegrzyniak B, Sheldahl L, Shapiro R, Dorsa D, et al. Estrogen replacement regimen and brain infusion of lipopolysaccharide differentially alter steroid receptor expression in the uterus and hypothalamus. Endocrine. 2007;32:317-28 pubmed publisher
  62. Xu H, Qin S, Carrasco G, Dai Y, Filardo E, Prossnitz E, et al. Extra-nuclear estrogen receptor GPR30 regulates serotonin function in rat hypothalamus. Neuroscience. 2009;158:1599-607 pubmed publisher
  63. Pi X, Voogt J. Mechanisms for suckling-induced changes in expression of prolactin receptor in the hypothalamus of the lactating rat. Brain Res. 2001;891:197-205 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that expression of PRL-R in discrete hypothalamic nuclei is differentially regulated by either PRL and/or suckling. ..
  64. da Silva A, Kuo J, Hall J. Role of hypothalamic melanocortin 3/4-receptors in mediating chronic cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic actions of leptin. Hypertension. 2004;43:1312-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, MC3/4-R antagonism completely blocked the chronic cardiovascular, satiety, and metabolic effects of leptin, suggesting that the hypothalamic melanocortin system plays an important role in mediating these actions of leptin. ..
  65. Zsombok A, Smith B. Plasticity of central autonomic neural circuits in diabetes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1792:423-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on key autonomic brain areas associated with management of energy homeostasis and functional changes in these areas associated with the development of diabetes. ..
  66. Roepke T, Ronnekleiv O, Kelly M. Physiological consequences of membrane-initiated estrogen signaling in the brain. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2011;16:1560-73 pubmed
    ..This review will summarize recent findings on membrane-initiated E2 signaling in the hypothalamus and hippocampus and its contribution to the control of physiological and behavioral functions. ..
  67. Potapenko E, Biancardi V, Zhou Y, Stern J. Astrocytes modulate a postsynaptic NMDA-GABAA-receptor crosstalk in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. J Neurosci. 2013;33:631-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we propose that an uncoupling between NMDARs and GABA(A)Rs may contribute to exacerbated neuronal activity and, consequently, sympathohumoral activation in such disease conditions as heart failure. ..
  68. Cheng M. Hypothalamic neurogenesis in the adult brain. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2013;34:167-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We will discuss the potentially integral and ubiquitous roles of neurogenesis in physiological and biological phenomena, roles that await future experimental exploration. ..
  69. Blagosklonny M. M(o)TOR of aging: MTOR as a universal molecular hypothalamus. Aging (Albany NY). 2013;5:490-4 pubmed
  70. Anthony T, Dee N, Bernard A, Lerchner W, Heintz N, Anderson D. Control of stress-induced persistent anxiety by an extra-amygdala septohypothalamic circuit. Cell. 2014;156:522-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify a subset of LS projection neurons that promote, rather than suppress, stress-induced behavioral and endocrinological dimensions of persistent anxiety states and provide a cellular point of entry to LS circuitry. ..
  71. Xiao R, Bergin S, Huang W, Slater A, Liu X, Judd R, et al. Environmental and Genetic Activation of Hypothalamic BDNF Modulates T-cell Immunity to Exert an Anticancer Phenotype. Cancer Immunol Res. 2016;4:488-497 pubmed publisher
    ..Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 488-97. ©2016 AACR. ..
  72. Plata Salaman C. 1998 Curt P. Richter Award. Brain mechanisms in cytokine-induced anorexia. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1999;24:25-41 pubmed
  73. Lee Y, Voogt J. Feedback effects of placental lactogens on prolactin levels and Fos-related antigen immunoreactivity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons in the arcuate nucleus during pregnancy in the rat. Endocrinology. 1999;140:2159-66 pubmed
    ..Removal of the PL source elevates plasma PRL levels at all times during the second half of pregnancy and does not restore PRL surges. ..
  74. Evans J, Sumners C, Moore J, Huentelman M, Deng J, Gelband C, et al. Characterization of mitotic neurons derived from adult rat hypothalamus and brain stem. J Neurophysiol. 2002;87:1076-85 pubmed
    ..These cells therefore have the immunological and electrophysiological properties of immature mitotic neurons and should be useful in a variety of future studies of neuronal differentiation and function. ..
  75. Morton G, Niswender K, Rhodes C, Myers M, Blevins J, Baskin D, et al. Arcuate nucleus-specific leptin receptor gene therapy attenuates the obesity phenotype of Koletsky (fa(k)/fa(k)) rats. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2016-24 pubmed
    ..Adenoviral gene therapy is thus a viable strategy with which to study the physiological importance of specific molecules acting in discrete brain areas. ..
  76. Irani B, Dunn Meynell A, Levin B. Altered hypothalamic leptin, insulin, and melanocortin binding associated with moderate-fat diet and predisposition to obesity. Endocrinology. 2007;148:310-6 pubmed
    ..These results corroborate our previous findings demonstrating a preexisting decrease in DIO hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling and demonstrate that HE diet intake reduces hypothalamic melanocortin and hippocampal insulin binding. ..
  77. Chu H, Ohtoshi A. Cloning and functional analysis of hypothalamic homeobox gene Bsx1a and its isoform, Bsx1b. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:3743-9 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical analyses suggested that both BSX1A and BSX1B are expressed in the neonatal hypothalamus. Taking these data together, we propose that alternative RNA splicing is involved in hypothalamic development/function. ..
  78. Gelling R, Yan W, Al Noori S, Pardini A, Morton G, Ogimoto K, et al. Deficiency of TNFalpha converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17) causes a lean, hypermetabolic phenotype in mice. Endocrinology. 2008;149:6053-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings collectively identify a novel and potentially important role for TACE in energy homeostasis. ..
  79. Kalra S, Dube M, Iwaniec U. Leptin increases osteoblast-specific osteocalcin release through a hypothalamic relay. Peptides. 2009;30:967-73 pubmed publisher
  80. Grayson B, Levasseur P, Williams S, Smith M, Marks D, Grove K. Changes in melanocortin expression and inflammatory pathways in fetal offspring of nonhuman primates fed a high-fat diet. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1622-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, the HFD offspring develop early-onset excess weight gain. These abnormalities may be prevented by healthful nutrient consumption during pregnancy even in obese and severely insulin-resistant individuals. ..
  81. Martyniuk C, Feswick A, Spade D, Kroll K, Barber D, Denslow N. Effects of acute dieldrin exposure on neurotransmitters and global gene transcription in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) hypothalamus. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:356-66 pubmed publisher
  82. Balasubramanian P, Sirivelu M, Weiss K, Wagner J, Harkema J, Morishita M, et al. Differential effects of inhalation exposure to PM2.5 on hypothalamic monoamines and corticotrophin releasing hormone in lean and obese rats. Neurotoxicology. 2013;36:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..DA levels on the other hand, were unaffected in both BN and JCR/LA strains. These data suggest that repeated exposures to PM2.5 continue to stimulate the PVN in obese animals but not lean rats. ..
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