Experts and Doctors on glutamine in Germany


Locale: Germany
Topic: glutamine

Top Publications

  1. Mrabet Dahbi S, Dalpke A, Niebuhr M, Frey M, Draing C, Brand S, et al. The Toll-like receptor 2 R753Q mutation modifies cytokine production and Toll-like receptor expression in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:1013-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the outcome of innate and adaptive immune responses in AD is modulated by the TLR-2 R753Q SNP. ..
  2. Rother D, Poppe L, Morlock G, Viergutz S, Retey J. An active site homology model of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Petroselinum crispum. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:3065-75 pubmed
    ..The homology model of PAL showed that the active site of PAL resembles the active site of HAL. This allowed us to propose possible roles for the corresponding residues in PAL catalysis. ..
  3. Fogolín M, Wagner R, Etcheverrigaray M, Kratje R. Impact of temperature reduction and expression of yeast pyruvate carboxylase on hGM-CSF-producing CHO cells. J Biotechnol. 2004;109:179-91 pubmed
    ..2-fold under reduced temperature conditions. The results revealed that the expression of PYC2 and a reduced culture temperature have an additive effect on the cell specific productivity of CHO-K1-hGM-CSF cells. ..
  4. Soeiro de Souza M, Henning A, Machado Vieira R, Moreno R, Pastorello B, da Costa Leite C, et al. Anterior cingulate Glutamate-Glutamine cycle metabolites are altered in euthymic bipolar I disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:2221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether this feature is a metabolic signature of euthymic BD subjects should be the focus of future studies. ..
  5. Gruss M, Braun K. Alterations of amino acids and monoamine metabolism in male Fmr1 knockout mice: a putative animal model of the human fragile X mental retardation syndrome. Neural Plast. 2001;8:285-98 pubmed
    ..The results presented here provide the first evidence that lack of FMRP expression in FMRP knockout mice is accompanied by age-dependent, region-specific alterations in neurotransmission. ..
  6. Vermeulen T, Gorg B, Vogl T, Wolf M, Varga G, Toutain A, et al. Glutamine synthetase is essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;478:96-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusion. GS can be found during early human fetal stages when it displays a significant effect on cell proliferation. ..
  7. Hansch R, Fessel D, Witt C, Hesberg C, Hoffmann G, Walch Liu P, et al. Tobacco plants that lack expression of functional nitrate reductase in roots show changes in growth rates and metabolite accumulation. J Exp Bot. 2001;52:1251-8 pubmed
    ..These plants will be a useful tool for laboratories studying nitrate assimilation and its interactions with carbon metabolism. ..
  8. Schmidt S, Adolf F, Fuchsbauer H. The transglutaminase activating metalloprotease inhibitor from Streptomyces mobaraensis is a glutamine and lysine donor substrate of the intrinsic transglutaminase. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:3132-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Formation of lipoamino acids by Streptomycetes suggests such compounds could also modulate in vivo TGase mediated SSTI cross-linking. ..
  9. Thiel J, Muller M, Weschke W, Weber H. Amino acid metabolism at the maternal-filial boundary of young barley seeds: a microdissection-based study. Planta. 2009;230:205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the established micromethods revealed strategies in NP of young barley grains for mobilization and metabolism of transient N and S reserves and transfer into the endosperm. ..

More Information


  1. Irani N, Beccaria A, Wagner R. Expression of recombinant cytoplasmic yeast pyruvate carboxylase for the improvement of the production of human erythropoietin by recombinant BHK-21 cells. J Biotechnol. 2002;93:269-82 pubmed
  2. Frey M, Spiteller D, Boland W, Gierl A. Transcriptional activation of Igl, the gene for indole formation in Zea mays: a structure-activity study with elicitor-active N-acyl glutamines from insects. Phytochemistry. 2004;65:1047-55 pubmed
    ..Hence, the induction of jasmonate biosynthesis appears to be an integral part of the elicitor mediated increase of Igl gene transcription. ..
  3. Hornung E, Kunze S, Liavonchanka A, Zimmermann G, Kuhn D, Fritsche K, et al. Identification of an amino acid determinant of pH regiospecificity in a seed lipoxygenase from Momordica charantia. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:2774-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the biological relevance for this alteration switch remains to be investigated it is of particular interest that it occurs at near physiological conditions in the pH-range between 7 and 8. ..
  4. Melkus G, Rolletschek H, Radchuk R, Fuchs J, Rutten T, Wobus U, et al. The metabolic role of the legume endosperm: a noninvasive imaging study. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:1139-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue for a degree of metabolite-mediated control exerted by the endosperm on the growth of, and assimilate storage by, the embryo. ..
  5. Meiser J, Delcambre S, Wegner A, Jäger C, Ghelfi J, d Herouel A, et al. Loss of DJ-1 impairs antioxidant response by altered glutamine and serine metabolism. Neurobiol Dis. 2016;89:112-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work reveals metabolic alterations leading to increased cellular instability and identifies potential new intervention points that can further be studied in the light of novel translational medicine approaches. ..
  6. Woelke A, Galstyan G, Galstyan A, Meyer T, Heberle J, Knapp E. Exploring the possible role of Glu286 in CcO by electrostatic energy computations combined with molecular dynamics. J Phys Chem B. 2013;117:12432-41 pubmed publisher
  7. Lamb D, Nienhaus K, Arcovito A, Draghi F, Miele A, Brunori M, et al. Structural dynamics of myoglobin: ligand migration among protein cavities studied by Fourier transform infrared/temperature derivative spectroscopy. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:11636-44 pubmed
    ..Comparison of YQR and YQRF shows that access to the Xe4 site (C') is severely restricted by introduction of the bulky Phe side chain at position 107. ..
  8. Eckert B, Martin A, Balbach J, Schmid F. Prolyl isomerization as a molecular timer in phage infection. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:619-23 pubmed
    ..The switching rate and thus the infectivity of the phage are determined by the local sequence around Pro213, and can be tuned by mutagenesis. ..
  9. Orth J, Lang S, Aktories K. Action of Pasteurella multocida toxin depends on the helical domain of Galphaq. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34150-5 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that the all-helical domain of Galpha(q) is essential for the action of PMT and suggest an essential functional role of this domain in signal transduction via G(q) proteins. ..
  10. Bender Machado L, Bäuerlein M, Carrari F, Schauer N, Lytovchenko A, Gibon Y, et al. Expression of a yeast acetyl CoA hydrolase in the mitochondrion of tobacco plants inhibits growth and restricts photosynthesis. Plant Mol Biol. 2004;55:645-62 pubmed
    ..In summary these results suggest that the content of acetyl CoA is under tight control and that alterations in the level of this central metabolite have severe metabolic and developmental consequences in tobacco. ..
  11. Nitzsche R, Zagoriy V, Lucius R, Gupta N. Metabolic Cooperation of Glucose and Glutamine Is Essential for the Lytic Cycle of Obligate Intracellular Parasite Toxoplasma gondii. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:126-41 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii tachyzoites in diverse host cells. Our results also indicate a convergence of parasite metabolism with cancer cells. ..
  12. Klingen A, Ullmann G. Negatively charged residues and hydrogen bonds tune the ligand histidine pKa values of Rieske iron-sulfur proteins. Biochemistry. 2004;43:12383-9 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the shift caused by neutralizing the negative charges in ferredoxin Rieske proteins is larger than the shift caused by removing the hydrogen bonds toward the cluster in bc-type Rieske proteins. ..
  13. Vermeulen T, Marquardt T, Haberle J. Pseudodeficiency of glutamine in infant liver disease. Amino Acids. 2009;37:435-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, increased in vitro gamma-GT can cause pseudodeficiency of glutamine. To avoid pitfalls, physicians should inform the laboratory on accompanying pathologies. ..
  14. Bentmann E, Neumann M, Tahirovic S, Rodde R, Dormann D, Haass C. Requirements for stress granule recruitment of fused in sarcoma (FUS) and TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43). J Biol Chem. 2012;287:23079-94 pubmed publisher
  15. Mahalingam M, Vogel R. The all-trans-15-syn-retinal chromophore of metarhodopsin III is a partial agonist and not an inverse agonist. Biochemistry. 2006;45:15624-32 pubmed
  16. Böhm H, Mäck G. Betaxanthin formation and free amino acids in hairy roots of Beta vulgaris var. lutea depending on nutrient medium and glutamate or glutamine feeding. Phytochemistry. 2004;65:1361-8 pubmed
    ..Possible reasons will be discussed, also with respect to the occurrence of species-specific patterns of betaxanthins...
  17. Zaitseva J, Jenewein S, Jumpertz T, Holland I, Schmitt L. H662 is the linchpin of ATP hydrolysis in the nucleotide-binding domain of the ABC transporter HlyB. EMBO J. 2005;24:1901-10 pubmed
    ..Based on biochemical experiments, we discuss the hypothesis that substrate-assisted catalysis, rather than general base catalysis might operate in ABC-ATPases...
  18. Loew A, Jacob D, Neuhaus P, Riess H. Resistance to activated protein C caused by factor V Leiden mutation and orthotopic liver transplantation. Transplantation. 2005;79:1422-7 pubmed
    ..APCR caused by FV:Q506 before OLT is a risk factor for TE. OLT-related "acquired" APCR should be considered a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. ..
  19. Goettig P, Brandstetter H, Groll M, G hring W, Konarev P, Svergun D, et al. X-ray snapshots of peptide processing in mutants of tricorn-interacting factor F1 from Thermoplasma acidophilum. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:33387-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, small angle x-ray scattering measurements for tricorn and inhibited F1 have been interpreted as formation of transient and substrate-induced complexes...
  20. Kreutzenbeck P, Kröger C, Lausberg F, Blaudeck N, Sprenger G, Freudl R. Escherichia coli twin arginine (Tat) mutant translocases possessing relaxed signal peptide recognition specificities. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:7903-11 pubmed
  21. Bonaventure G, VanDoorn A, Baldwin I. Herbivore-associated elicitors: FAC signaling and metabolism. Trends Plant Sci. 2011;16:294-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction between Nicotiana attenuata and the specialist lepidopteran Manduca sexta presents a relevant biological system to understand HAE perception and signal transduction systems in plants. ..
  22. Bröhl S, Lisowsky T, Riemen G, Michaelis G. A new nuclear suppressor system for a mitochondrial RNA polymerase mutant identifies an unusual zinc-finger protein and a polyglutamine domain protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1994;10:719-31 pubmed
    ..Additional transformation experiments showed that AZF1 is also an efficient suppressor for the original defect in the core subunit of mitochondrial RNA polymerase. ..
  23. Lima J, Kojima S, Takahashi H, von Wirén N. Ammonium triggers lateral root branching in Arabidopsis in an AMMONIUM TRANSPORTER1;3-dependent manner. Plant Cell. 2010;22:3621-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that ammonium is complementary to nitrate in shaping lateral root development and that stimulation of lateral root branching by ammonium occurs in an AMT1;3-dependent manner. ..
  24. VanDoorn A, Kallenbach M, Borquez A, Baldwin I, Bonaventure G. Rapid modification of the insect elicitor N-linolenoyl-glutamate via a lipoxygenase-mediated mechanism on Nicotiana attenuata leaves. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:164 pubmed publisher
    ..attenuata plants, 18:3-Glu, results in the formation of oxidized forms of this FAC by a LOX-dependent mechanism. One of these derivatives, 13-oxo-13:2-Glu, is an active elicitor of JA biosynthesis and differential monoterpene emission. ..
  25. Rehm N, Georgi T, Hiery E, Degner U, Schmiedl A, Burkovski A, et al. L-Glutamine as a nitrogen source for Corynebacterium glutamicum: derepression of the AmtR regulon and implications for nitrogen sensing. Microbiology. 2010;156:3180-93 pubmed publisher
    ..glutamicum. ..
  26. Teplyakov A, Obmolova G, Badet B, Badet Denisot M. Channeling of ammonia in glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. J Mol Biol. 2001;313:1093-102 pubmed
    ..Based on the structure, a mechanism of enzyme action and self-regulation is proposed. It involves large domain movements triggered by substrate binding that lead to the formation of the channel. ..
  27. Fleck C, Pertsch J. Influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on renal transport of PAH and amino acids in amino acid loaded rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 1999;51:315-20 pubmed
    ..wt.). A simultaneous PAH load reduced amino acid reabsorption as a sign of overloading of renal tubular transport capacity, but in EGF pretreated animals the amino acid excretion was only slightly increased under these conditions...
  28. Selmer T, Kahnt J, Goubeaud M, Shima S, Grabarse W, Ermler U, et al. The biosynthesis of methylated amino acids in the active site region of methyl-coenzyme M reductase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:3755-60 pubmed
    ..A mechanism for the methylation of glutamine at C-2 and of arginine at C-5 is discussed...
  29. Grewer C, Watzke N, Rauen T, Bicho A. Is the glutamate residue Glu-373 the proton acceptor of the excitatory amino acid carrier 1?. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2585-92 pubmed
    ..The function of alanine-serine-cysteine transporter is neither potassium- nor proton-dependent. Consequently, our results emphasize the general importance of glutamate and aspartate residues for proton transport across membranes. ..
  30. Agianian B, Leonard K, Bonte E, van Der Zandt H, Becker P, Tucker P. The glutamine-rich domain of the Drosophila GAGA factor is necessary for amyloid fibre formation in vitro, but not for chromatin remodelling. J Mol Biol. 1999;285:527-44 pubmed
    ..Consequently, neither the N-terminal domain nor the C-terminal glutamine-rich regions of the GAGA factor are necessary for chromatin remodelling in vitro. ..
  31. Hamer O, Forstner D, Ottinger I, Ristow M, Bollheimer L, Scholmerich J, et al. The Pro115Gln polymorphism within the PPAR gamma2 gene has no epidemiological impact on morbid obesity. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2002;110:230-4 pubmed
    ..It needs further investigation whether this polymorphism might play a role in related metabolic disorders. ..
  32. Maheswaran M, Forchhammer K. Carbon-source-dependent nitrogen regulation in Escherichia coli is mediated through glutamine-dependent GlnB signalling. Microbiology. 2003;149:2163-72 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that poor carbon sources, through cAMP signalling, favour glutamine uptake. The cellular glutamine signal is then transduced by uridylyltransferase and GlnB to modulate NtrC-dependent gene expression. ..
  33. Sørensen J, Fernandez Chacon R, Sudhof T, Neher E. Examining synaptotagmin 1 function in dense core vesicle exocytosis under direct control of Ca2+. J Gen Physiol. 2003;122:265-76 pubmed
    ..Single amperometric fusion events were unchanged. We conclude that Ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding to synaptotagmin 1 mirrors the intracellular Ca2+ dependence of exocytosis. ..
  34. Penalva L, Ruiz M, Ortega A, Granadino B, Vicente L, Segarra C, et al. The Drosophila fl(2)d gene, required for female-specific splicing of Sxl and tra pre-mRNAs, encodes a novel nuclear protein with a HQ-rich domain. Genetics. 2000;155:129-39 pubmed
    ..Consistent with a possible function in posttranscriptional regulation, Fl(2)d protein has nuclear localization and is enriched in nuclear extracts. ..
  35. Quednow B, Schmechtig A, Ettinger U, Petrovsky N, Collier D, Vollenweider F, et al. Sensorimotor gating depends on polymorphisms of the serotonin-2A receptor and catechol-O-methyltransferase, but not on neuregulin-1 Arg38Gln genotype: a replication study. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:614-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of the COMT Val158Met genotype on PPI appears to be sex-specific. These results underscore the significance of the serotonin and dopamine systems in the modulation of sensorimotor gating. ..
  36. Wenzel S, Martins B, Rosch P, Wohrl B. Crystal structure of the human transcription elongation factor DSIF hSpt4 subunit in complex with the hSpt5 dimerization interface. Biochem J. 2009;425:373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..However, exchanging the glutamine for glutamate proved not to be sufficient to induce hSpt4 binding. ..
  37. Grabarse W, Mahlert F, Shima S, Thauer R, Ermler U. Comparison of three methyl-coenzyme M reductases from phylogenetically distant organisms: unusual amino acid modification, conservation and adaptation. J Mol Biol. 2000;303:329-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This was reflected in a higher fraction of glutamate residues at the protein surface of the thermophilic enzymes adapted to high intracellular salt concentrations...
  38. Frey M, Stettner C, Pare P, Schmelz E, Tumlinson J, Gierl A. An herbivore elicitor activates the gene for indole emission in maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:14801-6 pubmed
    ..Gene-sequence analysis indicates that Igl and Bx1 are evolutionarily related to the tryptophan synthase alpha subunit. ..
  39. Schneider H, Broer S, Bröer A, Deitmer J. Heterologous expression of the glutamine transporter SNAT3 in Xenopus oocytes is associated with four modes of uncoupled transport. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3788-98 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that, in addition to coupled transport, SNAT3 mediates four modes of uncoupled ion movement across the membrane. ..
  40. Weber A, Flügge U. Interaction of cytosolic and plastidic nitrogen metabolism in plants. J Exp Bot. 2002;53:865-74 pubmed
    ..Glucose 6-phosphate, the immediate precursor of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is generated in the cytosol and imported into the plastids by the plastidic glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator. ..
  41. Burger M, Denzinger S, Hammerschmied C, Tannapfel A, Maderstorfer A, Wieland W, et al. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is activated in prostate tumors but not mediated by B-RAF mutations. Eur Urol. 2006;50:1102-9; discussion 1109-10 pubmed
    ..MSI is infrequent in prostate cancer and is not linked to B-RAF mutations. MAPK signaling is frequently activated in prostate tumors and might be suitable for a therapeutic approach. ..
  42. Ernst R, Koch J, Horn C, Tampe R, Schmitt L. Engineering ATPase activity in the isolated ABC cassette of human TAP1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:27471-80 pubmed
    ..Based on our results a catalytic hierarchy of these two fundamental amino acids in ATP hydrolysis of the mutated TAP1 motor domain was deduced...
  43. Fink D, Falke D, Wohlleben W, Engels A. Nitrogen metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): modification of glutamine synthetase I by an adenylyltransferase. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 9):2313-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the loss of short-term GSI regulation in the E4 mutant was accompanied by an increased glutamine:glutamate ratio...
  44. Backer M, Rakowski D, Poghossian A, Biselli M, Wagner P, Schöning M. Chip-based amperometric enzyme sensor system for monitoring of bioprocesses by flow-injection analysis. J Biotechnol. 2013;163:371-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of the realized microfluidic biosensor chip for monitoring of bioprocesses. ..
  45. List F, Vega M, Razeto A, Häger M, Sterner R, Wilmanns M. Catalysis uncoupling in a glutamine amidotransferase bienzyme by unblocking the glutaminase active site. Chem Biol. 2012;19:1589-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data advance the understanding of coupling enzymatic activities in glutamine amidotransferases and raise hypotheses of the underlying molecular mechanism. ..
  46. Horn T, Ivanov I, Di Venere A, Kakularam K, Reddanna P, Conrad M, et al. Molecular basis for the catalytic inactivity of a naturally occurring near-null variant of human ALOX15. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1831:1702-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that the conserved glycine is of functional importance for these enzyme variants and most mutants at this position lose catalytic activity. ..
  47. Weidemann W, Peters B, Romalo G, Spindler K, Schweikert H. Response to androgen treatment in a patient with partial androgen insensitivity and a mutation in the deoxyribonucleic acid-binding domain of the androgen receptor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:1173-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, serum lipid levels were not affected. To our knowledge this is the first documentation of successful treatment in a patient with PAIS and a point mutation in the DNA-binding domain of the androgen receptor...
  48. Dennig J, Beato M, Suske G. An inhibitor domain in Sp3 regulates its glutamine-rich activation domains. EMBO J. 1996;15:5659-67 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the transcriptional activity of Sp3 might be regulated in vivo by relief of inhibition. ..
  49. Fernandez García A, Butz P, Trierweiler B, Zöller H, Stärke J, Pfaff E, et al. Pressure/temperature combined treatments of precursors yield hormone-like peptides with pyroglutamate at the N terminus. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:8093-7 pubmed
    ..The reported reactions could affect the naturally balanced concentration of short-chain peptides in foods and therefore induce unpredictable biological effects. ..
  50. Winnefeld M, Rommelaere J, Cziepluch C. The human small glutamine-rich TPR-containing protein is required for progress through cell division. Exp Cell Res. 2004;293:43-57 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, results obtained in this study demonstrate that hSGT protein is a constitutive component of all human cell lines tested and that this protein is essential for successful completion of cell division. ..
  51. Nitzsche R, Günay Esiyok Ö, Tischer M, Zagoriy V, Gupta N. A plant/fungal-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase located in the parasite mitochondrion ensures glucose-independent survival of Toxoplasma gondii. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:15225-15239 pubmed publisher
    ..Last but not least, the observed physiology of T. gondii tachyzoites appears to phenocopy cancer cells, which holds promise for developing common therapeutics against both threats. ..
  52. Wiggerich H, Klauke B, K plin R, Priefer U, P hler A. Unusual structure of the tonB-exb DNA region of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris: tonB, exbB, and exbD1 are essential for ferric iron uptake, but exbD2 is not. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:7103-10 pubmed
    ..By mutational analysis, the tonB, exbB, and exbD1 genes were shown to be essential for ferric iron import in X. campestris pv. campestris. In contrast, the exbD2 gene is not involved in the uptake of ferric iron...
  53. Mueller S, Kleinau G, Szkudlinski M, Jaeschke H, Krause G, Paschke R. The superagonistic activity of bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and the human TR1401 TSH analog is determined by specific amino acids in the hinge region of the human TSH receptor. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16317-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the simultaneous localization of binding components in the glycoprotein hormone molecule and the receptor hinge region permits important reevaluation of interacting hormone receptor domains. ..
  54. Schreiber R, Stoll B, Lang F, Haussinger D. Effects of aniso-osmolarity and hydroperoxides on intracellular pH in isolated rat hepatocytes as assessed by (2',7')-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran fluorescence. Biochem J. 1994;303 ( Pt 1):113-20 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that modulation of vesicular pH by the hepatocellular hydration state may play a role in triggering some metabolic changes in response to cell swelling/shrinkage. ..
  55. AbdAlla S, Lother H, Langer A, el Faramawy Y, Quitterer U. Factor XIIIA transglutaminase crosslinks AT1 receptor dimers of monocytes at the onset of atherosclerosis. Cell. 2004;119:343-54 pubmed
  56. Behrens P, Franz P, Woodman B, Lindenberg K, Landwehrmeyer G. Impaired glutamate transport and glutamate-glutamine cycling: downstream effects of the Huntington mutation. Brain. 2002;125:1908-22 pubmed
  57. Klar T, Pokorny R, Moldt J, Batschauer A, Essen L. Cryptochrome 3 from Arabidopsis thaliana: structural and functional analysis of its complex with a folate light antenna. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:954-64 pubmed
    ..Spectroscopic studies on a mutant where a residue crucial for MTHF-binding, E149, was replaced by site-directed mutagenesis demonstrate that MTHF acts in cryptochrome 3 as a functional antenna for the photoreduction of FAD. ..
  58. Much B, Wahl Schott C, Zong X, Schneider A, Baumann L, Moosmang S, et al. Role of subunit heteromerization and N-linked glycosylation in the formation of functional hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:43781-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together our results indicate that subunit heteromerization and glycosylation are important determinants of the formation of native HCN channels. ..
  59. Escher P, Rennenberg H. Influx of double labelled glutamine into mistletoes (Viscum album) from the xylem sap of its host (Abies alba). Plant Physiol Biochem. 2006;44:880-4 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that C liberated from Gln is transported rapidly to different sink tissues, whereas N in the oversupplied mistletoes is transported slowly to sinks in the leaves...
  60. Tobaben S, Varoqueaux F, Brose N, Stahl B, Meyer G. A brain-specific isoform of small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein binds to Hsc70 and the cysteine string protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38376-83 pubmed
    ..The modular structure of SGTs allows them to recruit client proteins to Hsc70 and to direct the resulting complex toward downstream proteins that take over the respective client proteins. ..
  61. Kugler F, Graneis S, Schreiter P, Stintzing F, Carle R. Determination of free amino compounds in betalainic fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:4311-8 pubmed
    ..On a molar basis, betaxanthin contribution to overall amino compound contents was always below 6.4%...
  62. Niebisch A, Kabus A, Schultz C, Weil B, Bott M. Corynebacterial protein kinase G controls 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity via the phosphorylation status of the OdhI protein. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12300-7 pubmed publisher
    ..glutamicum. Moreover, because this signaling cascade is likely to operate also in mycobacteria, our results suggest that the attenuated pathogenicity of mycobacteria lacking PknG might be caused by a disturbed tricarboxylic acid cycle...
  63. Haberle J, Gorg B, Rutsch F, Schmidt E, Toutain A, Benoist J, et al. Congenital glutamine deficiency with glutamine synthetase mutations. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1926-33 pubmed
    ..Studies that used immortalized lymphocytes expressing R324C glutamine synthetase (R324C-GS) and COS7 cells expressing R341C-GS suggest that these mutations are associated with reduced glutamine synthetase activity. ..
  64. Castro L, Hermsen C, Schultz J, Linder J. Adenylyl cyclase Rv0386 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv uses a novel mode for substrate selection. FEBS J. 2005;272:3085-92 pubmed
    ..Data from individual and coordinated point mutations suggest a model for purine definition based on an amide switch related to that previously identified in cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. ..
  65. Ethofer T, Seeger U, Klose U, Erb M, Kardatzki B, Kraft E, et al. Proton MR spectroscopy in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Neurology. 2004;62:1016-8 pubmed
    ..A characteristic pattern with clearly elevated GABA levels and traces of GHB was found in both the white and the gray matter of the brain. In vivo spectroscopy may be useful for diagnosis and monitoring SSADH deficiency. ..
  66. Seitz A, Schneider F, Pasternack R, Fuchsbauer H, Hampp N. Enzymatic cross-linking of purple membranes catalyzed by bacterial transglutaminase. Biomacromolecules. 2001;2:233-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this finding may provide the ability to achieve covalent linkage of complete purple membrane patches to synthetic polymers...
  67. Schilling S, Manhart S, Hoffmann T, Ludwig H, Wasternack C, Demuth H. Substrate specificity of glutaminyl cyclases from plants and animals. Biol Chem. 2003;384:1583-92 pubmed
  68. Teichert S, Schönig B, Richter S, Tudzynski B. Deletion of the Gibberella fujikuroi glutamine synthetase gene has significant impact on transcriptional control of primary and secondary metabolism. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:1661-75 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that not only glutamine, but also GS itself might play an important role in nitrogen metabolite repression. ..
  69. Narayanan S, Bösl B, Walter S, Reif B. Importance of low-oligomeric-weight species for prion propagation in the yeast prion system Sup35/Hsp104. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9286-91 pubmed
    ..Taking into account the fact that Hsp104 is required for maintenance of [PSI+], we suggest that low-oligomeric-weight species of Sup35 are important for prion propagation in yeast. ..
  70. Puzio P, Lausen J, Almeida Engler J, Cai D, Gheysen G, Grundler F. Isolation of a gene from Arabidopsis thaliana related to nematode feeding structures. Gene. 1999;239:163-72 pubmed
    ..In-situ hybridisation and Northern blot analysis revealed that the gene is expressed in NFS. Based on homologies of the glutamine-rich domain, the biological role of the pyk20 gene product as a transcription factor is assumed. ..
  71. Strohmeier M, Raschle T, Mazurkiewicz J, Rippe K, Sinning I, Fitzpatrick T, et al. Structure of a bacterial pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19284-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutagenesis permitted identification of the remote glutaminase and synthase catalytic centers and led us to propose a mechanism whereby ammonia shuttles between these active sites through a methionine-rich hydrophobic tunnel...
  72. Kümpfel T, Hoffmann L, Rübsamen H, Pöllmann W, Feneberg W, Hohlfeld R, et al. Late-onset tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome in multiple sclerosis patients carrying the TNFRSF1A R92Q mutation. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:2774-83 pubmed
    ..Autoinflammatory syndromes and especially late-onset TRAPS should be considered in MS patients who report symptoms such as arthralgias/arthritis, myalgias, urticarial rash, and severe fatigue. ..
  73. Schilling S, Lindner C, Koch B, Wermann M, Rahfeld J, von Bohlen A, et al. Isolation and characterization of glutaminyl cyclases from Drosophila: evidence for enzyme forms with different subcellular localization. Biochemistry. 2007;46:10921-30 pubmed
    ..Drosophila is the first organism for which isoenzymes of glutaminyl cyclase have been isolated. The identification of a mitochondrial QC points toward yet undiscovered physiological functions of these enzymes. ..
  74. Ossig R, Schmitt H, de Groot B, Riedel D, Keranen S, Ronne H, et al. Exocytosis requires asymmetry in the central layer of the SNARE complex. EMBO J. 2000;19:6000-10 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the asymmetric arrangement of the polar amino acids in the central layer is essential for normal function of SNAREs in membrane fusion. ..
  75. Tidten N, Stengl B, Heine A, Garcia G, Klebe G, Reuter K. Glutamate versus glutamine exchange swaps substrate selectivity in tRNA-guanine transglycosylase: insight into the regulation of substrate selectivity by kinetic and crystallographic studies. J Mol Biol. 2007;374:764-76 pubmed
    ..The way this is achieved, however, significantly differs from that predicted based on crystal structures of wild-type Tgt...