Experts and Doctors on galanin in United States


Locale: United States
Topic: galanin

Top Publications

  1. Forbes Lorman R, Rautio J, Kurian J, Auger A, Auger C. Neonatal MeCP2 is important for the organization of sex differences in vasopressin expression. Epigenetics. 2012;7:230-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Hohmann J, Teklemichael D, Weinshenker D, Wynick D, Clifton D, Steiner R. Obesity and endocrine dysfunction in mice with deletions of both neuropeptide Y and galanin. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2978-85 pubmed
    ..The unexpected obesity phenotype may result from the dysregulation of the leptin and insulin systems that normally keep body weight within the homeostatic range. ..
  3. Hrabovszky E, Petersen S. Increased concentrations of radioisotopically-labeled complementary ribonucleic acid probe, dextran sulfate, and dithiothreitol in the hybridization buffer can improve results of in situ hybridization histochemistry. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002;50:1389-400 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the new method using increased concentrations of (35)S-labeled cRNA probe, DS, and DTT will be especially important for the cellular localization of rare mRNA species. ..
  4. Dunkin C, Pokorny A, Almeida P, Lee H. Molecular dynamics studies of transportan 10 (tp10) interacting with a POPC lipid bilayer. J Phys Chem B. 2011;115:1188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The electrostatic attraction between Lys and phosphate groups is also believed to be the main bottleneck for the translocation of tp10 across the membrane. ..
  5. Riban V, Fitzsimons H, During M. Gene therapy in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009;50:24-32 pubmed publisher
  6. Zigmond R. Can galanin also be considered as growth-associated protein 3.2?. Trends Neurosci. 2001;24:494-6; discussion 496 pubmed
    ..Hopefully, similar functional consequences will soon be found for other peptides induced in these neurons after axotomy, such as vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide. ..
  7. Clark K, Svetlovics J, McKeown A, Huskins L, Almeida P. What determines the activity of antimicrobial and cytolytic peptides in model membranes. Biochemistry. 2011;50:7919-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, contrary to the hypotheses, the results indicate that the Gibbs energy of binding to the membrane, not the Gibbs energy of insertion, is the primary determinant of peptide activity. ..
  8. Szabo F, Snyder N, Usdin T, Hoffman G. A direct neuronal connection between the subparafascicular and ventrolateral arcuate nuclei in non-lactating female rats. Could this pathway play a role in the suckling-induced prolactin release?. Endocrine. 2010;37:62-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The presented findings suggest that the ascending fibers from the subparafascicular parvocellular nucleus might be in the pathway involved in the suckling-induced prolactin release. ..
  9. Polston E, Simerly R. Sex-specific patterns of galanin, cholecystokinin, and substance P expression in neurons of the principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are differentially reflected within three efferent preoptic pathways in the juvenile rat. J Comp Neurol. 2003;465:551-9 pubmed

More Information


  1. Fraley G, Shimada I, Baumgartner J, Clifton D, Steiner R. Differential patterns of Fos induction in the hypothalamus of the rat following central injections of galanin-like peptide and galanin. Endocrinology. 2003;144:1143-6 pubmed
  2. Yandek L, Pokorny A, Almeida P. Small changes in the primary structure of transportan 10 alter the thermodynamics and kinetics of its interaction with phospholipid vesicles. Biochemistry. 2008;47:3051-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, it is clear that the changes in efflux rate reflect the differences in the thermodynamics of binding and insertion of the free and amidated peptide groups. ..
  3. Dudas B, Merchenthaler I. Three-dimensional representation of the neurotransmitter systems of the human hypothalamus: inputs of the gonadotrophin hormone-releasing hormone neuronal system. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006;18:79-95 pubmed
  4. Simpson K, Waterhouse B, Lin R. Characterization of neurochemically specific projections from the locus coeruleus with respect to somatosensory-related barrels. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006;288:166-73 pubmed
  5. Zvarova K, Murray E, Vizzard M. Changes in galanin immunoreactivity in rat lumbosacral spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia after spinal cord injury. J Comp Neurol. 2004;475:590-603 pubmed
    ..Changes in galanin expression in micturition pathways after SCI may be mediated by changing neurotrophic factor expression, particularly BDNF. These changes may contribute to urinary bladder dysfunction after SCI. ..
  6. Shadiack A, Sun Y, Zigmond R. Nerve growth factor antiserum induces axotomy-like changes in neuropeptide expression in intact sympathetic and sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 2001;21:363-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, the peptide phenotype of these axotomized neurons is regulated both by the induction of an "injury factor," leukemia inhibitory factor, as shown previously, and by the reduction in a target-derived growth factor. ..
  7. Zhao C, Saul M, Driessen T, Gammie S. Gene expression changes in the septum: possible implications for microRNAs in sculpting the maternal brain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38602 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this study provides new insights into genes (along with possible mechanisms for their regulation) that are involved in septum-mediated adaptations during the postpartum period. ..
  8. Zigmond R, Sun Y. Regulation of neuropeptide expression in sympathetic neurons. Paracrine and retrograde influences. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;814:181-97 pubmed
    ..Expression of substance P after axotomy occurs primarily, if not entirely, because of the effects of LIF, with the removal of NGF playing no obvious role in the regulation of this peptide. ..
  9. Schneider E, Rada P, Darby R, Leibowitz S, Hoebel B. Orexigenic peptides and alcohol intake: differential effects of orexin, galanin, and ghrelin. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:1858-65 pubmed
    ..Thus, a neural circuit that evolved with the capability to augment food intake is apparently co-opted by ethanol and may serve as a potential positive feedback circuit for alcohol abuse. ..
  10. Neugebauer N, Henehan R, Hales C, Picciotto M. Mice lacking the galanin gene show decreased sensitivity to nicotine conditioned place preference. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;98:87-93 pubmed publisher
  11. Chen S, Reichert S, Singh C, Oikonomou G, Rihel J, Prober D. Light-Dependent Regulation of Sleep and Wake States by Prokineticin 2 in Zebrafish. Neuron. 2017;95:153-168.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Prok2 antagonizes the direct wake-promoting effect of light in zebrafish, in part through the induction of galn expression in the hypothalamus. ..
  12. Hyde J, Engle M, Maley B. Colocalization of galanin and prolactin within secretory granules of anterior pituitary cells in estrogen-treated Fischer 344 rats. Endocrinology. 1991;129:270-6 pubmed
    ..These data provide a morphological basis for the coregulation of galanin and PRL secretion by hypothalamic factors. ..
  13. Sachs H, Wynick D, Zigmond R. Galanin plays a role in the conditioning lesion effect in sensory neurons. Neuroreport. 2007;18:1729-33 pubmed
    ..4-fold after a conditioning lesion, compared with 1.8-fold in neurons from knockout animals. The results indicate that the induction of galanin plays an important role in triggering the conditioning lesion response. ..
  14. Habecker B, Gritman K, Willison B, Van Winkle D. Myocardial infarction stimulates galanin expression in cardiac sympathetic neurons. Neuropeptides. 2005;39:89-95 pubmed
    ..The buildup of GAL specifically in the damaged left ventricle is consistent with previous reports that GAL is transported to regenerating nerve endings after axon damage. ..
  15. Raghavendra Rao V, Bowen K, Dhodda V, Song G, Franklin J, Gavva N, et al. Gene expression analysis of spontaneously hypertensive rat cerebral cortex following transient focal cerebral ischemia. J Neurochem. 2002;83:1072-86 pubmed
    ..Antisense knockdown of ischemia-induced SOCS-3 protein expression exacerbated transient MCAO-induced infarct volume assigning a neuroprotective role to SOCS-3, a gene not heretofore implicated in ischemic neuronal damage. ..
  16. Guida L, Charlton P, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Copeland N, Nicholls R. Genetic mapping of the galanin-GMAP (Galn) gene to mouse chromosome 19. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:240-2 pubmed
  17. Yandek L, Pokorny A, Floren A, Knoelke K, Langel U, Almeida P. Mechanism of the cell-penetrating peptide transportan 10 permeation of lipid bilayers. Biophys J. 2007;92:2434-44 pubmed
  18. Murray P, Groves J, Pettett B, Britton S, Koch L, Dishman R, et al. Locus coeruleus galanin expression is enhanced after exercise in rats selectively bred for high capacity for aerobic activity. Peptides. 2010;31:2264-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, intrinsic aerobic running capacity influences GAL gene expression in the LC only insofar as actual running behavior is concerned; aerobic capacity does not influence GAL expression in addition to changes associated with running. ..
  19. Puri V, Cui L, Liverman C, Roby K, Klein R, Welch K, et al. Ovarian steroids regulate neuropeptides in the trigeminal ganglion. Neuropeptides. 2005;39:409-17 pubmed
    ..Variations in neuropeptide content in trigeminal neurons across the natural estrous cycle may contribute to increases in painful episodes at particular phases of the menstrual cycle. ..
  20. Pope R, Holmes F, Kerr N, Wynick D. Characterisation of the nociceptive phenotype of suppressible galanin overexpressing transgenic mice. Mol Pain. 2010;6:67 pubmed publisher
    ..These new findings imply that administration of a galanin agonist to patients with established allodynia would be an effective treatment for neuropathic pain. ..
  21. Alston E, Parrish D, Hasan W, Tharp K, Pahlmeyer L, Habecker B. Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion regulates sympathetic neuropeptide expression through gp130-dependent and independent mechanisms. Neuropeptides. 2011;45:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these peptides may play an important role in cardiac and neuronal remodeling after ischemia-reperfusion. ..
  22. Su Y, Ganea D, Peng X, Jonakait G. Galanin down-regulates microglial tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by a post-transcriptional mechanism. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;134:52-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, GAL inhibits TNF alpha production by a post-transcriptional mechanism that both prevents the efficient addition of the poly(A) tail and accelerates TNF alpha mRNA degradation. ..
  23. Fitzgerald L, Patterson J, Conklin D, Horlick R, Largent B. Pharmacological and biochemical characterization of a recombinant human galanin GALR1 receptor: agonist character of chimeric galanin peptides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998;287:448-56 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the antagonist effects in vivo of M40, and perhaps other chimeric peptides, are not mediated via direct interactions with the galanin receptor 1 receptor. ..
  24. Hyde J, Moore J, Drake K, Morrison D. Galanin gene expression in radiothyroidectomy-induced thyrotroph adenomas. Am J Physiol. 1996;271:E24-30 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these data show that thyroid hormones are important positive regulators of galanin gene expression in the mouse and that estrogen may stimulate galanin gene expression in the absence of thyroid hormones...