Experts and Doctors on fluorocarbons in United States


Locale: United States
Topic: fluorocarbons

Top Publications

  1. Loccisano A, Campbell J, Butenhoff J, Andersen M, Clewell H. Evaluation of placental and lactational pharmacokinetics of PFOA and PFOS in the pregnant, lactating, fetal and neonatal rat using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:468-490 pubmed publisher
  2. Hu Q, Franklin J, Bryan I, Morris E, Wood A, DeWitt J. Does developmental exposure to perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) induce immunopathologies commonly observed in neurodevelopmental disorders?. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:1491-1498 pubmed publisher
    ..02 and 2mg/kg PFOA. No other endpoints were statistically different by dose. These data suggest that developmental PFOA exposure may impact T cell responses and may be a possible route to downstream effects on other systems. ..
  3. Fair P, Houde M, Hulsey T, Bossart G, Adams J, Balthis L, et al. Assessment of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in plasma of bottlenose dolphins from two southeast US estuarine areas: relationship with age, sex and geographic locations. Mar Pollut Bull. 2012;64:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest PFC accumulation in these two dolphin populations are influenced by site-specific exposures with significantly higher levels in CHS dolphins. ..
  4. Long E, Dutch M, Weakland S, Chandramouli B, Benskin J. Quantification of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and perfluoroalkyl substances in the marine sediments of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013;32:1701-10 pubmed publisher
    ..5 ng/g). Detected concentrations were often highest within the industrial harbor in Bellingham Bay and near the cities of Seattle and Bremerton. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1701-1710. © 2013 SETAC. ..
  5. Rusch G, Tveit A, Muijser H, Tegelenbosch Schouten M, Hoffman G. The acute, genetic, developmental and inhalation toxicology of trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234ze). Drug Chem Toxicol. 2013;36:170-80 pubmed publisher
    ..It was also not a developmental toxin in either the rat or rabbit, even at exposure levels up to15,000 ppm. ..
  6. Weiss R, Ahmad M, Villanueva F, Schmitz S, Bhat G, Hibberd M, et al. CaRES (Contrast Echocardiography Registry for Safety Surveillance): a prospective multicenter study to evaluate the safety of the ultrasound contrast agent definity in clinical practice. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2012;25:790-5 pubmed publisher
    ..5%, and most of these (110 of 114 [96.5%]) were reported by the investigator as mild or moderate in intensity. Definity is well tolerated in routine clinical practice in patients with a high prevalence of cardiopulmonary disease. ..
  7. Custer C, Custer T, Schoenfuss H, Poganski B, Solem L. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl compounds on tree swallows nesting at Lake Johanna in east central Minnesota, USA. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:556-562 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a negative association between concentrations of PFOS in eggs and hatching success. Reduced hatching success was associated with PFOS levels as low as 150ng/g wet weight. ..
  8. Butenhoff J, Bjork J, Chang S, Ehresman D, Parker G, Das K, et al. Toxicological evaluation of ammonium perfluorobutyrate in rats: twenty-eight-day and ninety-day oral gavage studies. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:513-530 pubmed publisher
    ..No observable adverse effect levels (NOAELs) were 6 and >150mg/kg-d for male and female rats in the 28-day study and 6 and >30mg/kg-d in the 90-dat study, respectively. ..
  9. Klaunig J, Hocevar B, Kamendulis L. Mode of Action analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) tumorigenicity and Human Relevance. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:410-418 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will address the rodent (rat) cancer data and cancer Mode of Action of PFOA for tumors of the liver, testes and pancreas. ..

More Information


  1. Butenhoff J, Chang S, Olsen G, Thomford P. Chronic dietary toxicity and carcinogenicity study with potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate in Sprague Dawley rats. Toxicology. 2012;293:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent mechanistic studies suggest a PPARα/CAR/PXR-mediated mode of action for the liver tumors observed in the present two-year study. ..
  2. Ankley G, Kuehl D, Kahl M, Jensen K, Linnum A, Leino R, et al. Reproductive and developmental toxicity and bioconcentration of perfluorooctanesulfonate in a partial life-cycle test with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:2316-24 pubmed
  3. Zhao Y, Tan Y, Strynar M, Perez G, Haslam S, Yang C. Perfluorooctanoic acid effects on ovaries mediate its inhibition of peripubertal mammary gland development in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:563-576 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PFOA effects on ovaries mediate its inhibition of mammary gland development in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice and that PPARα expression is a contributing factor. ..
  4. Tveit A, Rusch G, Muijser H, Tegelenbosch Schouten M. The acute, developmental, genetic and inhalation toxicology of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf). Drug Chem Toxicol. 2013;36:412-20 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no biologically significant effects in a rat developmental toxicity study with exposures up to 50,000 ppm. ..
  5. Han X, Hinderliter P, Snow T, Jepson G. Binding of perfluorooctanoic acid to rat liver-form and kidney-form alpha2u-globulins. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2004;27:341-60 pubmed
  6. Forsberg F, Piccoli C, Merton D, Palazzo J, Hall A. Breast lesions: imaging with contrast-enhanced subharmonic US--initial experience. Radiology. 2007;244:718-26 pubmed
    ..004). SHI appears to improve the diagnosis of breast cancer relative to conventional US and mammography, albeit on the basis of results in a very limited number of subjects. ..
  7. Pitchaimani K, Sapp B, Winter A, Gispanski A, Nishida T, Hugh Fan Z. Manufacturable plastic microfluidic valves using thermal actuation. Lab Chip. 2009;9:3082-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Repetitive valve operations (up to 50 times) have been demonstrated with a flow resulting from a hydrostatic head. Valve operation was tested for a flow rate of 0.33-4.7 microL/min. ..
  8. Jiang Q, Lust R, DeWitt J. Perfluorooctanoic acid induced-developmental cardiotoxicity: are peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and bone morphorgenic protein 2 (BMP2) pathways involved?. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2013;76:635-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that developmental cardiotoxicity induced by PFOA likely involves both PPAR? and BMP2 pathways. ..
  9. Squires J. Artificial blood. Science. 2002;295:1002-5 pubmed
    ..Blood substitutes are under development for transfusion in place of donor blood during emergencies and lengthy surgeries. The first generation of blood substitutes is currently in clinical trials. ..
  10. Hoang K, Edris A, Su J, Mukai D, Mahon S, Petrov A, et al. Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging. J Biomed Opt. 2009;14:034028 pubmed publisher
    ..From this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that endovascular flushing with an oxygen-carrying blood substitute (PFD) is optically superior to saline flushing for intravascular imaging. ..
  11. Christie I, Reiner J, Bowden J, Botha H, Cantu T, Govender D, et al. Perfluorinated alkyl acids in the plasma of South African crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Chemosphere. 2016;154:72-78 pubmed publisher
    ..3 ng/g wet mass, when compared to the other sites (median concentrations at other sites below 14.0 ng/g wet mass). This suggests a point source of PFOS in this area. ..
  12. Chan C, Lin S, Nuthi A, Salib D. Pneumatic retinopexy for the repair of retinal detachments: a comprehensive review (1986-2007). Surv Ophthalmol. 2008;53:443-78 pubmed publisher
    ..4%), final operation successes (96.1%), new retinal breaks (11.7%), and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (5.2%). ..
  13. Castello R, Bella J, Rovner A, Swan J, Smith J, Shaw L. Efficacy and time-efficiency of a "sonographer-driven" contrast echocardiography protocol in a high-volume echocardiography laboratory. Am Heart J. 2003;145:535-41 pubmed
    ..A "sonographer-driven" CE protocol can reduce decision and administration times substantially, thus making CE time-efficient. ..
  14. Peden Adams M, Stuckey J, Gaworecki K, Berger Ritchie J, Bryant K, Jodice P, et al. Developmental toxicity in white leghorn chickens following in ovo exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Reprod Toxicol. 2009;27:307-18 pubmed publisher
  15. Fast J, Perkins M, Pearce R, Mecozzi S. Fluoropolymer-based emulsions for the intravenous delivery of sevoflurane. Anesthesiology. 2008;109:651-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These formulations can be used to rapidly induce anesthesia with bolus dosing from which recovery is smooth and rapid. ..
  16. Powley C, George S, Russell M, Hoke R, Buck R. Polyfluorinated chemicals in a spatially and temporally integrated food web in the Western Arctic. Chemosphere. 2008;70:664-72 pubmed
    ..The 7-3 Acid was not correlated with either PFCAs or PFAS, which suggests that it may have a different exposure pathway. ..
  17. Tilton S, Orner G, Benninghoff A, Carpenter H, Hendricks J, Pereira C, et al. Genomic profiling reveals an alternate mechanism for hepatic tumor promotion by perfluorooctanoic acid in rainbow trout. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:1047-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the tumor-promoting activities of PFOA in trout are due to novel mechanisms involving estrogenic signaling and are independent of peroxisome proliferation. ..
  18. Russell M, Berti W, Szostek B, Buck R. Investigation of the biodegradation potential of a fluoroacrylate polymer product in aerobic soils. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:800-7 pubmed
  19. Chang S, Noker P, Gorman G, Gibson S, Hart J, Ehresman D, et al. Comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats, mice, and monkeys. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:428-440 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these studies provide valuable insight for human health risk assessment regarding the potential for accumulation of body burden in humans on repeated exposure to PFOS and PFOS-generating materials. ..
  20. Adkins S, Hobbs H, Benaissi K, Johnston K, Poliakoff M, Thomas N. Stable colloidal dispersions of a lipase-perfluoropolyether complex in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:4760-9 pubmed publisher
  21. Schaal S, Sherman M, Barr C, Kaplan H. Primary retinal detachment repair: comparison of 1-year outcomes of four surgical techniques. Retina. 2011;31:1500-4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, scleral buckling, vitrectomy, or a combination of both resulted in an initially better anatomical success rate and fewer operative procedures than pneumatic retinopexy. ..
  22. Yang C, Glover K, Han X. Organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp) 1a1-mediated perfluorooctanoate transport and evidence for a renal reabsorption mechanism of Oatp1a1 in renal elimination of perfluorocarboxylates in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2009;190:163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the sex-dependent expression of Oatp1a1 in rat kidney, Oatp1a1-mediated tubular reabsorption is suggested to be the mechanism for the sex-dependent renal elimination of PFO in rats. ..
  23. Biegel L, Hurtt M, Frame S, O Connor J, Cook J. Mechanisms of extrahepatic tumor induction by peroxisome proliferators in male CD rats. Toxicol Sci. 2001;60:44-55 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that estradiol may play a role in enhancement of Leydig cell tumors in the rat, and that peroxisome proliferators may induce tumors via a non-LH type mechanism. ..
  24. Maltezos G, Garcia E, Hanrahan G, Gomez F, Vyawahare S, Vyawhare S, et al. Design and fabrication of chemically robust three-dimensional microfluidic valves. Lab Chip. 2007;7:1209-11 pubmed
    ..The fabrication of Sifel-based microfluidic devices using this technique has great potential in chemical synthesis and analysis. ..
  25. Washington J, Ellington J, Jenkins T, Evans J, Yoo H, Hafner S. Degradability of an acrylate-linked, fluorotelomer polymer in soil. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:6617-23 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that fluoratelomer-polymer degradation is a significant source of PFOA and other fluorinated compounds to the environment. ..
  26. Roth D, Sears J, Lewis H. Removal of retained subfoveal perfluoro-n-octane liquid. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:287-9 pubmed
    ..Subretinal perfluorocarbon can be removed using a flexible 39-gauge cannula without inducing retinal detachment or making a large retinotomy. This technique may benefit patients with retained subfoveal perfluorocarbon liquid. ..
  27. Tao L, Kannan K, Aldous K, Mauer M, Eadon G. Biomonitoring of perfluorochemicals in plasma of New York State personnel responding to the World Trade Center disaster. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:3472-8 pubmed
    ..In doing so, it may be possible to identify biological markers of WTC exposure and to improve our understanding of the health impacts of these compounds. ..
  28. McKenzie E, Siegrist R, McCray J, Higgins C. The influence of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and chemical oxidant application on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) fate and transport. Water Res. 2016;92:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..For contaminated sites for which ISCO is a viable treatment option, changes to PFAA transport and the implications thereof should be included as a component of the remediation evaluation and selection process. ..
  29. Bjork J, Wallace K. Structure-activity relationships and human relevance for perfluoroalkyl acid-induced transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferation in liver cell cultures. Toxicol Sci. 2009;111:89-99 pubmed publisher
  30. Mychaskiw G, Badr A, Tibbs R, Clower B, Zhang J. Optison (FS069) disrupts the blood-brain barrier in rats. Anesth Analg. 2000;91:798-803 pubmed
    ..Further studies are necessary to determine the pathologic consequences of Optison's effects on the blood-brain barrier. ..
  31. Christensen K, Thompson B, Werner M, Malecki K, Imm P, Anderson H. Levels of persistent contaminants in relation to fish consumption among older male anglers in Wisconsin. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2016;219:184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the PFCs, locally caught fish from other water bodies was also associated with higher levels of each of the congeners examined except PFHxS. Finally, all commercial fish was associated with higher levels of PFHxS. ..
  32. Jee J, McCoy A, Mecozzi S. Encapsulation and release of Amphotericin B from an ABC triblock fluorous copolymer. Pharm Res. 2012;29:69-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymer mPEG2K-F(10)-DSPE, bearing both a fluorocarbon block and a shorter mPEG, showed the greatest stability and the longest half-life for AmB release. ..
  33. Christensen K, Raymond M, Thompson B, Anderson H. Perfluoroalkyl substances in older male anglers in Wisconsin. Environ Int. 2016;91:312-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued research on the risks and benefits of fish consumption is important due to potential exposure to PFAS and noted associations with highly prevalent adverse health outcomes. ..
  34. Kadiyala C, Tomechko S, Miyagi M. Perfluorooctanoic acid for shotgun proteomics. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15332 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this single-tube shotgun proteomics method overcomes the major drawbacks of surfactant use in proteomic experiments. ..
  35. Romagnuolo J, Hoffman B, Vela S, Hawes R, Vignesh S. Accuracy of contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS with a second-generation perflutren lipid microsphere contrast agent (with video). Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;73:52-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Small sample. Tissue not always available. CEH-EUS adds minimal imaging time and is accurate, with small improvement over EUS. Added information in vascular and cystic lesions can potentially change management. ..
  36. Ehlers J, Yuan A, Kaiser P, Dhoot D, Sears J, Martin D, et al. Trans-tamponade optical coherence tomography: postoperative imaging in gas-filled eyes. Retina. 2013;33:1172-8 pubmed publisher
    ..An optimum scan protocol was developed to facilitate maximum quality images. Successful trans-tamponade optical coherence tomography through gas on Postoperative Day 1 is possible but significant variability exists in scan quality. ..
  37. Adams J, Houde M, Muir D, Speakman T, Bossart G, Fair P. Land use and the spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds as measured in the plasma of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Mar Environ Res. 2008;66:430-7 pubmed publisher
  38. Spliethoff H, Tao L, Shaver S, Aldous K, Pass K, Kannan K, et al. Use of newborn screening program blood spots for exposure assessment: declining levels of perluorinated compounds in New York State infants. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:5361-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest sharp decreases in perinatal exposure of NYS infants to PFOS, PFOSA, PFHxS, and PFOA and demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of NSP blood spots for assessment of temporal trends in exposure. ..
  39. Loccisano A, Campbell J, Andersen M, Clewell H. Evaluation and prediction of pharmacokinetics of PFOA and PFOS in the monkey and human using a PBPK model. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;59:157-75 pubmed publisher
    ..It is envisioned that our PBPK model will be useful in supporting human health risk assessments for PFOA and PFOS by aiding in understanding of human pharmacokinetics. ..
  40. Berthiaume J, Wallace K. Perfluorooctanoate, perflourooctanesulfonate, and N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamido ethanol; peroxisome proliferation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Toxicol Lett. 2002;129:23-32 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that acute administration of PFOS or PFOA causes hepatic peroxisome proliferation in rats. However, stimulation of mt biogenesis is not a characteristic response of all peroxisome proliferators. ..
  41. Yang C, Glover K, Han X. Characterization of cellular uptake of perfluorooctanoate via organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A2, organic anion transporter 4, and urate transporter 1 for their potential roles in mediating human renal reabsorption of perfluorocarboxylates. Toxicol Sci. 2010;117:294-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that OAT4 and URAT1 are key transporters in renal reabsorption of PFCs in humans and, as a result, may contribute significantly to the long half-life of PFO in humans. ..
  42. Cardenas A, Gold D, Hauser R, Kleinman K, Hivert M, Calafat A, et al. Plasma Concentrations of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances at Baseline and Associations with Glycemic Indicators and Diabetes Incidence among High-Risk Adults in the Diabetes Prevention Program Trial. Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125:107001 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental evidence indicates that PFAS alter glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. However, epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent results...
  43. Raymer J, Michael L, Studabaker W, Olsen G, Sloan C, Wilcosky T, et al. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and their associations with human semen quality measurements. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:419-427 pubmed publisher
    ..Luteinizing hormone was positively correlated with plasma PFOA and PFOS, but not semen PFOS. Important methodological concerns included the lack of multiple hormonal measurements necessary to address circadian rhythms. ..
  44. Albrecht P, Torsell N, Krishnan P, Ehresman D, Frame S, Chang S, et al. A species difference in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-dependent response to the developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid. Toxicol Sci. 2013;131:568-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from these studies demonstrate that the developmental/postnatal effects resulting from prenatal PFOA exposure in mice are differentially mediated by mouse and human PPAR?. ..
  45. Chengelis C, Kirkpatrick J, Radovsky A, Shinohara M. A 90-day repeated dose oral (gavage) toxicity study of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in rats (with functional observational battery and motor activity determinations). Reprod Toxicol. 2009;27:342-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on liver histopathology and liver weight changes, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for oral administration was 50mg/kg/day for males and 200mg/kg/day for females...
  46. Tao L, Kannan K, Kajiwara N, Costa M, Fillmann G, Takahashi S, et al. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in albatrosses, elephant seals, penguins, and polar skuas from the Southern Ocean. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:7642-8 pubmed
    ..Our study documents the existence of low but detectable levels of PFOS and PFOA in Southern Hemisphere fauna, suggesting distribution of these compounds on a global scale...
  47. Hsu C, Jay M, Bummer P, Lehmler H. Chemical stability of esters of nicotinic acid intended for pulmonary administration by liquid ventilation. Pharm Res. 2003;20:918-25 pubmed
  48. DeWitt J, Peden Adams M, Keller J, Germolec D. Immunotoxicity of perfluorinated compounds: recent developments. Toxicol Pathol. 2012;40:300-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This review contains brief descriptions of current and recently published work exploring immunomodulation by PFOA, PFOS, and other PFCs in rodent models, alternative laboratory models, and wildlife...
  49. Wang N, Szostek B, Folsom P, Sulecki L, Capka V, Buck R, et al. Aerobic biotransformation of 14C-labeled 8-2 telomer B alcohol by activated sludge from a domestic sewage treatment plant. Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39:531-8 pubmed
  50. Ankley G, Kuehl D, Kahl M, Jensen K, Butterworth B, Nichols J. Partial life-cycle toxicity and bioconcentration modeling of perfluorooctanesulfonate in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2004;23:2745-55 pubmed
    ..Overall, our studies suggest that R. pipiens is not exceptionally sensitive to PFOS in terms of either direct toxicity or bioconcentration potential of the chemical...
  51. Kennedy G, Butenhoff J, Olsen G, O Connor J, Seacat A, Perkins R, et al. The toxicology of perfluorooctanoate. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2004;34:351-84 pubmed
    ..Epidemiological investigations and medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers have not found consistent associations between PFOA exposure and adverse health effects. ..
  52. Henry N, Fair P. Comparison of in vitro cytotoxicity, estrogenicity and anti-estrogenicity of triclosan, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid. J Appl Toxicol. 2013;33:265-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Each of these compounds could provide a source of xenoestrogens to humans and wildlife in the environment. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ..
  53. Wallace K, Kissling G, Melnick R, Blystone C. Structure-activity relationships for perfluoroalkane-induced in vitro interference with rat liver mitochondrial respiration. Toxicol Lett. 2013;222:257-64 pubmed publisher
  54. Cheng X, Klaassen C. Perfluorocarboxylic acids induce cytochrome P450 enzymes in mouse liver through activation of PPAR-alpha and CAR transcription factors. Toxicol Sci. 2008;106:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PFCAs increased Cyp2B10 and 4A14 expression by activating PPAR-alpha and CAR nuclear receptors, respectively. PPAR-alpha is activated at much lower doses of PFDA than CAR. ..
  55. Handwerger B, Blodi B, Chandra S, Olsen T, Stevens T. Treatment of submacular hemorrhage with low-dose intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator injection and pneumatic displacement. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:28-32 pubmed
    ..To investigate the safety and efficacy of low-dose intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and an expansile gas bubble in displacing submacular hemorrhage in patients with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD)...
  56. Tarczy Hornoch P, Hildebrandt J, Standaert T, Jackson J. Surfactant replacement increases compliance in premature lamb lungs during partial liquid ventilation in situ. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998;84:1316-22 pubmed
  57. Olsen G, Mair D, Lange C, Harrington L, Church T, Goldberg C, et al. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2015. Environ Res. 2017;157:87-95 pubmed publisher
    ..For the remaining PFAS measured in 2015, including the shorter chain perfluoroalkyls perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), the majority of samples were below the lower limit of quantitation. ..
  58. Kingsley S, Kelsey K, Butler R, Chen A, Eliot M, Romano M, et al. Maternal serum PFOA concentration and DNA methylation in cord blood: A pilot study. Environ Res. 2017;158:174-178 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies with larger sample sizes should confirm these findings and determine if PFOA-associated changes in DNA methylation underlie potential health effects of PFOA. ..
  59. Starling A, Adgate J, Hamman R, Kechris K, Calafat A, Ye X, et al. Perfluoroalkyl Substances during Pregnancy and Offspring Weight and Adiposity at Birth: Examining Mediation by Maternal Fasting Glucose in the Healthy Start Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125:067016 pubmed publisher
    ..Prenatal PFAS exposure has been associated with lower birth weight; however, impacts on body composition and factors responsible for this association are unknown...
  60. Feldman L, Fabre M, Grasso C, Reid D, Broaddus W, Lanza G, et al. Perfluorocarbon emulsions radiosensitise brain tumors in carbogen breathing mice with orthotopic GL261 gliomas. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184250 pubmed publisher
    ..IV injections of PFC emulsions followed by 1h carbogen breathing, radiosensitises GL261 intracranial tumors. ..
  61. Inyang M, Dickenson E. The use of carbon adsorbents for the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from potable reuse systems. Chemosphere. 2017;184:168-175 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on bench- and pilot-scale results, shorter-chain PFAA [perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), PFPnA, or PFHxA] were more difficult to remove with both biochar and GAC than the longer-chain, PFOS and PFOA. ..
  62. Worley R, Yang X, Fisher J. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid suggests historical non drinking-water exposures are important for predicting current serum concentrations. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;330:9-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Variation in serum PFOA concentrations may be due to inter-individual variability in the disposition of PFOA and potentially elevated historical non-drinking water exposures. ..
  63. Peden Adams M, Keller J, EuDaly J, Berger J, Gilkeson G, Keil D. Suppression of humoral immunity in mice following exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate. Toxicol Sci. 2008;104:144-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study provides a profile of PFOS immunotoxicity showing effects at levels reported in humans and identifies the B-cells as a potential target. ..
  64. Cheng X, Klaassen C. Critical role of PPAR-alpha in perfluorooctanoic acid- and perfluorodecanoic acid-induced downregulation of Oatp uptake transporters in mouse livers. Toxicol Sci. 2008;106:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PFOA and PFDA decrease mouse liver uptake transporters primarily via activation of PPAR-alpha. ..
  65. Hines E, White S, Stanko J, Gibbs Flournoy E, Lau C, Fenton S. Phenotypic dichotomy following developmental exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in female CD-1 mice: Low doses induce elevated serum leptin and insulin, and overweight in mid-life. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;304:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..01mg PFOA/kg BW. The mode of action of these effects and its relevance to human health remain to be explored. ..
  66. Foreman J, Chang S, Ehresman D, Butenhoff J, Anderson C, Palkar P, et al. Differential hepatic effects of perfluorobutyrate mediated by mouse and human PPAR-alpha. Toxicol Sci. 2009;110:204-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings demonstrate that PFBA can activate both the mouse and human PPAR-alpha, but there is a species difference in the hepatotoxic response to this chemical. ..
  67. Horishita T, Eger E, Harris R. The effects of volatile aromatic anesthetics on voltage-gated Na+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1579-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The range of inhibition produced by minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration concentrations of inhaled anesthetics indicates that sodium channel inhibition may underlie the action of some of these anesthetics, but not others. ..
  68. Loveless S, Slezak B, Serex T, Lewis J, Mukerji P, O Connor J, et al. Toxicological evaluation of sodium perfluorohexanoate. Toxicology. 2009;264:32-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Benchmark doses (BMDL10) for nasal lesions were 13 and 21 mg/(kg day) for male and female rats, respectively. The relevance of the nasal lesions to humans is not known...
  69. Yeh S, Wilson D. Pars plana vitrectomy and endoresection of a retinal vasoproliferative tumor. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:1196-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This surgical technique may be valuable in select patients to differentiate between retinal vasoproliferative tumors and VHL disease-associated retinal hemangioblastomas for diagnostic, therapeutic, and counseling purposes...
  70. Yoo H, Washington J, Ellington J, Jenkins T, Neill M. Concentrations, distribution, and persistence of fluorotelomer alcohols in sludge-applied soils near Decatur, Alabama, USA. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:8397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..85 to 1.8 years. These analytical results show that the practice of sludge application to land is a pathway for the introduction of FTOHs and, accordingly, their transformation products, perfluorocarboxylic acids, into the environment...
  71. Jones J, Dadsetan M, Collier T, Ebert M, Stokes K, Ward R, et al. Macrophage behavior on surface-modified polyurethanes. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2004;15:567-84 pubmed
    ..Silicone modification may be utilized to direct the fate of adherent macrophages towards FBGC formation or cell death through apoptosis...
  72. Han X, Yang C, Snajdr S, Nabb D, Mingoia R. Uptake of perfluorooctanoate in freshly isolated hepatocytes from male and female rats. Toxicol Lett. 2008;181:81-6 pubmed publisher
    ..9 +/- 25.1 and 29.3 +/- 19.2 microM in male and female rat hepatocytes, respectively. When serum albumin was added to the incubations, PFO hepatic uptake rates were reduced, but were proportional to the unbound fractions of PFO. ..
  73. Loveless S, Hoban D, Sykes G, Frame S, Everds N. Evaluation of the immune system in rats and mice administered linear ammonium perfluorooctanoate. Toxicol Sci. 2008;105:86-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, no immune-related changes occurred in rats, even at doses causing systemic toxicity. In mice, immune-related changes occurred only at doses causing significant and profound systemic toxicity and stress...
  74. Han X, Nabb D, Russell M, Kennedy G, Rickard R. Renal elimination of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs). Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:35-46 pubmed publisher
  75. Abbott B, Wood C, Watkins A, Tatum Gibbs K, Das K, Lau C. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal CD-1 mouse tissues. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:491-505 pubmed publisher
    ..The metabolic disruption produced by PFOA may contribute to poor postnatal survival and persistent weight deficits of CD-1 mouse neonates. ..
  76. Shiflett M, Yokozeki A. Vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria of pentafluoroethane and ionic liquid [bmim][PF6] mixtures studied with the volumetric method. J Phys Chem B. 2006;110:14436-43 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have found very large negative excess molar volumes in this system...
  77. Bjork J, Butenhoff J, Wallace K. Multiplicity of nuclear receptor activation by PFOA and PFOS in primary human and rodent hepatocytes. Toxicology. 2011;288:8-17 pubmed publisher
  78. Walters M, Wallace K. Urea cycle gene expression is suppressed by PFOA treatment in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2010;197:46-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide further evidence of the effect of PFOA on intermediary metabolism in rodents and add valuable information in assessing the potential risks of PFOA exposure. ..
  79. DeWitt J, SHNYRA A, Badr M, Loveless S, Hoban D, Frame S, et al. Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2009;39:76-94 pubmed
    ..This multiauthored review contains brief descriptions of current and recently published work exploring immunomodulation by PFOA and PFOS, as well as a short overview of other PPARalpha ligands of therapeutic and environmental interest...
  80. Yang Z, Liu Y, Mao L, Zhang J, Zou Y. Dimerization of human XPA and formation of XPA2-RPA protein complex. Biochemistry. 2002;41:13012-20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that the dimerization of XPA may play an important role in the DNA damage recognition of nucleotide excision repair. ..
  81. Chalam K, Murthy R, Gupta S, Khetpal V. Prophylactic circumferential intraoperative laser retinopexy decreases the risk of retinal detachment after macular hole surgery. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2012;22:799-802 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we evaluated the safety and efficacy of prophylactic LR and compared the patients to a control group that did not receive prophylactic treatment...