Experts and Doctors on extracellular space in United States


Locale: United States
Topic: extracellular space

Top Publications

  1. Ellison D. Diuretic therapy and resistance in congestive heart failure. Cardiology. 2001;96:132-43 pubmed
    ..The goal of reducing the extracellular fluid volume with the least stimulation of the RAA axis and minimal changes in nephron architecture can be achieved in many patients. ..
  2. Scumpia P, Kelly K, Reeves W, Stevens B. Double-stranded RNA signals antiviral and inflammatory programs and dysfunctional glutamate transport in TLR3-expressing astrocytes. Glia. 2005;52:153-62 pubmed
  3. Day J, Friedman A, Schlesinger L. Modeling the immune rheostat of macrophages in the lung in response to infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11246-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The model, based on a system of differential equations, represents a useful tool to analyze strategies for reducing the switching time, and to generate hypotheses for experimental testing. ..
  4. Leissring M, Malito E, Hedouin S, Reinstatler L, Sahara T, Abdul Hay S, et al. Designed inhibitors of insulin-degrading enzyme regulate the catabolism and activity of insulin. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10504 pubmed publisher
  5. Colgan S, Eltzschig H. Adenosine and hypoxia-inducible factor signaling in intestinal injury and recovery. Annu Rev Physiol. 2012;74:153-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Such information has provided new insights into disease pathogenesis and, importantly, will provide insights into new therapeutic targets. ..
  6. Yan J, Meng X, Wancket L, Lintner K, Nelin L, Chen B, et al. Glutathione reductase facilitates host defense by sustaining phagocytic oxidative burst and promoting the development of neutrophil extracellular traps. J Immunol. 2012;188:2316-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Gsr-mediated redox regulation is crucial for bacterial clearance during host defense against massive bacterial challenge...
  7. Xiao D, Ohlendorf J, Chen Y, Taylor D, Rai S, Waigel S, et al. Identifying mRNA, microRNA and protein profiles of melanoma exosomes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46874 pubmed publisher
  8. Wala E, Martin W, Sloan J. Distribution of diazepam, nordiazepam, and oxazepam between brain extraneuronal space, brain tissue, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid in diazepam and nordiazepam dependent dogs. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1991;105:535-40 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the concentration of free benzodiazepines in plasma is a good approximation of the concentration in the vicinity of the membrane receptors in the dependent dogs. ..
  9. McNeil S, Hobson S, Nipper V, Rodland K. Functional calcium-sensing receptors in rat fibroblasts are required for activation of SRC kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase in response to extracellular calcium. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1114-20 pubmed

More Information

Publications150 found, 100 shown here

  1. Jha A, Cadugan D, Purohit P, Auerbach A. Acetylcholine receptor gating at extracellular transmembrane domain interface: the cys-loop and M2-M3 linker. J Gen Physiol. 2007;130:547-58 pubmed
    ..The M2-M3 linker appears to be the key moving part that couples gating motions at the base of the ECD with those in TMD. These interactions are distributed along an approximately 16-A border and involve about a dozen residues...
  2. Karim Z, Choi W, Whiteheart S. Primary platelet signaling cascades and integrin-mediated signaling control ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) 6-GTP levels during platelet activation and aggregation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11995-2003 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that the nucleotide state of Arf6 in platelets is regulated during the initial phases of activation and during the later stages of aggregation. ..
  3. Karasawa T, Wang Q, Fu Y, Cohen D, Steyger P. TRPV4 enhances the cellular uptake of aminoglycoside antibiotics. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2871-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In an endolymph-like extracellular environment, clearance of GTTR was attenuated from KPT2-TRPV4 cells in a TRPV4-dependent fashion. We propose that TRPV4 has a role in aminoglycoside uptake and retention in the cochlea. ..
  4. Friggeri A, Banerjee S, Xie N, Cui H, de Freitas A, Zerfaoui M, et al. Extracellular histones inhibit efferocytosis. Mol Med. 2012;18:825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The present studies demonstrate that histones have inhibitory effects on efferocytosis, suggesting a new mechanism by which extracellular histones contribute to acute inflammatory processes and tissue injury. ..
  5. Allen R, Sayeed I, Cale H, Morrison K, Boatright J, Pardue M, et al. Severity of middle cerebral artery occlusion determines retinal deficits in rats. Exp Neurol. 2014;254:206-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Temporary retinal deficits caused by MCAO are likely due to ischemia-induced increases in extracellular glutamate that impair signal conduction, but resolve by 9days after MCAO. ..
  6. Li J, Winslow G. Survival, replication, and antibody susceptibility of Ehrlichia chaffeensis outside of host cells. Infect Immun. 2003;71:4229-37 pubmed
  7. Hong S, Schwarz N, Brass A, Seman M, Haag F, Koch Nolte F, et al. Differential regulation of P2X7 receptor activation by extracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferases in murine macrophages and T cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:578-92 pubmed publisher
  8. de l, Brunner M, Eichler H, Rehak E, Gross J, Thyroff Friesinger U, et al. Comparative target site pharmacokinetics of immediate- and modified-release formulations of cefaclor in humans. J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;42:403-11 pubmed
    ..The data of the present study indicate that time above MIC values at the target site can be substantially prolonged if an antibiotic is administered as a sustained-release product. ..
  9. Chuong C, Katz J, Pauley K, Bulosan M, Cha S. RAGE expression and NF-kappaB activation attenuated by extracellular domain of RAGE in human salivary gland cell line. J Cell Physiol. 2009;221:430-4 pubmed publisher
  10. Aulik N, Hellenbrand K, Klos H, Czuprynski C. Mannheimia haemolytica and its leukotoxin cause neutrophil extracellular trap formation by bovine neutrophils. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4454-66 pubmed publisher
    ..haemolytica cells in bovine NETs. Understanding NET formation in response to M. haemolytica and its LKT provides a new perspective on how neutrophils contribute to the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory disease...
  11. Buzsaki G, Anastassiou C, Koch C. The origin of extracellular fields and currents--EEG, ECoG, LFP and spikes. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13:407-20 pubmed publisher
  12. Kaplan J, Izano E, Gopal P, Karwacki M, Kim S, Bose J, et al. Low levels of ?-lactam antibiotics induce extracellular DNA release and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. MBio. 2012;3:e00198-12 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus (MRSA). These results may shed light on the recalcitrance of some bacterial infections to antibiotic treatment in clinical settings and the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in agricultural settings. ..
  13. Neville M, Webb P, Ramanathan P, Mannino M, Pecorini C, Monks J, et al. The insulin receptor plays an important role in secretory differentiation in the mammary gland. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;305:E1103-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that insulin fosters differentiation and may inhibit cell proliferation in the mammary gland of the midpregnant mouse. ..
  14. Swanson C, Baker D, Carson D, Worley P, Kalivas P. Repeated cocaine administration attenuates group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated glutamate release and behavioral activation: a potential role for Homer. J Neurosci. 2001;21:9043-52 pubmed
    ..These data show that repeated cocaine produces an enduring inhibition of the neurochemical and behavioral consequences of stimulating mGluR1 that is accompanied by changes in the mGluR scaffolding apparatus. ..
  15. Brailoiu E, Cooper R, Dun N. Sphingosine 1-phosphate enhances spontaneous transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;136:1093-7 pubmed
    ..The result provides the first evidence that S1-P acting intracellularly but not extracellularly enhances spontaneous transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. ..
  16. Xia S, Wang L, Cash M, Teng X, Schwalbe R, Wingo C. Extracellular ATP-induced calcium signaling in mIMCD-3 cells requires both P2X and P2Y purinoceptors. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004;287:F204-14 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that mIMCD-3 cells have both P2X and P2Y subtype receptors and that the activation of both P2X and P2Y receptors by extracellular ATP appears to be required to regulate intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. ..
  17. Restrepo D. The ins and outs of intracellular chloride in olfactory receptor neurons. Neuron. 2005;45:481-2 pubmed
  18. Vasalou C, Herzog E, Henson M. Multicellular model for intercellular synchronization in circadian neural networks. Biophys J. 2011;101:12-20 pubmed publisher
  19. Burden Gulley S, Qutaish M, Sullivant K, Tan M, Craig S, Basilion J, et al. Single cell molecular recognition of migrating and invading tumor cells using a targeted fluorescent probe to receptor PTPmu. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:1624-32 pubmed publisher
  20. Chang J, Brennan K, He D, Huang H, Miura R, Wilson P, et al. A mathematical model of the metabolic and perfusion effects on cortical spreading depression. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70469 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have clinical and translational implications, as they allow for more precise in vitro, in vivo, and in silico exploration of a phenomenon broadly relevant to neurological disease. ..
  21. Tabbaa O, Nudelman G, Sealfon S, Hayot F, Jayaprakash C. Noise propagation through extracellular signaling leads to fluctuations in gene expression. BMC Syst Biol. 2013;7:94 pubmed publisher
    ..This can lead to functional consequences for the system-level response to a viral challenge. ..
  22. Garbati M, Welgan C, Landefeld S, Newell L, Agarwal A, Dunlap J, et al. Mutant calreticulin-expressing cells induce monocyte hyperreactivity through a paracrine mechanism. Am J Hematol. 2016;91:211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects are not dependent on the novel C-terminus. These studies offer novel insights into the mechanism of JAK/STAT activation in patients with JAK2-V617F-negative essential thrombocytosis and primary myelofibrosis. ..
  23. Greenberg D, Mize G, Takayama T. Protease-activated receptor mediated RhoA signaling and cytoskeletal reorganization in LNCaP cells. Biochemistry. 2003;42:702-9 pubmed
    ..Since the activation of RhoA is important for cytoskeletal reorganization, we postulate that PAR-mediated RhoA activation may be a major signaling pathway in the biology of prostate cancer. ..
  24. Epple L, Griffiths S, Dechkovskaia A, Dusto N, White J, Ouellette R, et al. Medulloblastoma exosome proteomics yield functional roles for extracellular vesicles. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42064 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work demonstrates that relevant functional properties of exosomes may be derived from appropriate proteomic analyses, which translate into mechanisms of tumor pathophysiology harbored in these extracellular vesicles. ..
  25. Ryu S, Liu B, Qin F. Low pH potentiates both capsaicin binding and channel gating of VR1 receptors. J Gen Physiol. 2003;122:45-61 pubmed
    ..These results provide important basis to further understand the nature of the activation pathways of the channel evoked by different stimuli as well as the general mechanism underling the cross-sensitization of pain. ..
  26. Carlezon W, Beguin C, DiNieri J, Baumann M, Richards M, Todtenkopf M, et al. Depressive-like effects of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A on behavior and neurochemistry in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;316:440-7 pubmed
  27. Best J, Reed M, Nijhout H. Models of dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2010;43 Suppl 1:S61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Mathematical models are useful for studying the biology of dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling because these systems are complex and involve interactions between neurochemistry and neurobiology. ..
  28. Redzic J, Kendrick A, Bahmed K, Dahl K, Pearson C, Robinson W, et al. Extracellular vesicles secreted from cancer cell lines stimulate secretion of MMP-9, IL-6, TGF-?1 and EMMPRIN. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71225 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, by using a comprehensive approach that includes biochemical, biological, and spectroscopic methods, we have begun to elucidate the stimulatory roles. ..
  29. Berglind W, Whitfield T, Lalumiere R, Kalivas P, McGinty J. A single intra-PFC infusion of BDNF prevents cocaine-induced alterations in extracellular glutamate within the nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3715-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that intra-PFC BDNF attenuates reinstatement to cocaine-seeking behavior by normalizing cocaine-induced neuroadaptations that alter glutamate neurotransmission within the NAc. ..
  30. Liu G, Hu X, Chakrabarty S. Calcium sensing receptor down-regulates malignant cell behavior and promotes chemosensitivity in human breast cancer cells. Cell Calcium. 2009;45:216-25 pubmed publisher
  31. Skalska J, Brookes P, Nadtochiy S, Hilchey S, Jordan C, Guzman M, et al. Modulation of cell surface protein free thiols: a potential novel mechanism of action of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8115 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we propose that cancer cell exofacial thiols may be important and novel targets for therapy. ..
  32. Brenhouse H, Dumais K, Andersen S. Enhancing the salience of dullness: behavioral and pharmacological strategies to facilitate extinction of drug-cue associations in adolescent rats. Neuroscience. 2010;169:628-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, pharmacological intervention attenuated subsequent drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine-conditioned preferences. We establish a potential direction for distinct strategies to treat this vulnerable population. ..
  33. Burikhanov R, Shrestha Bhattarai T, Qiu S, Shukla N, Hebbar N, Lele S, et al. Novel mechanism of apoptosis resistance in cancer mediated by extracellular PAR-4. Cancer Res. 2013;73:1011-9 pubmed publisher
  34. Ghatak S, Reveiller M, Toia L, Ivanov A, Zhou Z, Redmond E, et al. Bile Salts at Low pH Cause Dilation of Intercellular Spaces in In Vitro Stratified Primary Esophageal Cells, Possibly by Modulating Wnt Signaling. J Gastrointest Surg. 2016;20:500-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes approximate the appearance of dilated intercellular space similar to that found in GERD patients. ..
  35. Brown A, Wender R, Ransom B. Ionic mechanisms of aglycemic axon injury in mammalian central white matter. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2001;21:385-95 pubmed
    ..The authors conclude aglycemic central white matter injury is caused by Ca(2+) influx into intracellular compartments through reverse Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange and L-type Ca(2+) channels. ..
  36. Tang W, Brady S, Sun Y, Muday G, Roux S. Extracellular ATP inhibits root gravitropism at concentrations that inhibit polar auxin transport. Plant Physiol. 2003;131:147-54 pubmed
    ..The potential role of the trans-plasma membrane ATP gradient in auxin export and plant root gravitropism is discussed. ..
  37. Nelsen S, Christian J. Site-specific cleavage of BMP4 by furin, PC6, and PC7. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PC7, or a convertase with similar substrate specificity, functions to selectively cleave the S1 site of pro-BMP4 in a developmentally regulated fashion. ..
  38. Lenertz L, Wang Z, Guadarrama A, Hill L, Gavala M, Bertics P. Mutation of putative N-linked glycosylation sites on the human nucleotide receptor P2X7 reveals a key residue important for receptor function. Biochemistry. 2010;49:4611-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report to map human P2X(7) glycosylation sites and reveal residue N187 is critical for receptor trafficking and function. ..
  39. Cao B, Ahmed B, Kennedy D, Wang Z, Shi L, Marshall M, et al. Contribution of extracellular polymeric substances from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms to U(VI) immobilization. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:5483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Polysaccharides in the EPS likely contributed to U(VI) sorption and dominated the reactivity of laEPS, while redox active components (e.g., outer membrane c-type cytochromes), especially in bEPS, possibly facilitated U(VI) reduction. ..
  40. Coates E, Li A, Nattie E. Widespread sites of brain stem ventilatory chemoreceptors. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1993;75:5-14 pubmed
    ..5 mm of the surface, and that stimulation of a small fraction of all central chemoreceptors can result in a large ventilatory response. ..
  41. Yang H, Curinga G, Giachelli C. Elevated extracellular calcium levels induce smooth muscle cell matrix mineralization in vitro. Kidney Int. 2004;66:2293-9 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that elevated calcium may stimulate HSMC mineralization by elevating Ca x P product and enhancing the sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter-dependent mineralization pathway previously observed in HSMCs. ..
  42. Lempka S, Johnson M, Moffitt M, Otto K, Kipke D, McIntyre C. Theoretical analysis of intracortical microelectrode recordings. J Neural Eng. 2011;8:045006 pubmed publisher
    ..Such advances could help enable the long-term functionality required for chronic neural recording applications. ..
  43. Stackley K, Beeson C, Rahn J, Chan S. Bioenergetic profiling of zebrafish embryonic development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25652 pubmed publisher
    ..The multiwell format of this assay enables the user to screen for the effects of drugs and environmental agents on bioenergetics in the zebrafish embryo with high sensitivity and reproducibility. ..
  44. Gudipaty L, Munetz J, Verhoef P, Dubyak G. Essential role for Ca2+ in regulation of IL-1beta secretion by P2X7 nucleotide receptor in monocytes, macrophages, and HEK-293 cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003;285:C286-99 pubmed
    ..We clarify an essential role for Ca2+ in ATP-induced IL-1beta secretion and indicate an additional role of P2X7 receptors as enhancers of the secretory apparatus by which IL-1beta is released. ..
  45. Yu J, Becka S, Zhang P, Zhang X, Brady Kalnay S, Wang Z. Tumor-derived extracellular mutations of PTPRT /PTPrho are defective in cell adhesion. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:1106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that PTPrho may play an important role in cell-cell adhesion and that mutational inactivation of this phosphatase could promote tumor migration and metastasis. ..
  46. Russo T, Bartholomew L, Davidson B, Helinski J, Carlino U, Knight P, et al. Total extracellular surfactant is increased but abnormal in a rat model of gram-negative bacterial pneumonia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;283:L655-63 pubmed
    ..In vitro surface cycling studies with calf lung surfactant extract suggested that bacterially derived factors may have contributed in part to the surfactant alterations seen in vivo. ..
  47. Alacam B, Yazici B, Intes X, Nioka S, Chance B. Pharmacokinetic-rate images of indocyanine green for breast tumors using near-infrared optical methods. Phys Med Biol. 2008;53:837-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that the pharmacokinetic-rate images may provide superior information than single set of pharmacokinetic rates estimated from the entire breast tissue for breast cancer diagnosis. ..
  48. Best J, Nijhout H, Reed M. Homeostatic mechanisms in dopamine synthesis and release: a mathematical model. Theor Biol Med Model. 2009;6:21 pubmed publisher
    ..This is accomplished through the cooperative effect of many different homeostatic mechanisms including special properties of tyrosine hydroxylase, the dopamine transporters, and the dopamine autoreceptors. ..
  49. Li Z, Boules M, Williams K, Peris J, Richelson E. The novel neurotensin analog NT69L blocks phencyclidine (PCP)-induced increases in locomotor activity and PCP-induced increases in monoamine and amino acids levels in the medial prefrontal cortex. Brain Res. 2010;1311:28-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that NT69L in particular and NT receptor agonists in general, will be useful as broad-spectrum antipsychotic drugs. ..
  50. Suchorolski M, Paulson T, Sanchez C, Hockenbery D, Reid B. Warburg and Crabtree effects in premalignant Barrett's esophagus cell lines with active mitochondria. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56884 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that cells from premalignant Barrett's esophagus tissue may adapt to an ever-changing selective microenvironment through changes in energy metabolic pathways typically associated with cancer cells. ..
  51. Wayment H, Schenk J, Sorg B. Characterization of extracellular dopamine clearance in the medial prefrontal cortex: role of monoamine uptake and monoamine oxidase inhibition. J Neurosci. 2001;21:35-44 pubmed
  52. Dmitriev A, Dmitrieva N, Keyser K, Mangel S. Multiple functions of cation-chloride cotransporters in the fish retina. Vis Neurosci. 2007;24:635-45 pubmed
    ..In addition, the anatomical and electrophysiological results together suggest that all of the major neuronal types in the fish retina are influenced by chloride cotransporter activity. ..
  53. Desai R, Paronis C, Martin J, Desai R, Bergman J. Monoaminergic psychomotor stimulants: discriminative stimulus effects and dopamine efflux. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;333:834-43 pubmed publisher
    ..3 mg/kg MA-trained rats. These latter results suggest that sensitization of DA release does not play a prominent role in the discriminative stimulus effects of psychomotor stimulants. ..
  54. Henze D, Borhegyi Z, Csicsvari J, Mamiya A, Harris K, Buzsaki G. Intracellular features predicted by extracellular recordings in the hippocampus in vivo. J Neurophysiol. 2000;84:390-400 pubmed
    ..This theoretical maximum is in contrast to the approximately six units that are usually detected per tetrode. From this, we conclude that a large percentage of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells are silent in any given behavioral condition...
  55. Vidwans A, Hewett S. Enhanced release of synaptic glutamate underlies the potentiation of oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neuronal injury after induction of NOS-2. Exp Neurol. 2004;190:91-101 pubmed
  56. Herman M, Nahir B, Jahr C. Distribution of extracellular glutamate in the neuropil of hippocampus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26501 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that, in the CA1 region of hippocampus, glutamate transporters do not create a privileged space within the synapse but rather keep ambient glutamate at very low levels throughout the neuropil. ..
  57. Reveron M, Maier E, Duvauchelle C. Behavioral, thermal and neurochemical effects of acute and chronic 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy") self-administration. Behav Brain Res. 2010;207:500-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall findings suggest that changes in MDMA-induced responses over the course of increasing levels of drug exposure may reflect the development of tolerance to a number of MDMA effects. ..
  58. Iwata A, De Claro R, Morgan Stevenson V, Tupper J, Schwartz B, Liu L, et al. Extracellular administration of BCL2 protein reduces apoptosis and improves survival in a murine model of sepsis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14729 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with rhBCL2A1 or rhBCL2 protein protects mice from sepsis by reducing apoptosis in multiple target tissues, demonstrating an unexpected, potent activity of extracellularly administered BCL2 BH4-domain proteins. ..
  59. Ulatowski L, Parker R, Davidson C, Yanjanin N, Kelley T, Corey D, et al. Altered vitamin E status in Niemann-Pick type C disease. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:1400-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our observations indicate that functionality of NPC1/2 proteins is necessary for proper bioavailability of vitamin E and that the NPC pathology might involve tissue-specific perturbations of vitamin E status. ..
  60. Godwin S, Soltoff S. Calcium-sensing receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 is downstream of phospholipase C-beta and protein kinase C in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Bone. 2002;30:559-66 pubmed
  61. Kalinowski L, Dobrucki L, Szczepanska Konkel M, Jankowski M, Martyniec L, Angielski S, et al. Third-generation beta-blockers stimulate nitric oxide release from endothelial cells through ATP efflux: a novel mechanism for antihypertensive action. Circulation. 2003;107:2747-52 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time that nebivolol and carvedilol induce relaxation of renal glomerular microvasculature through ATP efflux with consequent stimulation of P2Y-purinoceptor-mediated NO release from GECs. ..
  62. Subbian E, Yabuta Y, Shinde U. Positive selection dictates the choice between kinetic and thermodynamic protein folding and stability in subtilases. Biochemistry. 2004;43:14348-60 pubmed
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that closely related subtilases can fold through distinct pathways and mechanisms, and suggest that fine sequence details can dictate the choice between kinetic and thermodynamic folding and stability. ..
  63. Clark G, Roux S. Apyrases, extracellular ATP and the regulation of growth. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011;14:700-6 pubmed publisher
  64. Edwards A, DeLong M, Pallone T. Interstitial water and solute recovery by inner medullary vasa recta. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000;278:F257-69 pubmed
    ..The coupling between water and small solute transport, resulting from aquaporin-1-mediated transcellular flux in DVR, also enhances tip osmolality...
  65. Kondrat R, Kanamori K, Ross B. In vivo microdialysis and gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry for 13C-enrichment measurement of extracellular glutamate in rat brain. J Neurosci Methods. 2002;120:179-92 pubmed
    ..Isotope labeling provides a novel method for determining the extent to which dialysate GLU reflects synaptic GLU(ECF), and for measuring its turnover under physiological or pathological conditions...
  66. Reyes R, Parpura V. Mitochondria modulate Ca2+-dependent glutamate release from rat cortical astrocytes. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9682-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that, in addition to the activity of ER and plasma membrane ion channels, mitochondria modulate Ca(2+)(cyt) dynamics in astrocytes and play a role in Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release from astrocytes...
  67. Chaiswing L, Oberley T. Extracellular/microenvironmental redox state. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;13:449-65 pubmed publisher
  68. Zhu Y, Ragan E, Kanost M. Leureptin: a soluble, extracellular leucine-rich repeat protein from Manduca sexta that binds lipopolysaccharide. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:713-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence database searches suggest similar proteins are present in other Lepidopteran species. ..
  69. Jenkins R, Canals D, Idkowiak Baldys J, Simbari F, Roddy P, Perry D, et al. Regulated secretion of acid sphingomyelinase: implications for selectivity of ceramide formation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35706-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data support a crucial role for Ser(508) in the regulation of S-SMase secretion, and they suggest distinct metabolic roles for S-SMase and L-SMase. ..
  70. Jaworski J, Gonzales R, Randall P. Effect of dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist sulpiride on amphetamine-induced changes in striatal extracellular dopamine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;418:201-6 pubmed
  71. Rojo E, Sharma V, Kovaleva V, Raikhel N, Fletcher J. CLV3 is localized to the extracellular space, where it activates the Arabidopsis CLAVATA stem cell signaling pathway. Plant Cell. 2002;14:969-77 pubmed
    ..Apoplastic localization allows CLV3 to signal from the stem cell population to the organizing center in the underlying cells. ..
  72. Yan Q. Involvement of non-exocytotic mechanisms in ethanol-induced in vivo dopamine release: comparisons with cocaine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;477:37-44 pubmed
  73. Boger H, Mannangatti P, Samuvel D, Saylor A, Bender T, McGinty J, et al. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on dopaminergic function and motor behavior during aging. Genes Brain Behav. 2011;10:186-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that a BDNF expression deficit becomes more critical to dopaminergic dynamics and related behavioral activities with increasing age. ..
  74. Reith M, Li M, Yan Q. Extracellular dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats during intracerebral dialysis following systemic administration of cocaine and other uptake blockers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997;134:309-17 pubmed
    ..There is considerable crosstalk between monoamine systems occurring upon systemic administration of uptake blockers, and the VTA and NACC are notably different in the time course of the DA effect (long-lasting versus transient). ..
  75. Isakson B, Evans W, Boitano S. Intercellular Ca2+ signaling in alveolar epithelial cells through gap junctions and by extracellular ATP. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;280:L221-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that AECs have the ability to communicate coordinated Ca2+ changes using both gap junctions and extracellular ATP. ..
  76. Shen J, Khan N, Lewis L, Armand R, Grinberg O, Demidenko E, et al. Oxygen consumption rates and oxygen concentration in molt-4 cells and their mtDNA depleted (rho0) mutants. Biophys J. 2003;84:1291-8 pubmed
    ..The results are consistent with our earlier findings suggesting that such oxygen gradients may be a general phenomenon found in most or all cell systems under appropriate conditions. ..
  77. Faca V, Ventura A, Fitzgibbon M, Pereira Faca S, Pitteri S, Green A, et al. Proteomic analysis of ovarian cancer cells reveals dynamic processes of protein secretion and shedding of extra-cellular domains. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2425 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell surface and secreted proteins identified by in-depth proteomic profiling of ovarian cancer cells may provide new targets for diagnosis and therapy. ..
  78. Saha Shah A, Green C, Abraham D, Baker L. Segmented flow sampling with push-pull theta pipettes. Analyst. 2016;141:1958-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Extracted cytoplasm was analyzed in a fast and high throughput manner by direct electrospray mass spectrometry of segmented sample from the probe tip. ..
  79. McKittrick C, Abercrombie E. Catecholamine mapping within nucleus accumbens: differences in basal and amphetamine-stimulated efflux of norepinephrine and dopamine in shell and core. J Neurochem. 2007;100:1247-56 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, norepinephrine may be involved in many of the functions generally attributed to the accumbens, either directly or indirectly via modulation of extracellular dopamine. ..
  80. Wang Z, Myles G, Brandt C, Lioubin M, Rohrschneider L. Identification of the ligand-binding regions in the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor extracellular domain. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:5348-59 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the three N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domains constitute the high-affinity M-CSF binding region and that the fourth and fifth immunoglobulin-like domains may perform functions other than ligand binding. ..
  81. Ackley D, Yokel R. Aluminum transport out of brain extracellular fluid is proton dependent and inhibited by mersalyl acid, suggesting mediation by the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1). Toxicology. 1998;127:59-67 pubmed
    ..Mersalyl acid (50 mM) addition to brain dialysate increased the steady-state aluminum brain-to-blood ratio from 0.19 to 0.87, suggesting that MCT1 is at least partially mediating the efflux of aluminum from brain extracellular fluid. ..
  82. Comhair S, Thomassen M, Erzurum S. Differential induction of extracellular glutathione peroxidase and nitric oxide synthase 2 in airways of healthy individuals exposed to 100% O(2) or cigarette smoke. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000;23:350-4 pubmed
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