Experts and Doctors on escherichia coli infections in Germany


Locale: Germany
Topic: escherichia coli infections

Top Publications

  1. Karch H, Friedrich A, Gerber A, Zimmerhackl L, Schmidt M, Bielaszewska M. New aspects in the pathogenesis of enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2006;32:105-12 pubmed
  2. Weiss A, Brockmeyer J. Prevalence, biogenesis, and functionality of the serine protease autotransporter EspP. Toxins (Basel). 2012;5:25-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, EspP? is believed to contribute to biofilm formation perhaps by polymerization to rope-like structures. Together with the proteolytic activity, EspP? might ameliorate host colonization and interfere with host response. ..
  3. Prager R, Liesegang A, Voigt W, Rabsch W, Fruth A, Tschape H. Clonal diversity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O103:H2/H(-) in Germany. Infect Genet Evol. 2002;1:265-75 pubmed
    ..Since strains of this serotype rank up to the third most frequently isolated EHEC in Germany a large population of this serotype, and therefore, a great supply of such strains may exist in this country. ..
  4. Bielaszewska M, Prager R, Vandivinit L, Müsken A, Mellmann A, Holt N, et al. Detection and characterization of the fimbrial sfp cluster in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O165:H25/NM isolates from humans and cattle. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The reasons for the convergence of pathogenic EHEC strains on a suite of virulence loci remain unknown. ..
  5. Sonntag A, Zenner E, Karch H, Bielaszewska M. Pigeons as a possible reservoir of Shiga toxin 2f-producing Escherichia coli pathogenic to humans. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2005;118:464-70 pubmed
    ..coli, hamper the laboratory diagnosis of these strains. Our data demonstrate that pigeons may be a reservoir of Stx2f-producing E. coli strains associated with human disease. ..
  6. Stamm I, Mohr M, Bridger P, Schröpfer E, König M, Stoffregen W, et al. Epithelial and mesenchymal cells in the bovine colonic mucosa differ in their responsiveness to Escherichia coli Shiga toxin 1. Infect Immun. 2008;76:5381-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, some mucosal mesenchymal cells, preliminarily characterized as mucosal macrophages, are Stx1-responsive cells that may participate in the interaction of STEC with the bovine intestinal mucosa. ..
  7. Mellmann A, Lu S, Karch H, Xu J, Harmsen D, Schmidt M, et al. Recycling of Shiga toxin 2 genes in sorbitol-fermenting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:NM. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:67-72 pubmed
    ..The ability to recycle stx(2), a critical virulence trait, makes SF E. coli O157:NM strains ephemeral EHEC that can exist as stx-negative variants during certain phases of their life cycle. ..
  8. Kohlenberg A, Schwab F, Ruden H. Wide dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in acute care and rehabilitation hospitals. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:528-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Regression analysis showed a linear association between the IDs of community-onset and hospital-onset cases. The wide dissemination of ESBL-E and ESBL-K emphasizes the need for hospital-wide surveillance to guide control measures. ..
  9. Mellmann A, Harmsen D, Cummings C, Zentz E, Leopold S, Rico A, et al. Prospective genomic characterization of the German enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak by rapid next generation sequencing technology. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22751 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, rapid next-generation technologies facilitated prospective whole genome characterization in the early stages of an outbreak. ..

More Information


  1. Bielaszewska M, Zhang W, Mellmann A, Karch H. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26:H11/H-: a human pathogen in emergence. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2007;120:279-87 pubmed
  2. Götz A, Goebel W. Glucose and glucose 6-phosphate as carbon sources in extra- and intracellular growth of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Microbiology. 2010;156:1176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Even the triple mutants DeltaptsG, manXYZ, uhpT of the three enterobacterial strains were still able to replicate in Caco-2 cells, albeit at strain-specific lower rates than the corresponding wild-type strains. ..
  3. Pavlovic M, Huber I, Skala H, Konrad R, Schmidt H, Sing A, et al. Development of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010;7:801-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection limits of the multiplex PCR were 5 genome equivalents for stx2 and 50 genome equivalents for eae and stx1. ..
  4. Schmidt M. LEEways: tales of EPEC, ATEC and EHEC. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:1544-52 pubmed publisher
    ..coli during infection. ..
  5. Kreuzer S, Reissmann M, Brockmann G. New fast and cost-effective gene test to get the ETEC F18 receptor status in pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2013;163:392-4 pubmed publisher
    ..All in all, we genotyped 430 German Landrace pigs. The test was successful. We suggest this allele specific test as a new standard genetic tool to determine the ETEC F18 receptor status in pigs. ..
  6. Leimbach A, Hacker J, Dobrindt U. E. coli as an all-rounder: the thin line between commensalism and pathogenicity. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2013;358:3-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the borderline between extraintestinal virulence and intestinal fitness can be blurred as improved adaptability and competitiveness may promote intestinal colonization as well as extraintestinal infection by E. coli. ..
  7. Seydel J. In vitro and in vivo results of brodimoprim and analogues alone and in combination against E. coli and mycobacteria. J Chemother. 1993;5:422-9 pubmed
    ..The tolerance of the regimens used was generally good. ..
  8. Schierack P, Walk N, Ewers C, Wilking H, Steinrück H, Filter M, et al. ExPEC-typical virulence-associated genes correlate with successful colonization by intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group. Environ Microbiol. 2008;10:1742-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Faeces of healthy domestic pigs can harbour high numbers of ExPEC-similar E. coli and are suggested to be a potential risk for the transmission of such bacteria to other hosts. ..
  9. Kistemann T, Zimmer S, Vågsholm I, Andersson Y. GIS-supported investigation of human EHEC and cattle VTEC O157 infections in Sweden: geographical distribution, spatial variation and possible risk factors. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:495-505 pubmed
    ..The explained variation of a multiple linear regression model was 0.56. ..
  10. Hering J, Frömke C, von Münchhausen C, Hartmann M, Schneider B, Friese A, et al. Cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli in broiler farms-A cross-sectional investigation in Germany. Prev Vet Med. 2016;125:154-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to other studies our study supports the finding that cefotaxime resistance is a good proxy for the presence of ESBL- or plasmidic AmpC-beta-lactamases. ..
  11. Bielaszewska M, Bauwens A, Greune L, Kemper B, Dobrindt U, Geelen J, et al. Vacuolisation of human microvascular endothelial cells by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Thromb Haemost. 2009;102:1080-92 pubmed publisher
    ..coli vacuolating toxins. Through its microvascular endothelium-injuring potential combined with the ability to induce interleukin 6 release from these cells EHEC-Vac might contribute to the pathogenesis of HUS. ..
  12. Rottner K, Lommel S, Wehland J, Stradal T. Pathogen-induced actin filament rearrangement in infectious diseases. J Pathol. 2004;204:396-406 pubmed
    ..Many pathogens are accomplishing these challenges by exploiting the actin cytoskeleton in a highly sophisticated manner as a result of having evolved common as well as unique strategies. ..
  13. Tangherlini G, Torregrossa T, Agoglitta O, Köhler J, Melesina J, Sippl W, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of enantiomerically pure glyceric acid derivatives as LpxC inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2016;24:1032-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Generally, the synthesized glyceric acid derivatives 7 show antibacterial activities against two Escherichia coli strains exceeding the ones of their respective regioisomes 6. ..
  14. Verweyen H, Karch H, Brandis M, Zimmerhackl L. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections: following transmission routes. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000;14:73-83 pubmed
    ..The difficulties in following the chain of EHEC infection are discussed. A precise evaluation of the environmental aspects of the patient is a precondition for further analysis. ..
  15. Janka A, Becker G, Sonntag A, Bielaszewska M, Dobrindt U, Karch H. Presence and characterization of a mosaic genomic island which distinguishes sorbitol-fermenting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H- from E. coli O157:H7. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:4875-8 pubmed
    ..This mosaic island is absent from strain EDL933. PCR targeting the SRL-related sequence is a useful tool to distinguish SF EHEC O157:H(-) from EHEC O157:H7. ..
  16. Neelakanta G, Sankar T, Schnetz K. Characterization of a beta-glucoside operon (bgc) prevalent in septicemic and uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:2284-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, bioinformatic analyses demonstrated that homologs of the bgc genes exist in the enterobacterial Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter spp. and also in gram-positive bacteria, indicative of horizontal gene transfer events. ..
  17. Bielaszewska M, Mellmann A, Zhang W, Köck R, Fruth A, Bauwens A, et al. Characterisation of the Escherichia coli strain associated with an outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Germany, 2011: a microbiological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:671-6 pubmed publisher
    ..German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Network Zoonoses. ..
  18. Bielaszewska M, Stoewe F, Fruth A, Zhang W, Prager R, Brockmeyer J, et al. Shiga toxin, cytolethal distending toxin, and hemolysin repertoires in clinical Escherichia coli O91 isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2061-6 pubmed publisher
  19. Tzschoppe M, Martin A, Beutin L. A rapid procedure for the detection and isolation of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serogroup O26, O103, O111, O118, O121, O145 and O157 strains and the aggregative EHEC O104:H4 strain from ready-to-eat vegetables. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012;152:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Aggregative EHEC O104:H4 could be detected and isolated from a sample of sprouted seeds which was suspected as vector of transmission of EHEC O104 to humans. ..
  20. Bielaszewska M, Friedrich A, Aldick T, Schürk Bulgrin R, Karch H. Shiga toxin activatable by intestinal mucus in Escherichia coli isolated from humans: predictor for a severe clinical outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1160-7 pubmed
    ..A prompt and comprehensive subtyping of stx genes in STEC isolates is necessary to alert the treating physician that a patient is at risk of developing hemolytic uremic syndrome, even though the infecting STEC lacks eae. ..
  21. Bielaszewska M, Fell M, Greune L, Prager R, Fruth A, Tschäpe H, et al. Characterization of cytolethal distending toxin genes and expression in shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains of non-O157 serogroups. Infect Immun. 2004;72:1812-6 pubmed
    ..cdt is either chromosomal and homologous to cdt-V (serotypes O73:H18, O91:H21, and O113:H21) or plasmidborne and identical to cdt-III (serotype O153:H18). Among eae-negative STEC, cdt was associated with disease (P = 0.003). ..
  22. Schmidt H, Kernbach C, Karch H. Analysis of the EHEC hly operon and its location in the physical map of the large plasmid of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:h7. Microbiology. 1996;142 ( Pt 4):907-14 pubmed
    ..It was located close to the EHEC hly operon. ..
  23. Bielaszewska M, Prager R, Köck R, Mellmann A, Zhang W, Tschäpe H, et al. Shiga toxin gene loss and transfer in vitro and in vivo during enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26 infection in humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:3144-50 pubmed
    ..The suggested occurrence of this process in the human intestine has diagnostic, clinical, epidemiological, and evolutionary implications. ..
  24. Zhang W, Mellmann A, Sonntag A, Wieler L, Bielaszewska M, Tsch pe H, et al. Structural and functional differences between disease-associated genes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111. Int J Med Microbiol. 2007;297:17-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The divergence within EHEC O111 makes it possible to subtype these emerging pathogens in the laboratory thereby providing a basis for further investigations into their ecological niches and survival capabilities...
  25. Liebscher M, Haupt K, Yu C, Jahreis G, Lücke C, Schiene Fischer C. Rational design of novel peptidic DnaK ligands. Chembiochem. 2010;11:1727-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The subsequent blocking of DnaK function apparently results in the observed antibacterial effects on E. coli cells, with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the range of 100 microM. ..
  26. Rickert C, August C, Brandt M, Wagner V, Paulus W. Cerebral malakoplakia associated with Escherichia coli infection. Acta Neuropathol. 2000;99:595-8 pubmed
    ..coli-associated abscess. This case indicates that malakoplakia of the brain might also be a histiocytic reaction against bacterial antigens of the E. coli family...
  27. Zhang W, Bielaszewska M, Kuczius T, Karch H. Identification, characterization, and distribution of a Shiga toxin 1 gene variant (stx(1c)) in Escherichia coli strains isolated from humans. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:1441-6 pubmed
    ..The procedures developed in this study now allow the determination of the frequency of STEC strains harboring stx(1c) among clinical STEC isolates and their association with human disease in prospective studies...
  28. Zerbe H, Ossadnik C, Leibold W, Schuberth H. Lochial secretions of Escherichia coli- or Arcanobacterium pyogenes-infected bovine uteri modulate the phenotype and the functional capacity of neutrophilic granulocytes. Theriogenology. 2002;57:1161-77 pubmed
    ..Thus, reduced function and altered phenotypes of PMN which immigrate into the uteri of cows with bacterial endometritis is due not only to interactions with bacteria or bacterial products, but is also to the uterine milieu...
  29. Schink A, Kadlec K, Schwarz S. Analysis of bla(CTX-M)-carrying plasmids from Escherichia coli isolates collected in the BfT-GermVet study. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:7142-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Detailed sequence analysis showed that the integration of insertion sequences, as well as interplasmid recombination events, accounted for the structural variability in the bla(CTX-M) gene regions...
  30. Schink A, Kadlec K, Kaspar H, Mankertz J, Schwarz S. Analysis of extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates collected in the GERM-Vet monitoring programme. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:1741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Insertion sequences, transposons and recombination events are likely to be involved in alterations of the ESBL gene regions...
  31. Gläser R, Harder J, Lange H, Bartels J, Christophers E, Schroder J. Antimicrobial psoriasin (S100A7) protects human skin from Escherichia coli infection. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:57-64 pubmed
    ..Zn(2+)-saturated psoriasin showed diminished antimicrobial activity, suggesting that Zn(2+) sequestration could be a possible antimicrobial mechanism. Thus, psoriasin may be key to the resistance of skin against E. coli. ..
  32. Regenhard P, Petzl W, Zerbe H, Sauerwein H. The antibacterial psoriasin is induced by E. coli infection in the bovine udder. Vet Microbiol. 2010;143:293-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Psoriasin thus appears to be a part of the local host defence mechanisms in the udder and seems to be inducible by infection with E. coli. ..
  33. Delannoy S, Beutin L, Mariani Kurkdjian P, Fleiss A, Bonacorsi S, Fach P. The Escherichia coli Serogroup O1 and O2 Lipopolysaccharides Are Encoded by Multiple O-antigen Gene Clusters. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:30 pubmed publisher
    ..coli (STEC) strains. ..
  34. Sarshar S, Brandt S, Asadi Karam M, Habibi M, Bouzari S, Lechtenberg M, et al. Aqueous extract from Orthosiphon stamineus leaves prevents bladder and kidney infection in mice. Phytomedicine. 2017;28:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..OWE inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner bacterial quorum sensing. OWE is assessed as a strong antiadhesive plant extract for which the traditional use in phytotherapy for UTI might be justified. ..
  35. Greve A, Skals M, Fagerberg S, Tonnus W, Ellermann Eriksen S, Evans R, et al. P2X1, P2X4, and P2X7 Receptor Knock Out Mice Expose Differential Outcome of Sepsis Induced by α-Haemolysin Producing Escherichia coli. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:113 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support that P2X7 and P2X4 receptor activation has a protective effect during severe E. coli infection. ..
  36. Muthing J, Schweppe C, Karch H, Friedrich A. Shiga toxins, glycosphingolipid diversity, and endothelial cell injury. Thromb Haemost. 2009;101:252-64 pubmed
    ..This approach may be helpful to gain insights into Stx-induced impairment of target cells that is suggested to originate at least partly from the structural heterogeneity of the cellular ligands of Stxs. ..
  37. Herzog K, Str ve K, Kastelic J, Piechotta M, Ulbrich S, Pfarrer C, et al. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide administration transiently suppresses luteal structure and function in diestrous cows. Reproduction. 2012;144:467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, LPS treatment of diestrus cows transiently suppressed both the structure and function of the CL...
  38. Meyer J, Harder J, Sipos B, Maune S, Kloppel G, Bartels J, et al. Psoriasin (S100A7) is a principal antimicrobial peptide of the human tongue. Mucosal Immunol. 2008;1:239-43 pubmed publisher
    ..It displays a gradient pattern of expression with decreasing expression from the anterior one-third to the posterior portion of the tongue. Thus, psoriasin may be the key to the resistance of the human tongue toward E. coli. ..
  39. Ewers C, Li G, Wilking H, Kiessling S, Alt K, Antão E, et al. Avian pathogenic, uropathogenic, and newborn meningitis-causing Escherichia coli: how closely related are they?. Int J Med Microbiol. 2007;297:163-76 pubmed
    ..The finding of different evolutionary clusters within these three pathotypes implicates an independently and parallel evolution, which should be resolved in the future by thorough phylogenetic typing...
  40. Li G, Laturnus C, Ewers C, Wieler L. Identification of genes required for avian Escherichia coli septicemia by signature-tagged mutagenesis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:2818-27 pubmed
    ..This genome-wide analysis has identified both novel and previously known factors potentially involved in pathogenesis of APEC infection. ..
  41. Prager R, Annemüller S, Tschäpe H. Diversity of virulence patterns among shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from human clinical cases-need for more detailed diagnostics. Int J Med Microbiol. 2005;295:29-38 pubmed
    ..g. HUS). Such an association speaks either for the "shiga toxin-only concept" or for several redundant, but clinically or epidemiologically important virulence properties. ..
  42. Bielaszewska M, Tarr P, Karch H, Zhang W, Mathys W. Phenotypic and molecular analysis of tellurite resistance among enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and sorbitol-fermenting O157:NM clinical isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:452-4 pubmed
    ..5%) of 86 sorbitol-fermenting (SF) EHEC O157:NM strains had Te MICs of </=4 microg/ml, did not grow on Te-containing media, and lacked ter genes. Optimal detection of SF EHEC O157:NM strains requires Te-independent strategies...
  43. Bielaszewska M, Karch H. Consequences of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection for the vascular endothelium. Thromb Haemost. 2005;94:312-8 pubmed
    ..Based on current data, cytolethal distending toxin, EHEC haemolysin, and subtilase cytotoxin might be such candidates...
  44. Prager R, Bauerfeind R, Tietze E, Behrend J, Fruth A, Tschape H. Prevalence and deletion types of the pathogenicity island ETT2 among Escherichia coli strains from oedema disease and colibacillosis in pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2004;99:287-94 pubmed
    ..These deletions cover the translocon part of the putative ETT2-encoded type III secretion apparatus. It is suggested that the entire ETT2 is associated with a particular virulence trait of piglet oedema disease E. coli (EDEC)...
  45. Karch H, Tarr P, Bielaszewska M. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in human medicine. Int J Med Microbiol. 2005;295:405-18 pubmed
    ..This review will focus on the microbiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of EHEC-associated diseases, and illustrate future challenges and opportunities for their control...
  46. Frick J, Zahir N, Müller M, Kahl F, Bechtold O, Lutz M, et al. Colitogenic and non-colitogenic commensal bacteria differentially trigger DC maturation and Th cell polarization: an important role for IL-6. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:1537-47 pubmed
    ..coli-triggered colitis development by B. vulgatus in vivo; high IL-6 mRNA expression was consistently found in B. vulgatus-colonized or B. vulgatus/E. coli co-colonized IL-2(-/-) mice and was associated with absence of colitis...
  47. Müller C, Dobrindt U, Nagy G, Emody L, Uhlin B, Hacker J. Role of histone-like proteins H-NS and StpA in expression of virulence determinants of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5428-38 pubmed
    ..At a lower infectious dose, however, mutants lacking H-NS are attenuated through their impaired growth rate, which can only partially be compensated for by the higher expression of numerous virulence factors. ..
  48. Engel D, Dobrindt U, Tittel A, Peters P, Maurer J, Gütgemann I, et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha- and inducible nitric oxide synthase-producing dendritic cells are rapidly recruited to the bladder in urinary tract infection but are dispensable for bacterial clearance. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6100-7 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that some of the abundant DC recruited in UTI contributed innate immune effector functions, which were, however, dispensable in the microenvironment of the bladder. ..
  49. Blickwede M, Schwarz S. Molecular analysis of florfenicol-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from pigs. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..coli isolates from cattle. Variations in the RFLPs of chromosomal EcoRI fragments carrying floR in isolates that had the same macrorestriction pattern might suggest variable chromosomal integration sites...
  50. Bielaszewska M, Köck R, Friedrich A, von Eiff C, Zimmerhackl L, Karch H, et al. Shiga toxin-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome: time to change the diagnostic paradigm?. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1024 pubmed
    ..However, the frequency of stx-negative/eae-positive E. coli in stools of HUS patients and the clinical significance of such strains are unknown...
  51. Cirl C, Wieser A, Yadav M, Duerr S, Schubert S, Fischer H, et al. Subversion of Toll-like receptor signaling by a unique family of bacterial Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing proteins. Nat Med. 2008;14:399-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Tcps represent a new class of virulence factors that act by inhibiting TLR- and MyD88-specific signaling, thus suppressing innate immunity and increasing virulence...
  52. Schmidt H, Beutin L, Karch H. Molecular analysis of the plasmid-encoded hemolysin of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL 933. Infect Immun. 1995;63:1055-61 pubmed
    ..The EHEC hemolysin appears to have clinical importance because it occurs in all O157 strains tested and is reactive to sera of patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome...
  53. Duda K, Fruth A, Holst O. Structural studies of the O-antigenic polysaccharide of the bovine mastitis isolate Escherichia coli serotype O174. Carbohydr Res. 2013;373:18-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of the OPS was analyzed by 1 and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and methylation analysis, which identified the branched repeating tetrasaccharide biological unit. [structure: see text]. ..
  54. Bletz S, Bielaszewska M, Leopold S, Köck R, Witten A, Schuldes J, et al. Evolution of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli O26 based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:1807-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the SNP-CC analysis may help to assess a risk in infected individuals for the progression to HUS and to implement more specific infection control measures...
  55. Sonntag A, Prager R, Bielaszewska M, Zhang W, Fruth A, Tschäpe H, et al. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145 strains from patients in Germany. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:954-62 pubmed
    ..The heterogeneity of EHEC O145 strains at the chromosomal and plasmid level, in particular the high diversity in PFGE patterns, provides a basis for molecular subtyping of these pathogens...
  56. Brunder W, Schmidt H, Frosch M, Karch H. The large plasmids of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are highly variable genetic elements. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 5):1005-14 pubmed
    ..The EHEC-hlyA gene, however, is present in both. In conclusion, this study shows that the large plasmids of STEC are not uniform genetic elements but heterogeneous in both their gene composition and arrangement. ..
  57. Haarmann C, Karch H, Frosch M, Schmidt H. A 3.3-kb plasmid of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is closely related to the core region of the Salmonella typhimurium antibiotic resistance plasmid NTP16. Plasmid. 1998;39:134-40 pubmed
    ..Using a hybridization assay, we determined that of 50 E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated in 1996 in Würzburg, Germany from patients with diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, 4 strains (8%) contained plasmid p4821-specific sequences. ..
  58. Brunder W, Schmidt H, Karch H. EspP, a novel extracellular serine protease of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 cleaves human coagulation factor V. Mol Microbiol. 1997;24:767-78 pubmed
    ..Functional analysis showed that EspP is a protease capable of cleaving pepsin A and human coagulation factor V. Degradation of factor V could contribute to the mucosal haemorrhage observed in patients with haemorrhagic colitis. ..
  59. Kadlec K, Schwarz S. Analysis and distribution of class 1 and class 2 integrons and associated gene cassettes among Escherichia coli isolates from swine, horses, cats and dogs collected in the BfT-GermVet monitoring study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62:469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This molecular analysis complements the phenotypic susceptibility testing conducted in the BfT-GermVet monitoring study and helps to explain the persistence of resistance genes even without direct selective pressure...
  60. Karch H, Denamur E, Dobrindt U, Finlay B, Hengge R, Johannes L, et al. The enemy within us: lessons from the 2011 European Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4:841-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Several conclusions, which will have impact on future potential E. coli outbreaks, are outlined here...
  61. Wieser A, Magistro G, Nörenberg D, Hoffmann C, Schubert S. First multi-epitope subunit vaccine against extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli delivered by a bacterial type-3 secretion system (T3SS). Int J Med Microbiol. 2012;302:10-8 pubmed publisher
  62. Friedrich A, Zhang W, Bielaszewska M, Mellmann A, Köck R, Fruth A, et al. Prevalence, virulence profiles, and clinical significance of Shiga toxin-negative variants of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 infection in humans. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:39-45 pubmed
    ..coli O157-infected patients. It is unknown if loss of the stx gene during the early stage of an enterohemorrhagic E. coli infection prevents HUS, or if absence of the stx gene from E. coli O157 reduces or ablates virulence...
  63. Wiedmaier N, Muller S, Köberle M, Manncke B, Krejci J, Autenrieth I, et al. Bacteria induce CTGF and CYR61 expression in epithelial cells in a lysophosphatidic acid receptor-dependent manner. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298:231-43 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that LPA receptor-dependent expression of CTGF and CYR61 represents a common host response after interaction with bacteria. ..
  64. Sauer M, Altrichter J, Kreutzer H, Schmidt H, Nöldge Schomburg G, Schmidt R, et al. Safety evaluation for a cell-based immune support system in an ex vivo rat model of gram-negative sepsis. Ther Apher Dial. 2009;13:444-50 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The data suggest that extracorporeal use of granulocytes allows the therapeutic use of these cells while avoiding unwanted effects resulting from direct contact to internal organs...
  65. M ller D, Benz I, Liebchen A, Gallitz I, Karch H, Schmidt M. Comparative analysis of the locus of enterocyte effacement and its flanking regions. Infect Immun. 2009;77:3501-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, striking differences were found between the 5'- and 3'-associated flanking regions reflecting the different histories of the various strains and also possibly indicating different lines in evolution...
  66. Seifert H. The clinical importance of microbiological findings in the diagnosis and management of bloodstream infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48 Suppl 4:S238-45 pubmed publisher
  67. Günther J, Koczan D, Yang W, Nürnberg G, Repsilber D, Schuberth H, et al. Assessment of the immune capacity of mammary epithelial cells: comparison with mammary tissue after challenge with Escherichia coli. Vet Res. 2009;40:31 pubmed publisher
    ..This functionally polarized regulation of the complex complement pathway is not reflected in the MEC models...
  68. Yang W, Molenaar A, Kurts Ebert B, Seyfert H. NF-kappaB factors are essential, but not the switch, for pathogen-related induction of the bovine beta-defensin 5-encoding gene in mammary epithelial cells. Mol Immunol. 2006;43:210-25 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that elevated levels of binding competent NF-kappaB factors mediated via TLR pathogen recognitions mechanisms are not the key switch for pathogen related induction of the BNBD5-encoding gene in MEC. ..
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    ..The variability of PFGE patterns for the progeny of a single colony must be considered when interpreting PFGE patterns in SF EHEC O157-associated outbreaks...
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    ..Rather, the pathogen causing subclinical mastitis impairs NF-kappaB activation in MEC thereby severely weakening the immune response in the udder. ..