Experts and Doctors on double stranded rna in United States


Locale: United States
Topic: double stranded rna

Top Publications

  1. Meng B, Zhu H, Gonsalves D. Rupestris stem pitting associated virus-1 consists of a family of sequence variants. Arch Virol. 1999;144:2071-85 pubmed
    ..Findings from this study should have practical applications toward understanding the etiology of RSP and developing reliable assays to rapidly detect the disease...
  2. Miller S, Brown S, Tomoyasu Y. Larval RNAi in Drosophila?. Dev Genes Evol. 2008;218:505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide specific information about the tissues amenable to RNAi in two different insects, which may help us understand the molecular basis of systemic RNAi. ..
  3. Li H, Li W, Ding S. Induction and suppression of RNA silencing by an animal virus. Science. 2002;296:1319-21 pubmed
    ..These findings establish RNA silencing as an adaptive antiviral defense in animal cells. B2 also inhibits RNA silencing in transgenic plants, providing evidence for a conserved RNA silencing pathway in the plant and animal kingdoms...
  4. Wu H, Xu H, Miraglia L, Crooke S. Human RNase III is a 160-kDa protein involved in preribosomal RNA processing. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:36957-65 pubmed
    ..The antisense inhibition technique used in this study provides an effective method for functional analysis of newly identified human genes. ..
  5. Thornhill D, Lord J. Secondary structure models for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region 1 from symbiotic dinoflagellates. Protist. 2010;161:434-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, ITS1 secondary structures are useful in understanding the biology and phylogenetics, as well as recognizing and excluding questionable sequences from datasets, of protists such as Symbiodinium. ..
  6. Ghosh A, Sarkar S, Guo W, Bandyopadhyay S, Sen G. Enzymatic activity of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase is impaired by specific mutations that affect oligomerization of the protein. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:33220-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that tetramerization of the protein is required for the enzymatic activity of the small 2-5(A) synthetases. ..
  7. Tan A, Palli S. Identification and characterization of nuclear receptors from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:430-9 pubmed publisher
  8. Zhu X, Stein D. RNAi-mediated inhibition of gene function in the follicle cell layer of the Drosophila ovary. Genesis. 2004;40:101-8 pubmed
    ..These results stress the importance of careful choice of expression system and of conditions for use in transgenic RNAi-mediated studies of gene function. ..
  9. Elco C, Sen G. Stat1 required for interferon-inducible but not constitutive responsiveness to extracellular dsRNA. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2007;27:411-24 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that Stat1 is critical for IFN-induced, not basal, responsiveness to extracellular dsRNA. ..

More Information


  1. Schneeman T, Bruno M, Schjerven H, Johansen F, Chady L, Kaetzel C. Regulation of the polymeric Ig receptor by signaling through TLRs 3 and 4: linking innate and adaptive immune responses. J Immunol. 2005;175:376-84 pubmed
    ..Signaling through LPS/TLR4 appears to up-regulate pIgR expression while minimizing proinflammatory responses, a mechanism that could promote IgA-mediated homeostasis in the presence of commensal Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  2. Iordanov M, Ryabinina O, Schneider P, Magun B. Two mechanisms of caspase 9 processing in double-stranded RNA- and virus-triggered apoptosis. Apoptosis. 2005;10:153-66 pubmed
  3. Huang S, Ghabrial S. Organization and expression of the double-stranded RNA genome of Helminthosporium victoriae 190S virus, a totivirus infecting a plant pathogenic filamentous fungus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12541-6 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of its genome organization and expression will be valuable for understanding its role in pathogenesis and for potential exploitation in the development of biocontrol measures...
  4. Wassarman K, Saecker R. Synthesis-mediated release of a small RNA inhibitor of RNA polymerase. Science. 2006;314:1601-3 pubmed
    ..In vivo, 6S RNA-directed RNA synthesis occurs during outgrowth from the stationary phase and likely is responsible for liberating RNAP from 6S RNA in response to nutrient availability. ..
  5. Qiao X, Qiao J, Mindich L. Analysis of specific binding involved in genomic packaging of the double-stranded-RNA bacteriophage phi6. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:6409-14 pubmed
    ..Antibodies to peptide sequences were prepared, and their abilities to bind to the exterior of procapsids were determined. Sites sensitive to trypsin and to factor Xa were determined as well. ..
  6. Zhu J, Chen L, Raikhel A. Posttranscriptional control of the competence factor betaFTZ-F1 by juvenile hormone in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13338-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, betaFTZ-F1 is indeed the factor defining the acquisition of competence to 20E in the mosquito fat body. Moreover, this is achieved through JH III-mediated posttranscriptional control of betaFTZ-F1. ..
  7. Robalino J, Browdy C, Prior S, Metz A, Parnell P, Gross P, et al. Induction of antiviral immunity by double-stranded RNA in a marine invertebrate. J Virol. 2004;78:10442-8 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates for the first time that an invertebrate immune system, like its vertebrate counterparts, can recognize dsRNA as a virus-associated molecular pattern, resulting in the activation of an innate antiviral response. ..
  8. Qiao J, Qiao X, Sun Y, Mindich L. Isolation and analysis of mutants of double-stranded-RNA bacteriophage phi6 with altered packaging specificity. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:4572-7 pubmed
    ..It appears that P1 is the determinant of the RNA binding sites, and it is suggested that the binding sites overlap or are conformational changes of the same domains. ..
  9. Pridgeon J, Zhao L, Becnel J, Strickman D, Clark G, Linthicum K. Topically applied AaeIAP1 double-stranded RNA kills female adults of Aedes aegypti. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:414-20 pubmed
    ..aegypti. Our results indicate that critical pathways or genes could be targeted to develop molecular pesticides for the control of medically important diseases vectors...
  10. Larson S, Koszelak S, Day J, Greenwood A, Dodds J, McPherson A. Three-dimensional structure of satellite tobacco mosaic virus at 2.9 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1993;231:375-91 pubmed
    ..The nucleic acid is distributed within the virion with a high degree of order. The capsid protein is a true double helical RNA binding protein and a number of prominent interactions between protein and RNA can be clearly seen...
  11. Li Y, Zhang Z, Robinson G, Palli S. Identification and characterization of a juvenile hormone response element and its binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37605-17 pubmed
  12. Sang Y, Ross C, Rowland R, Blecha F. Toll-like receptor 3 activation decreases porcine arterivirus infection. Viral Immunol. 2008;21:303-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide fundamental genetic and molecular information for porcine TLR3, and implicate its involvement in PRRSV infection, findings that may suggest new strategies to limit this costly pandemic disease. ..
  13. De La Fuente J, Almazan C, Naranjo V, Blouin E, Meyer J, Kocan K. Autocidal control of ticks by silencing of a single gene by RNA interference. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;344:332-8 pubmed
    ..Conservation of subolesin among tick species suggests that SAT may be useful for control of many medically and economically important tick species...
  14. Lin Y, Kincaid R, Arasappan D, Dowd S, Hunicke Smith S, Sullivan C. Small RNA profiling reveals antisense transcription throughout the KSHV genome and novel small RNAs. RNA. 2010;16:1540-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the enormous potential to form double-stranded RNA in KSHV-infected cells, we observe no evidence for the existence of abundant viral-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). ..
  15. Reichman T, Mathews M. RNA binding and intramolecular interactions modulate the regulation of gene expression by nuclear factor 110. RNA. 2003;9:543-54 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which structured RNAs regulate gene expression by modulating transcription through interactions with members of the NF90 protein family. ..
  16. Bennett R, Blalock W, May W. Serine 18 phosphorylation of RAX, the PKR activator, is required for PKR activation and consequent translation inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42687-93 pubmed
    ..We propose that the ability of RAX to activate PKR is regulated by a sequential mechanism featuring RAX association with PKR, RAX phosphorylation at serine 18, and activation of PKR. ..
  17. Lee C. RH70, a bidirectional RNA helicase, co-purifies with U1snRNP. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39679-83 pubmed
    ..Its association with U1snRNP and ATP specificity suggest a role for RH70 in pre-mRNA splicing, in particular, at the early stages of the splicing reaction involving U1snRNP. ..
  18. Jiang D, Ghabrial S. Molecular characterization of Penicillium chrysogenum virus: reconsideration of the taxonomy of the genus Chrysovirus. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:2111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This study represents the first report on molecular characterization of a chrysovirus and the results suggest the creation of a new family of mycoviruses with multipartite dsRNA genomes to accommodate PcV and related viruses...
  19. Li S, Peters G, Ding K, Zhang X, Qin J, Sen G. Molecular basis for PKR activation by PACT or dsRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10005-10 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a short decoy peptide, representing PBM, was able to activate PKR by interfering with the intramolecular interaction. These observations suggest a model for PKR activation upon binding of dsRNA or PACT. ..
  20. Russell P, Bennett A, Love Z, Baggott D. Cloning, sequencing and expression of a full-length cDNA copy of the M1 double-stranded RNA virus from the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1997;13:829-36 pubmed
    ..A 118-nucleotide contiguous segment of the M1 genome has not previously been reported; 92 of those nucleotides comprise a segment of A nucleotides in the AU-rich bubble that follows the toxin-encoding reading frame. ..
  21. Yuan Y, Compton S, Sobczak K, Stenberg M, Thornton C, Griffith J, et al. Muscleblind-like 1 interacts with RNA hairpins in splicing target and pathogenic RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:5474-86 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a mechanistic basis for dsCUG-induced MBNL1 sequestration and highlight a striking similarity in the binding sites for MBNL proteins on splicing precursor and pathogenic RNAs. ..
  22. Iordanov M, Kirsch J, Ryabinina O, Wong J, Spitz P, Korcheva V, et al. Recruitment of TRADD, FADD, and caspase 8 to double-stranded RNA-triggered death inducing signaling complexes (dsRNA-DISCs). Apoptosis. 2005;10:167-76 pubmed
    ..DsRNA-DISCs contain FADD, TRADD, and caspase 8; however, several experimental approaches suggest that death ligands and death receptors (such as Fas/Apo1 and DR4/Apo2) are not involved in the formation of dsRNA-DISCs. ..
  23. Jones J, Allan R, Temin H. Alteration of location of dimer linkage sequence in retroviral RNA: little effect on replication or homologous recombination. J Virol. 1993;67:3151-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that any alignment or conformation necessary for retroviral replication or recombination is not the result of the position of the E/DLS. ..
  24. Bolen P, Kurtzman C, Ligon J, Mannarelli B, Bothast R. Physical and genetic characterization of linear DNA plasmids from the heterothallic yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1992;61:195-205 pubmed
    ..Poor spore viability and a lack of complete tetrad recovery limited the extent of the analysis, but the findings suggest a cytoplasmic mode of inheritance for these linear DNAs. ..
  25. Terenzi F, Pal S, Sen G. Induction and mode of action of the viral stress-inducible murine proteins, P56 and P54. Virology. 2005;340:116-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, members of the human and murine P56 family have similar but non-identical functions. ..
  26. Infanger L, Rocheleau T, Bartholomay L, Johnson J, Fuchs J, Higgs S, et al. The role of phenylalanine hydroxylase in melanotic encapsulation of filarial worms in two species of mosquitoes. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;34:1329-38 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that PAH is required for a fully functional melanotic encapsulation response in both mosquito vectors. ..
  27. DeCamillis M, Lewis D, Brown S, Beeman R, Denell R. Interactions of the Tribolium Sex combs reduced and proboscipedia orthologs in embryonic labial development. Genetics. 2001;159:1643-8 pubmed
    ..A similar interaction between Scr and pb during Drosophila embryogenesis has been described recently. Thus, this regulatory paradigm appears to be conserved at least within the Holometabola. ..
  28. Guang S, Bochner A, Pavelec D, Burkhart K, Harding S, Lachowiec J, et al. An Argonaute transports siRNAs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Science. 2008;321:537-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, specific Argonaute proteins can transport specific classes of small regulatory RNAs to distinct cellular compartments to regulate gene expression. ..
  29. de la Vega E, O Leary N, Shockey J, Robalino J, Payne C, Browdy C, et al. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvALF): a broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide essential for shrimp immunity against bacterial and fungal infection. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:1916-25 pubmed
    ..In contrast, LvALF1 dsRNA activated the sequence-independent innate anti-viral immune response giving increased protection from WSSV infection...
  30. Arakane Y, Dittmer N, Tomoyasu Y, Kramer K, Muthukrishnan S, Beeman R, et al. Identification, mRNA expression and functional analysis of several yellow family genes in Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:259-66 pubmed publisher
  31. McCarthy B, Mansour A, Lin Y, Kotenko S, Raveche E. RNA interference of IL-10 in leukemic B-1 cells. Cancer Immun. 2004;4:6 pubmed
    ..IL-10 modulating Bcl7C expression represents a novel mechanism in the evasion of apoptosis. This approach, by itself or in conjunction with current therapies, merits consideration in similar B-cell malignancies. ..
  32. Bonaparte K, Hudson C, Wu C, Massa P. Inverse regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase I by the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in CNS glia. Glia. 2006;53:827-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that SHP-1 is a critical regulator of innate immunity to virus infections in CNS cells. ..
  33. Li S, Min J, Krug R, Sen G. Binding of the influenza A virus NS1 protein to PKR mediates the inhibition of its activation by either PACT or double-stranded RNA. Virology. 2006;349:13-21 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrated that PKR activation is inhibited in cells infected with a recombinant influenza A virus expressing NS1A mutant protein that cannot bind RNA, as is the case in cells infected with wild-type influenza A virus. ..
  34. Carpick B, Graziano V, Schneider D, Maitra R, Lee X, Williams B. Characterization of the solution complex between the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase and HIV-I trans-activating region RNA. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:9510-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that the PKR activation complex consists of a protein dimer bound cooperatively to one dsRNA molecule. ..
  35. Goh K, deVeer M, Williams B. The protein kinase PKR is required for p38 MAPK activation and the innate immune response to bacterial endotoxin. EMBO J. 2000;19:4292-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate, for the first time, that PKR is required for p38 MAPK signaling and plays a potentially important role in the innate response against bacterial endotoxin. ..
  36. Huang X, Hutchins B, Patel R. The C-terminal, third conserved motif of the protein activator PACT plays an essential role in the activation of double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). Biochem J. 2002;366:175-86 pubmed
    ..In addition, domain 3 and eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha both interact with PKR through the same region within PKR, which we have mapped to lie between amino acid residues 318 and 551. ..
  37. Gvakharia B, Bebas P, Cymborowski B, Giebultowicz J. Disruption of sperm release from insect testes by cytochalasin and beta-actin mRNA mediated interference. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003;60:1744-51 pubmed
    ..Combined results of RNAi experiments at physiological, cellular and molecular levels identified unique cells that are critically involved in the mechanism of sperm release. ..
  38. Stegman M, Goetz J, Ascano M, Ogden S, Nybakken K, Robbins D. The Kinesin-related protein Costal2 associates with membranes in a Hedgehog-sensitive, Smoothened-independent manner. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7064-71 pubmed
    ..In response to Hh and through interaction with Cos2, Smo mediates both inhibition of the endosome-associated HSC-R and activation of HSC-A at the plasma membrane. ..
  39. Schmidt D, Rose D, Saxton W, Strome S. Functional analysis of cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain in Caenorhabditis elegans with fast-acting temperature-sensitive mutations. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:1200-12 pubmed
    ..This suggests that temperature-sensitive mutations can be created for time-resolved function analyses of dyneins and perhaps other P-loop proteins in a variety of model systems. ..
  40. Nanduri S, Carpick B, Yang Y, Williams B, Qin J. Structure of the double-stranded RNA-binding domain of the protein kinase PKR reveals the molecular basis of its dsRNA-mediated activation. EMBO J. 1998;17:5458-65 pubmed
    ..The central linker is highly flexible, which may enable the two dsRBMs to wrap around the RNA duplex for cooperative and high-affinity binding, leading to the overall change of PKR conformation and its activation. ..
  41. Lakka S, Gondi C, Dinh D, Olivero W, Gujrati M, Rao V, et al. Specific interference of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression induced by double-stranded RNA results in decreased invasion, tumor growth, and angiogenesis in gliomas. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21882-92 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that the use of hairpin siRNA expression vectors for uPAR and MMP-9 may provide an effective tool for cancer therapy. ..
  42. Scumpia P, Kelly K, Reeves W, Stevens B. Double-stranded RNA signals antiviral and inflammatory programs and dysfunctional glutamate transport in TLR3-expressing astrocytes. Glia. 2005;52:153-62 pubmed
  43. Lima W, Wu H, Nichols J, Sun H, Murray H, Crooke S. Binding and cleavage specificities of human Argonaute2. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26017-28 pubmed publisher
  44. John S, Wang T, Steffen S, Longhi S, Schmaljohn C, Jonsson C. Ebola virus VP30 is an RNA binding protein. J Virol. 2007;81:8967-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we show for the first time the direct interaction of EBOV VP30 with RNA and the importance of the N-terminal region for binding RNA...
  45. Wang X, Aliyari R, Li W, Li H, Kim K, Carthew R, et al. RNA interference directs innate immunity against viruses in adult Drosophila. Science. 2006;312:452-4 pubmed
    ..These findings establish a Drosophila model for studying the innate immunity against viruses in animals...
  46. Chang C, Hopper N, Sternberg P. Caenorhabditis elegans SOS-1 is necessary for multiple RAS-mediated developmental signals. EMBO J. 2000;19:3283-94 pubmed
    ..This SOS-1-independent signaling is not inhibited by SLI-1/Cbl and is not mediated by PTP-2/SHP, raising the possibility that there could be another RasGEF...
  47. Hammond T, Andrewski M, Roossinck M, Keller N. Aspergillus mycoviruses are targets and suppressors of RNA silencing. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:350-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, they suggest that the morphological and physiological changes associated with some mycoviruses could be a result of their antagonistic relationship with RNA silencing. ..
  48. Patel R, Vestal D, Xu Z, Bandyopadhyay S, Guo W, Erme S, et al. DRBP76, a double-stranded RNA-binding nuclear protein, is phosphorylated by the interferon-induced protein kinase, PKR. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:20432-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, purified DRBP76 was shown to be a substrate of PKR in vitro, indicating that this protein's cellular activities may be regulated by PKR-mediated phosphorylation. ..
  49. Sundaram P, Han W, Cohen N, Echalier B, Albin J, Timmons L. Caenorhabditis elegans ABCRNAi transporters interact genetically with rde-2 and mut-7. Genetics. 2008;178:801-14 pubmed publisher
    ..From our results, we speculate that the coordinated activities of ABC(RNAi) transporters, through their effects on endogenous RNAi-related mechanisms, ultimately affect chromosome function and integrity...
  50. Zamanian Daryoush M, Mogensen T, DiDonato J, Williams B. NF-kappaB activation by double-stranded-RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is mediated through NF-kappaB-inducing kinase and IkappaB kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:1278-90 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that PKR-dependent dsRNA induction of NF-kappaB is mediated by NIK and IKK activation. ..
  51. Sundaram P, Echalier B, Han W, Hull D, Timmons L. ATP-binding cassette transporters are required for efficient RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3678-88 pubmed
    ..elegans. Thus, the ability to mount a robust RNAi response to dsRNA depends upon the deployment of two ancient systems that respond to environmental assaults: RNAi mechanisms and membrane transport systems that use ABC proteins. ..
  52. Nallagatla S, Bevilacqua P. Nucleoside modifications modulate activation of the protein kinase PKR in an RNA structure-specific manner. RNA. 2008;14:1201-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the findings indicate that nucleoside modifications and wobble pairing may serve to discriminate self-RNA and pathogenic RNA in innate immunity. ..
  53. Polinko E, Strome S. Depletion of a Cks homolog in C. elegans embryos uncovers a post-metaphase role in both meiosis and mitosis. Curr Biol. 2000;10:1471-4 pubmed
    ..Specifically, cks-1(RNAi) embryos fail to exit M phase properly. We propose that CKS-1 has an essential role in the inactivation of MPF during early C. elegans embryogenesis...
  54. Peters N, Rohrbach J, Zalewski B, Byrkett C, Vaughn J. RNA editing and regulation of Drosophila 4f-rnp expression by sas-10 antisense readthrough mRNA transcripts. RNA. 2003;9:698-710 pubmed
    ..The results provide insight into roles of naturally occurring antisense RNAs in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. ..
  55. Parker L, Fierro Monti I, Mathews M. Nuclear factor 90 is a substrate and regulator of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32522-30 pubmed
    ..The C-terminal region also inhibits PKR function, probably through competitive binding to dsRNA. A model for NF90-PKR interactions is proposed. ..
  56. Ngoi S, Tovey M, Vella A. Targeting poly(I:C) to the TLR3-independent pathway boosts effector CD8 T cell differentiation through IFN-alpha/beta. J Immunol. 2008;181:7670-80 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal specific roles of how dsRNA receptors shape CD8 T cell responses, which should be considered as poly(I:C) is authenticated as a therapeutic adjuvant used in vaccines. ..
  57. Sun Y, Qiao X, Mindich L. Construction of carrier state viruses with partial genomes of the segmented dsRNA bacteriophages. Virology. 2004;319:274-9 pubmed
    ..In Phi8, carrier state formation requires the activity of genes 8 and 12 of segment S...
  58. Han W, Sundaram P, Kenjale H, Grantham J, Timmons L. The Caenorhabditis elegans rsd-2 and rsd-6 genes are required for chromosome functions during exposure to unfavorable environments. Genetics. 2008;178:1875-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the ultimate functions of rsd-2 and rsd-6 in systemic RNAi are remarkably complex and environmentally responsive. ..
  59. Yang Q, Del Campo M, Lambowitz A, Jankowsky E. DEAD-box proteins unwind duplexes by local strand separation. Mol Cell. 2007;28:253-63 pubmed
    ..We propose a three-step mechanism in which DEAD-box proteins unwind duplexes as "local strand separators." This unwinding mode is well-suited for local structural changes in complex RNA or RNP assemblies. ..
  60. Peters K, Smith H, Stark G, Sen G. IRF-3-dependent, NFkappa B- and JNK-independent activation of the 561 and IFN-beta genes in response to double-stranded RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:6322-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, IRF-3 activation by dsRNA is sufficient to induce the transcription of genes with simple promoters such as 561 as well as complex promoters such as IFN-beta. ..
  61. Sarkar S, Elco C, Peters K, Chattopadhyay S, Sen G. Two tyrosine residues of Toll-like receptor 3 trigger different steps of NF-kappa B activation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3423-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, two phosphotyrosine residues of TLR3 activate two distinct pathways, one leading to NF-kappaB release and the other leading to its phosphorylation. ..
  62. Labreuche Y, O Leary N, de la Vega E, Veloso A, Gross P, Chapman R, et al. Lack of evidence for Litopenaeus vannamei Toll receptor (lToll) involvement in activation of sequence-independent antiviral immunity in shrimp. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:806-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, gene-specific dsRNA injected to specifically silence lToll expression activated an antiviral response. These data strongly suggest that shrimp lToll plays no role in dsRNA-induced antiviral immunity...
  63. Marshall E, Bierle C, Brune W, Geballe A. Essential role for either TRS1 or IRS1 in human cytomegalovirus replication. J Virol. 2009;83:4112-20 pubmed publisher
  64. Kulka M, Calvo M, Ngo D, Wales S, Goswami B. Activation of the 2-5OAS/RNase L pathway in CVB1 or HAV/18f infected FRhK-4 cells does not require induction of OAS1 or OAS2 expression. Virology. 2009;388:169-84 pubmed publisher
  65. Peters G, Seachrist D, Keri R, Sen G. The double-stranded RNA-binding protein, PACT, is required for postnatal anterior pituitary proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:10696-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study revealed a physiologically significant role for PACT in cell proliferation and an essential role of a dsRNA-binding protein in mammalian pituitary expansion. ..
  66. Aliyari R, Wu Q, Li H, Wang X, Li F, Green L, et al. Mechanism of induction and suppression of antiviral immunity directed by virus-derived small RNAs in Drosophila. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings, therefore, provide a model in which small RNA-directed viral immunity is induced during the initiation of viral progeny (+)RNA synthesis and suppressed by B2 inside the viral RNA replication complex...
  67. Chen Y, Potratz J, Tijerina P, Del Campo M, Lambowitz A, Russell R. DEAD-box proteins can completely separate an RNA duplex using a single ATP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20203-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may underlie the functions of DEAD-box proteins by allowing them to generate local rearrangements without disrupting the global structures of their targets. ..
  68. Wang Q, Zhang Z, Blackwell K, Carmichael G. Vigilins bind to promiscuously A-to-I-edited RNAs and are involved in the formation of heterochromatin. Curr Biol. 2005;15:384-91 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with a mechanistic link between components of the DNA-repair machinery and RNA-mediated gene silencing. ..
  69. Chakrabarti A, Sadler A, Kar N, Young H, Silverman R, Williams B. Protein kinase R-dependent regulation of interleukin-10 in response to double-stranded RNA. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data demonstrate the role of PKR in regulating an anti-inflammatory cytokine. The findings have significance in antiviral as well as broader innate immune responses. ..
  70. Long S, Wilson M, Bengten E, Bryan L, Clem L, Miller N, et al. Identification of a cDNA encoding channel catfish interferon. Dev Comp Immunol. 2004;28:97-111 pubmed
    ..To confirm these results, recombinant CF IFN was synthesized in COS-7 cells and shown to have antiviral activity in CCO cells. Collectively, these results argue strongly that the identified catfish cDNA is an IFN homolog...
  71. Bruenn J. A closely related group of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from double-stranded RNA viruses. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:5667-9 pubmed
    ..The cause of this preservation of sequence appears to be constraints placed on the RDRP by the life-style of these viruses--the maintenance of a stable, persistent, noninfectious state...
  72. Wagner J, Jankowsky E, Company M, Pyle A, Abelson J. The DEAH-box protein PRP22 is an ATPase that mediates ATP-dependent mRNA release from the spliceosome and unwinds RNA duplexes. EMBO J. 1998;17:2926-37 pubmed
    ..Significantly, these data suggest that the DEAH-box proteins act directly on RNA substrates within the spliceosome. ..
  73. Cai R, Carpick B, Chun R, Jeang K, Williams B. HIV-I TAT inhibits PKR activity by both RNA-dependent and RNA-independent mechanisms. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;373:361-7 pubmed
  74. Reenan R, Hanrahan C, Ganetzky B. The mle(napts) RNA helicase mutation in drosophila results in a splicing catastrophe of the para Na+ channel transcript in a region of RNA editing. Neuron. 2000;25:139-49 pubmed
    ..These results explain how mlen(napts) affects Na+ channel expression and provide new insights into the mechanism of RNA editing...
  75. Yang Q, Jankowsky E. The DEAD-box protein Ded1 unwinds RNA duplexes by a mode distinct from translocating helicases. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:981-6 pubmed
    ..This new type of helicase activity explains observations with other DEAD-box proteins and may be the prototype for duplex-unwinding reactions in RNA metabolism. ..
  76. Yang Q, Jankowsky E. ATP- and ADP-dependent modulation of RNA unwinding and strand annealing activities by the DEAD-box protein DED1. Biochemistry. 2005;44:13591-601 pubmed
  77. Arakane Y, Muthukrishnan S, Beeman R, Kanost M, Kramer K. Laccase 2 is the phenoloxidase gene required for beetle cuticle tanning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11337-42 pubmed
    ..The results presented here support the hypothesis that two isoforms of laccase 2 generated by alternative splicing catalyze larval, pupal, and adult cuticle tanning in Tribolium. ..
  78. Ahlquist P. Virus evolution: fitting lifestyles to a T. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R465-7 pubmed
    ..These similarities intersect with emerging parallels in RNA replication to create intriguing evolutionary possibilities...
  79. Muro I, Monser K, Clem R. Mechanism of Dronc activation in Drosophila cells. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5035-41 pubmed
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