Experts and Doctors on carotid body in United States


Locale: United States
Topic: carotid body

Top Publications

  1. Oku Y, Bruce E, Richmonds C, Hudgel D. The carotid body in the motorneuron response to protriptyline. Respir Physiol. 1993;93:41-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the HYP and PHR respiratory motorneuron pool responses to PRT depend on the blood gas status at the time of drug administration. ..
  2. Jacono F, Peng Y, Kumar G, Prabhakar N. Modulation of the hypoxic sensory response of the carotid body by 5-hydroxytryptamine: role of the 5-HT2 receptor. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2005;145:135-42 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that 5-HT is not critical for the HSR of the rat carotid body, but it modulates the dynamics of the HSR via its action on 5-HT2 receptors. ..
  3. Joyner M, Limberg J. Insulin and sympathoexcitation: it is not all in your head. Diabetes. 2013;62:2654-5 pubmed publisher
  4. Andrews E, Kunze D. Voltage-gated K+ channels in chemoreceptor sensory neurons of rat petrosal ganglion. Brain Res. 2001;897:199-203 pubmed
    ..1 and Kv4.3, were identified in over 90% of the chemoreceptor neurons. Although the presence of these channel proteins was consistent throughout the population, individual neurons showed considerable variation in K+ current profiles. ..
  5. Dmitrieff E, Wilson J, Dunmire K, Bavis R. Chronic hyperoxia alters the expression of neurotrophic factors in the carotid body of neonatal rats. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;175:220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that BDNF, and perhaps other neurotrophic factors, contribute to abnormal carotid body function following perinatal hyperoxia. ..
  6. Schlenker E, Schultz H. Hypothyroidism stimulates D2 receptor-mediated breathing in response to acute hypoxia and alters D2 receptors levels in carotid bodies and brain. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2012;180:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, hypothyroidism impacts the expression of D2 receptors in the carotid body, PVN and striatum, and D2 stimulation affects ventilation remarkably differently than in EH. ..
  7. Buniel M, Schilling W, Kunze D. Distribution of transient receptor potential channels in the rat carotid chemosensory pathway. J Comp Neurol. 2003;464:404-13 pubmed
  8. Peng Y, Yuan G, Overholt J, Kumar G, Prabhakar N. Systemic and cellular responses to intermittent hypoxia: evidence for oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;536:559-64 pubmed
  9. Stickland M, Miller J, Smith C, Dempsey J. Carotid chemoreceptor modulation of regional blood flow distribution during exercise in health and chronic heart failure. Circ Res. 2007;100:1371-8 pubmed
    ..These results establish an important role for the CCs in cardiovascular control in the healthy animal during exercise and in the CHF animal both at rest and during exercise. ..

More Information


  1. Kou Y, Ernsberger P, Cragg P, Cherniack N, Prabhakar N. Role of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the carotid body response to isocapnic hypoxia. Respir Physiol. 1991;83:353-64 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that norepinephrine may tune the carotid body responses to hypoxia in part by its action on alpha 2-receptors. ..
  2. Blain G, Smith C, Henderson K, Dempsey J. Peripheral chemoreceptors determine the respiratory sensitivity of central chemoreceptors to CO(2). J Physiol. 2010;588:2455-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the gain of the CNS CO(2)/H(+) chemoreceptors in dogs is critically dependent on CB afferent activity and that CNS-CB interaction results in hyperadditive ventilatory responses to central hypercapnia. ..
  3. Hinerman R, Amdur R, Morris C, Kirwan J, Mendenhall W. Definitive radiotherapy in the management of paragangliomas arising in the head and neck: a 35-year experience. Head Neck. 2008;30:1431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence of treatment-related complications was low. Fractionated RT offers a high probability of tumor control with minimal risks for patients with paragangliomas of the temporal bone and neck. ..
  4. Haouzi P, Bell H, Van de Louw A. Hypoxia-induced arterial chemoreceptor stimulation and hydrogen sulfide: too much or too little?. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;179:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..While the effects of the endogenous H(2)S on breathing remains to be established, the effects exogenous sulfide can be accounted for by its long established toxicity on cytochrome C oxidase. ..
  5. Dempsey J. New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance. J Physiol. 2012;590:4129-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development. ..
  6. Peng Y, Yuan G, Jacono F, Kumar G, Prabhakar N. 5-HT evokes sensory long-term facilitation of rodent carotid body via activation of NADPH oxidase. J Physiol. 2006;576:289-95 pubmed
  7. Logan S, Tobin K, Fallon S, Deng K, McDonough A, Bavis R. Chronic intermittent hyperoxia alters the development of the hypoxic ventilatory response in neonatal rats. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2016;220:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Although both intermittent and sustained hyperoxia alter carotid body development and the HVR of rats, the specific effects and time course of this plasticity differs. ..
  8. Prabhakar N, Kou YuR -, Runold M. Chemoreceptor responses to substance P, physalaemin and eledoisin: evidence for neurokinin-1 receptors in the cat carotid body. Neurosci Lett. 1990;120:183-6 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that stimulation of the carotid body by SP is mediated by NK-1 but not NK-2 or NK-3 receptors. ..
  9. Prabhakar N. Endogenous carbon monoxide in control of respiration. Respir Physiol. 1998;114:57-64 pubmed
    ..Many of the neuronal structures that express HO also contain NOS, the enzyme that generates NO. Much remains to be studied on regulatory interactions between CO and NO and their impact on breathing. ..
  10. Wang Z, Bisgard G. Chronic hypoxia-induced morphological and neurochemical changes in the carotid body. Microsc Res Tech. 2002;59:168-77 pubmed
    ..During CH the sensitivity of the CB chemoreceptors to hypoxia is increased but the mechanisms by which the many CH-induced structural and neurochemical changes affect the sensitivity of CB to hypoxia remains to be established. ..
  11. Marcus N, Li Y, Bird C, Schultz H, Morgan B. Chronic intermittent hypoxia augments chemoreflex control of sympathetic activity: role of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2010;171:36-45 pubmed publisher
    ..None of these differences were evident in animals treated with losartan. CIH-induced augmentation of chemoreflex sensitivity occurs, at least in part, via the renin-angiotensin system. ..
  12. Wang Z, Olson E, Bjorling D, Mitchell G, Bisgard G. Sustained hypoxia-induced proliferation of carotid body type I cells in rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:803-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that SH stimulates CB type I cell proliferation, which may produce long-lasting changes in CB morphology and function. ..
  13. Prabhakar N, Peng Y, Jacono F, Kumar G, Dick T. Cardiovascular alterations by chronic intermittent hypoxia: importance of carotid body chemoreflexes. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005;32:447-9 pubmed
    ..Bilateral sectioning of the sinus nerves abolished these responses, suggesting chronic IH-induced alterations in carotid body sensitivity contribute to LTF in SNA and the subsequent cardiovascular alterations. ..
  14. Limberg J, Johnson B, Holbein W, Ranadive S, Mozer M, Joyner M. Interindividual variability in the dose-specific effect of dopamine on carotid chemoreceptor sensitivity to hypoxia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016;120:138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we did not find a single dose of dopamine that elicited a nadir HVR in all subjects. Additionally, potential confounding cardiovascular responses occur with dopamine infusion, which may limit its usage. ..
  15. Ling L, Olson E, Vidruk E, Mitchell G. Phrenic responses to isocapnic hypoxia in adult rats following perinatal hyperoxia. Respir Physiol. 1997;109:107-16 pubmed
    ..These effects cannot be accounted for by differences in blood gases (O2 or CO2) or pulmonary mechanics. ..
  16. Prabhakar N. NO and CO as second messengers in oxygen sensing in the carotid body. Respir Physiol. 1999;115:161-8 pubmed
    ..Under normoxia, basal levels of NO and CO act as amplifiers of molecular oxygen and keep the sensory discharge low. During hypoxia, decreased synthesis of NO and CO may contribute in part to the augmentation of sensory discharge. ..
  17. Prabhakar N, Peng Y, Kumar G, Pawar A. Altered carotid body function by intermittent hypoxia in neonates and adults: relevance to recurrent apneas. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;157:148-53 pubmed
  18. Smith C, Nakayama H, Dempsey J. The essential role of carotid body chemoreceptors in sleep apnea. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003;81:774-9 pubmed
    ..Observations in both humans and animals are cited to demonstrate the marked plasticity of the CO2 reserve and, therefore, the propensity for apneas and periodic breathing, in response to changing background ventilatory stimuli. ..
  19. Peng Y, Prabhakar N. Effect of two paradigms of chronic intermittent hypoxia on carotid body sensory activity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;96:1236-42; discussion 1196 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that SDIH but not LDIH results in selective augmentation of the hypoxic response of the carotid body and O(2)(-)* radicals play an important role in SDIH-induced sensitization of the carotid body. ..
  20. Summers B, Overholt J, Prabhakar N. CO(2) and pH independently modulate L-type Ca(2+) current in rabbit carotid body glomus cells. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88:604-12 pubmed
    ..The effect of CO(2) is not secondary to changes in pH and seems to be mediated by a protein kinase A-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, hypercapnia and hypoxia act additively in stimulating Ca(2+) current in glomus cells. ..
  21. Prabhakar N, Overholt J. Cellular mechanisms of oxygen sensing at the carotid body: heme proteins and ion channels. Respir Physiol. 2000;122:209-21 pubmed
    ..Most importantly, it is possible that the carotid body response to oxygen requires multiple sensors, and they work together to shape the overall sensory response of the carotid body over a wide range of arterial oxygen tensions. ..
  22. Buniel M, Glazebrook P, Ramirez Navarro A, Kunze D. Distribution of voltage-gated potassium and hyperpolarization-activated channels in sensory afferent fibers in the rat carotid body. J Comp Neurol. 2008;510:367-77 pubmed publisher
    ..4, Kv1.5, Kv4.3, and K(Ca) (BK). The role of these channels should be considered in interpretation of the fiber discharge in response to perturbation of the carotid body environment. ..
  23. Erickson J, Brosenitsch T, Katz D. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor are required simultaneously for survival of dopaminergic primary sensory neurons in vivo. J Neurosci. 2001;21:581-9 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate that both GDNF and BDNF can act as target-derived trophic factors and are required simultaneously for survival of some primary sensory neurons. ..
  24. Rosa M, Sahoo S. Bilateral carotid body tumor: the role of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the preoperative diagnosis. Diagn Cytopathol. 2008;36:178-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report we discuss the cytological findings of a malignant CBT diagnosed by FNAB in a 22 year-old female...
  25. Fuller D, Bavis R, Vidruk E, Wang Z, Olson E, Bisgard G, et al. Life-long impairment of hypoxic phrenic responses in rats following 1 month of developmental hyperoxia. J Physiol. 2002;538:947-55 pubmed
    ..4 (+/- 1.6) x 10(6) microm3; P <0.01). We conclude that exposure to hyperoxia for the first month of life causes life-long impairment of carotid chemoreceptor function and, consequently, blunted phrenic responses to hypoxia...
  26. Prabhakar N. Oxygen sensing during intermittent hypoxia: cellular and molecular mechanisms. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;90:1986-94 pubmed
  27. Peng Y, Yuan G, Ramakrishnan D, Sharma S, Bosch Marce M, Kumar G, et al. Heterozygous HIF-1alpha deficiency impairs carotid body-mediated systemic responses and reactive oxygen species generation in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia. J Physiol. 2006;577:705-16 pubmed
  28. Prabhakar N. Oxygen sensing by the carotid body chemoreceptors. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;88:2287-95 pubmed
    ..Further studies are necessary to identify whether a single sensor or multiple oxygen sensors are needed for the transduction process...
  29. Kline D, Yang T, Premkumar D, Thomas A, Prabhakar N. Blunted respiratory responses to hypoxia in mutant mice deficient in nitric oxide synthase-3. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;88:1496-508 pubmed
    ..These results support the idea that NO generated by NOS-3 is an important physiological modulator of respiration during hypoxia...
  30. Rodman J, Curran A, Henderson K, Dempsey J, Smith C. Carotid body denervation in dogs: eupnea and the ventilatory response to hyperoxic hypercapnia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91:328-35 pubmed
  31. Knight T, Gonzalez J, Rary J, Rush D. Current concepts for the surgical management of carotid body tumor. Am J Surg. 2006;191:104-10 pubmed
    ..Recent biogenetic discoveries reveal that mutations in oxygen-sensing genes are another etiology, accounting for approximately 35% of cases, and that these 2 etiologies are probably additive...
  32. O Halloran K, Janssen P, Bisgard G. Dopaminergic modulation of respiratory motor output in peripherally chemodenervated goats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998;85:946-54 pubmed
    ..The ventilatory depressant effects that persist in peripherally chemodenervated animals are DA D2-receptor mediated, but their exact location remains speculative...
  33. Kline D, Peng Y, Manalo D, Semenza G, Prabhakar N. Defective carotid body function and impaired ventilatory responses to chronic hypoxia in mice partially deficient for hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:821-6 pubmed
    ..Thus partial HIF-1 alpha deficiency has a dramatic effect on carotid body neural activity and ventilatory adaptation to chronic hypoxia. ..
  34. Prabhakar N, Fields R, Baker T, Fletcher E. Intermittent hypoxia: cell to system. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;281:L524-8 pubmed
    ..Chronic intermittent hypoxia leads to sustained elevation in arterial blood pressure and is associated with upregulation of catecholaminergic and renin-angiotensin systems and downregulation of nitric oxide synthases...