Experts and Doctors on alligators and crocodiles in United States


Locale: United States
Topic: alligators and crocodiles

Top Publications

  1. Hall N, Conley K, Berry C, Farina L, Sigler L, Wellehan J, et al. Computed tomography of granulomatous pneumonia with oxalosis in an American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) associated with Metarhizium anisopliae var anisopliae. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2011;42:700-8 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates the value of CT for pulmonary assessment and diagnosis of fungal pneumonia in the American alligator. Fungal infection with associated oxalosis should not be presumed to be aspergillosis. ..
  2. Tuberville T, Scott D, Metts B, Finger J, Hamilton M. Hepatic and renal trace element concentrations in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) following chronic dietary exposure to coal fly ash contaminated prey. Environ Pollut. 2016;214:680-689 pubmed publisher
    ..A combination of field surveys and laboratory experiments will be required to understand the effects of different exposure scenarios on tissue residues, and ultimately link these concentrations with effects on individual health. ..
  3. Christie I, Reiner J, Bowden J, Botha H, Cantu T, Govender D, et al. Perfluorinated alkyl acids in the plasma of South African crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Chemosphere. 2016;154:72-78 pubmed publisher
    ..3 ng/g wet mass, when compared to the other sites (median concentrations at other sites below 14.0 ng/g wet mass). This suggests a point source of PFOS in this area. ..
  4. Silldorff E, Stephens G. The pressor response to exogenous angiotensin I and its blockade by angiotensin II analogues in the American alligator. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1992;87:141-8 pubmed
  5. Rauschenberger R, Sepúlveda M, Wiebe J, Szabo N, Gross T. Predicting maternal body burdens of organochlorine pesticides from eggs and evidence of maternal transfer in Alligator mississippiensis. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2004;23:2906-15 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we suggest that future studies should investigate the applicability of these predictive equations for assessing maternal exposure in other crocodilian species. ..
  6. Nilsen F, Parrott B, Bowden J, Kassim B, Somerville S, Bryan T, et al. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Sci Total Environ. 2016;545-546:389-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics. ..
  7. Hunt M, Brown D. Role of sialidase in Mycoplasma alligatoris-induced pulmonary fibroblast apoptosis. Vet Microbiol. 2007;121:73-82 pubmed
    ..From those observations we conclude that interaction of its sialidase with hyaluronidase or another virulence factor(s) is necessary to elicit the pro-apoptotic effects of M. alligatoris infection. ..
  8. Wise S, Wise C, Xie H, Guillette L, Zhu C, Wise J. Hexavalent chromium is cytotoxic and genotoxic to American alligator cells. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;171:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that alligators may be used as a model for assessing the effects of environmental Cr(VI) contamination as well as for other metals of concern. ..
  9. Brown D, Zacher L, Farmerie W. Spreading factors of Mycoplasma alligatoris, a flesh-eating mycoplasma. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3922-7 pubmed
    ..This genetic and biochemical evidence suggests that the spreading factors hyaluronidase and sialidase, a combination unprecedented in mycoplasmas, are the basis of the virulence of M. alligatoris. ..

More Information


  1. Holliday C, Gardner N. A new eusuchian crocodyliform with novel cranial integument and its significance for the origin and evolution of Crocodylia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30471 pubmed publisher
    ..These results shift phylogenetic and biogeographical hypotheses on the origin of modern crocodylians towards the circum-Tethyean region and provide important new data on eusuchian morphology and evolution. ..
  2. Boggs A, Hamlin H, Nifong J, Kassim B, Lowers R, Galligan T, et al. Urinary iodine and stable isotope analysis to examine habitat influences on thyroid hormones among coastal dwelling American alligators. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;226:5-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Both techniques demonstrate that adult alligators in coastal environments are utilizing estuarine/marine habitats, which could alter thyroid hormone physiology. ..
  3. Pritz M. Thalamic reticular nucleus in Caiman crocodilus: Relationship with the dorsal thalamus. Neuroscience. 2016;322:430-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, a hypothesis is presented to explain how the external shape of the reticular nucleus in Caiman might be transformed into the homologous area in a representative bird and mammal. ..
  4. Bermudez D, Milnes M, Bryan T, Gunderson M, Tubbs C, Woodward A, et al. Seasonal variation in plasma thyroxine concentrations in juvenile alligators (Alligators mississippiensis) from three Florida Lakes. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2005;141:8-14 pubmed
  5. Milnes M, Bermudez D, Bryan T, Gunderson M, Guillette L. Altered neonatal development and endocrine function in Alligator mississippiensis associated with a contaminated environment. Biol Reprod. 2005;73:1004-10 pubmed
    ..These results should begin to help separate developmental abnormalities resulting from in ovo exposure, presumably of maternal origin, from physiological alterations induced through environmental exposure to contaminants. ..
  6. Gatesy J, Amato G. The rapid accumulation of consistent molecular support for intergeneric crocodylian relationships. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;48:1232-7 pubmed publisher
  7. Merchant M, Morkotinis V, Hale A, White M, Moran C. Crocodylian nuclear factor kappa B. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;213:28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, nuclear NF?B exhibited specific binding to the consensus NF?B promoter element. ..
  8. Moore B, Roark A, Kohno S, Hamlin H, Guillette L. Gene-environment interactions: the potential role of contaminants in somatic growth and the development of the reproductive system of the American alligator. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;354:111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We posit that these differences predispose these animals to increased risks of disease and reproductive dysfunction at adulthood...
  9. Boggs A, Hamlin H, Lowers R, Guillette L. Seasonal variation in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations in coastal versus inland populations of juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis): influence of plasma iodide concentrations. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;174:362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in thyroid hormone concentrations between the populations could be due to differences in dietary iodide, which need to be further evaluated...
  10. Tsai H, Holliday C. Ontogeny of the alligator cartilago transiliens and its significance for sauropsid jaw muscle evolution. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24935 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, these findings indicate that similar tendon organs exist among potentially homologous muscle groups in birds and turtles, thus impacting inferences of jaw muscle homology and evolution in sauropsids in general...
  11. Tsuihiji T. Homologies of the longissimus, iliocostalis, and hypaxial muscles in the anterior presacral region of extant diapsida. J Morphol. 2007;268:986-1020 pubmed
    ..cucullaris complex, and possibly m. iliocostalis as well. The present findings may serve as a basis for revising the currently used avian nomenclature so that it will reflect homologies of muscles with their non-avian counterparts...
  12. Holliday C, Witmer L. Archosaur adductor chamber evolution: integration of musculoskeletal and topological criteria in jaw muscle homology. J Morphol. 2007;268:457-84 pubmed
    ..These adductor chamber patterns indicate multiple topological criteria are necessary for interpretations of soft-tissue homology and warrant further investigation into character congruence and developmental connectivity...
  13. Greenwold M, Sawyer R. Molecular evolution and expression of archosaurian ?-keratins: diversification and expansion of archosaurian ?-keratins and the origin of feather ?-keratins. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2013;320:393-405 pubmed publisher
    ..The expansion of the avian specific feather ?-keratin genes accompanied the diversification of birds and the evolution of feathers. ..
  14. Holliday C, Tsai H, Skiljan R, George I, Pathan S. A 3D interactive model and atlas of the jaw musculature of Alligator mississippiensis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62806 pubmed publisher
    ..Modern 3D dissemination methods like this 3D Alligator hold great potential for morphologists to share anatomical information to scientists, educators, and the public in an easily downloadable format...
  15. Li Q, Clarke J, Gao K, Zhou C, Meng Q, Li D, et al. Melanosome evolution indicates a key physiological shift within feathered dinosaurs. Nature. 2014;507:350-3 pubmed publisher
  16. Kohno S, Katsu Y, Urushitani H, Ohta Y, Iguchi T, Guillette L. Potential contributions of heat shock proteins to temperature-dependent sex determination in the American alligator. Sex Dev. 2010;4:73-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights on TSD and suggest that further studies examining the role of HSPs during gonadal development are needed...
  17. Oaks J. A time-calibrated species tree of Crocodylia reveals a recent radiation of the true crocodiles. Evolution. 2011;65:3285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings also reveal more diversity within the genus than is recognized by current taxonomy...
  18. Johnston M, Porter D, Scott G, Rhodes W, Webster L. Isolation of faecal coliform bacteria from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). J Appl Microbiol. 2010;108:965-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are an unrecognized poikilothermic source of faecal coliform and/or potential pathogenic bacteria in South Carolina's coastal waters...
  19. Stewart J, Ecay T, Heulin B. Calcium provision to oviparous and viviparous embryos of the reproductively bimodal lizard Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:2520-4 pubmed publisher
  20. Witmer L, Ridgely R. The paranasal air sinuses of predatory and armored dinosaurs (archosauria: theropoda and ankylosauria) and their contribution to cephalic structure. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2008;291:1362-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These quantitative data allow the first reliable estimates of dinosaur head mass and an assessment of the potential savings in mass afforded by the sinuses...
  21. Harris M, Hasso S, Ferguson M, Fallon J. The development of archosaurian first-generation teeth in a chicken mutant. Curr Biol. 2006;16:371-7 pubmed
  22. Zippel K, Lillywhite H, Mladinich C. Anatomy of the crocodilian spinal vein. J Morphol. 2003;258:327-35 pubmed
    ..Preliminary studies of function suggest that this vessel could also play an adaptive role during basking and diving...
  23. Brochu C. Morphology, fossils, divergence timing, and the phylogenetic relationships of Gavialis. Syst Biol. 1997;46:479-522 pubmed
    ..Fossils strongly contradict a post-Oligocene divergence between Gavialis and any other living crocodylian, but the phylogenetic placement of Gavialis is best viewed as unresolved...
  24. Brown D, Farley J, Zacher L, Carlton J, Clippinger T, Tully J, et al. Mycoplasma alligatoris sp. nov., from American alligators. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001;51:419-24 pubmed
    ..This paper presents biochemical, serological and molecular genetic characterizations of a lethal pathogen of alligators for which the name Mycoplasma alligatoris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A21JP2T (ATCC 700619T)...
  25. Smith W, Adamus G, van Der Wel H, Timmers A, Palczewski K, Ulshafer R, et al. Alligator rhodopsin: sequence and biochemical properties. Exp Eye Res. 1995;61:569-78 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of 17 rhodopsin sequences indicates that the alligator is more closely related to the chicken than to the other species examined. ..
  26. Meredith R, Hekkala E, Amato G, Gatesy J. A phylogenetic hypothesis for Crocodylus (Crocodylia) based on mitochondrial DNA: evidence for a trans-Atlantic voyage from Africa to the New World. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;60:183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in combination with paleontological evidence, mt DNA trees imply a relatively recent migration of Crocodylus from Africa to the Americas, a voyage that would have covered hundreds of miles at sea...
  27. Chojnowski J, Franklin J, Katsu Y, Iguchi T, Guillette L, Kimball R, et al. Patterns of vertebrate isochore evolution revealed by comparison of expressed mammalian, avian, and crocodilian genes. J Mol Evol. 2007;65:259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Falsification of these models places fundamental constraints upon the plausible pathways for the evolution of isochores...
  28. Nilsen F, Kassim B, Delaney J, Lange T, Brunell A, Guillette L, et al. Trace element biodistribution in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Chemosphere. 2017;181:343-351 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, comprehensive elemental analysis of routinely collected samples can inform biomonitoring efforts and consumption advisories. ..