Experts and Doctors on cholinesterase reactivators in Hradec Králové, Královéhradecký, Czech Republic

Summary

Locale: Hradec Králové, Královéhradecký, Czech Republic
Topic: cholinesterase reactivators

Top Publications

  1. Kuca K, Cabal J, Jun D, Musilek K. In vitro reactivation potency of acetylcholinesterase reactivators--K074 and K075--to reactivate tabun-inhibited human brain cholinesterases. Neurotox Res. 2007;11:101-6 pubmed
    ..A second AChE reactivator, K075, does not attain as great a reactivation potency as K074, although its maximal reactivation (17%) was achieved at relevant concentrations for humans...
  2. Kassa J, Bajgar J. Therapeutic efficacy of obidoxime or HI-6 with atropine against intoxication with some nerve agents in mice. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 1996;39:27-30 pubmed
    ..4 Higher doses of both oximes showed significantly more effective therapeutic efficacy against all nerve agents studied...
  3. Spičáková A, Anzenbacher P, Liskova B, Kuca K, Fusek J, Anzenbacherova E. Evaluation of possible inhibition of human liver drug metabolizing cytochromes P450 by two new acetylcholinesterase oxime-type reactivators. Food Chem Toxicol. 2016;88:100-4 pubmed publisher
  4. Zdarova Karasova J, Zemek F, Kunes M, Kvetina J, Chladek J, Jun D, et al. Intravenous application of HI-6 salts (dichloride and dimethansulphonate) in pigs: comparison with pharmacokinetics profile after intramuscular administration. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2013;34 Suppl 2:74-8 pubmed
    ..The main advantage is in maintenance of an effective therapeutic plasma concentration, a more easily achievable effective therapeutic concentration, and fewer local adverse reactions. ..
  5. Jun D, Stodulka P, Kuca K, Dolezal B. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of by-products and intermediates arising during the synthesis of the acetylcholinesterase reactivator HI-6. J Chromatogr Sci. 2010;48:694-6 pubmed
    ..An HPLC method for quaternary compounds without using common ion-pairing reagents was developed, too. ..
  6. Musilek K, Dolezal M, Gunn Moore F, Kuca K. Design, evaluation and structure-activity relationship studies of the AChE reactivators against organophosphorus pesticides. Med Res Rev. 2011;31:548-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these are highlighted for their further testing of OPP exposure and, additionally, the main structure-activity relationship of AChE reactivators against OPP is discussed. ..
  7. Kassa J, Krejèová G. Neuroprotective effects of currently used antidotes in tabun-poisoned rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2003;92:258-64 pubmed
  8. Kassa J, Musilek K, Karasova J, Kuca K, Bajgar J. Two possibilities how to increase the efficacy of antidotal treatment of nerve agent poisonings. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2012;12:24-34 pubmed
  9. Kuca K, Cabal J, Musilek K, Jun D, Bajgar J. Effective bisquaternary reactivators of tabun-inhibited AChE. J Appl Toxicol. 2005;25:491-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, K-oximes can be considered as the most effective reactivators of tabun-inhibited AChE at present. ..

More Information

Publications71

  1. Krejcova G, Kassa J. Acute experimental tabun-induced intoxication and its therapy in rats. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2004;12 Suppl:S48-52 pubmed
  2. Musilek K, Holas O, Kuca K, Jun D, Dohnal V, Opletalova V, et al. Novel series of bispyridinium compounds bearing a (Z)-but-2-ene linker--synthesis and evaluation of their reactivation activity against tabun and paraoxon-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:3172-6 pubmed
    ..Notably, the oxime group in position four substantially increased the ability of the novel compounds to reactivate paraoxon-inhibited AChE. ..
  3. Bajgar J, Fusek J, Kuca K, Bartosova L, Jun D. Treatment of organophosphate intoxication using cholinesterase reactivators: facts and fiction. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2007;7:461-6 pubmed
  4. Bajgar J, Fusek J, Bartosova L, Jun D, Kuca K. Evaluation of reactivation test in anaesthetized dogs with experimental intoxication with nerve agents. J Appl Toxicol. 2006;26:439-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, the reactivation efficacy of obidoxime during nerve agent intoxication indicates that its repeated administration could be easily monitored using the reactivation test...
  5. Bartosova L, Kuca K, Kunesova G, Jun D. The acute toxicity of acetylcholinesterase reactivators in mice in relation to their structure. Neurotox Res. 2006;9:291-6 pubmed
    ..All these structural features play an important role in biological activity of these compounds performed by their acute toxicity as well as by their reactivation potency. ..
  6. Kassa J, Karasova J, Kuca K, Musilek K. A comparison of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of newly developed oximes (K347, K628) with commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) against tabun in rats and mice. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2010;33:227-32 pubmed publisher
  7. Soukup O, Krusek J, Kaniaková M, Kumar U, Oz M, Jun D, et al. Oxime reactivators and their in vivo and in vitro effects on nicotinic receptors. Physiol Res. 2011;60:679-86 pubmed
    ..Taking together, the effects of tested oxime reactivators indicate an antagonism on both embryonic and adult form of the muscle nicotinic receptors...
  8. Kuca K, Patocka J. Reactivation of cyclosarin-inhibited rat brain acetylcholinesterase by pyridinium--oximes. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2004;19:39-43 pubmed
  9. Kassa J, Misik J, Karasova J. A comparison of the potency of a novel bispyridinium oxime K203 and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract the acute neurotoxicity of sarin in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012;111:333-8 pubmed publisher
  10. Kassa J. [The effect of panpal prophylaxis on acetylcholinesterase activity in the blood, diaphragm and various parts of the brain in rats during treated and untreated poisoning with the organophosphorus insecticide phosdrine]]. Ceska Slov Farm. 2000;49:37-40 pubmed
  11. Kassa J, Sepsova V, Musilek K, Horova A. The evaluation of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of three novel bispyridinium oximes (K454, K456, K458) in comparison with the oxime K203 and trimedoxime in tabun-poisoned rats and mice. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2013;23:94-8 pubmed publisher
  12. Kassa J, Karasova J, Musilek K, Kuca K. An evaluation of therapeutic and reactivating effects of newly developed oximes (K156, K203) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) in tabun-poisoned rats and mice. Toxicology. 2008;243:311-6 pubmed
  13. Musilova L, Kuca K, Jung Y, Jun D. In vitro oxime-assisted reactivation of paraoxon-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2009;47:545-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we have evaluated only reactivation of paraoxon-inhibited cholinesterases. To get better understanding of this problem, a larger number of organophosphorus inhibitors should be used. ..
  14. Pohanka M, Jun D, Kuca K. In vitro reactivation of trichlorfon-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase using HI-6, obidoxime, pralidoxime and K048. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009;24:680-3 pubmed publisher
    ..There was also an observed lowering of reactivation efficacy when butyrylcholinesterase was exposed to trichlorfon for a longer time interval...
  15. Kassa J, Bajgar J. [Comparison of the therapeutic effectiveness of selected cholinesterase reactivators with atropine in acute fosdrine poisoning in mice]. Ceska Slov Farm. 1996;45:31-4 pubmed
    ..In the therapy of intoxication 2 minutes after the exposure of experimental animals to fosdrine, the effect of the antidotal therapy was relatively low regardless of the selected oxime...
  16. Kassa J, Karasova J, Caisberger F, Bajgar J. The influence of combinations of oximes on the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment of soman poisoning in rats and mice. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2009;19:547-51 pubmed publisher
  17. Kassa J, Kuca K, Karasova J, Musilek K. The development of new oximes and the evaluation of their reactivating, therapeutic and neuroprotective efficacy against tabun. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008;8:1134-43 pubmed
    ..Due to their therapeutic, reactivating and neuroprotective efficacy, all newly synthesized oximes appear to be suitable oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings. ..
  18. Zdarova Karasova J, Novotny L, Antos K, Zivna H, Kuca K. Time-dependent changes in concentration of two clinically used acetylcholinesterase reactivators (HI-6 and obidoxime) in rat plasma determined by HPLC techniques after in vivo administration. Anal Sci. 2010;26:63-7 pubmed
    ..62 +/- 3.563 microg/mL was recorded at about 10 min. HPLC with UV detection presented in our study is a general method which could be applied for quick measurements of bisquaternary AChE reactivators in rat plasma...
  19. Kassa J, Karasova J, Bajgar J, Kuca K, Musilek K, Kopelikova I. A comparison of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of newly developed bispyridinium oximes (K250, K251) with commonly used oximes against tabun in rats and mice. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009;24:1040-4 pubmed publisher
  20. Kuca K, Musilek K, Jun D, Pohanka M, Ghosh K, Hrabinova M. Oxime K027: novel low-toxic candidate for the universal reactivator of nerve agent- and pesticide-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2010;25:509-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of cyclosarin- and soman-inhibited AChE, oxime K027 did not reach sufficient reactivation potency. ..
  21. Kuca K, Cabal J, Jung Y, Musilek K, Soukup O, Jun D, et al. Reactivation of human brain homogenate cholinesterases inhibited by Tabun using newly developed oximes K117 and K127. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;105:207-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to this, experiments on human tissue should be conducted after in vitro and in vivo tests on animals to eliminate such important failures of promising oximes...
  22. Kassa J, Karasova J. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract soman-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2007;30:117-31 pubmed
    ..The oxime HI-6 is still the best acetylcholinesterase reactivator for the antidotal treatment of acute poisonings with soman...
  23. Kuca K, Jun D, Bajgar J. Currently used cholinesterase reactivators against nerve agent intoxication: comparison of their effectivity in vitro. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2007;30:31-40 pubmed
    ..Moreover, oxime HI-6 (the most effective one) was not able to reactivate tabun- and soman-inhibited AChE. Due to this fact, it could be designated as a partially broad-spectrum reactivator...
  24. Kassa J, Kuca K, Cabal J. A comparison of the potency of trimedoxime and other currently available oximes to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and eliminate acute toxic effects of tabun. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2005;149:419-23 pubmed
    ..The oxime HI-6, so efficacious against soman, does not seem to be sufficiently effective oxime to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and to counteract acute lethal effects of tabun...
  25. Karasova J, Zemek F, Bajgar J, Vasatova M, Prochazka P, Novotny L, et al. Partition of bispyridinium oximes (trimedoxime and K074) administered in therapeutic doses into different parts of the rat brain. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011;54:1082-7 pubmed publisher
    ..42%). Entry of oximes into the brain is minimal, but some low reactivation effect should be expected. The reactivation potency of oximes might be higher or lower, depending on the real oxime concentration in a given area...
  26. Kassa J. [Comparison of the effects of BI-6, a new asymmetric bipyridine oxime, with HI-6 oxime and obidoxime in combination with atropine on soman and fosdrine toxicity in mice]. Ceska Slov Farm. 1999;48:44-7 pubmed
    ..At the equi-effective level which respects the toxicity of the oxime and is therefore more important for practical use, it is a therapeutically weaker reactivator of acetylcholinesterase than HI-6. ..
  27. Soukup O, Jun D, Tobin G, Kuca K. The summary on non-reactivation cholinergic properties of oxime reactivators: the interaction with muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Arch Toxicol. 2013;87:711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Even though atropine showed a much higher muscarinic antagonism, it is supposed that non-reactivation properties of oxime reactivators play a significant role in the treatment of OP poisoning. ..
  28. Kassa J, Vachek J. [The effect of parasympatholytics on the therapeutic effectiveness of the oxime HI-6 against organophosphorus compounds (Soman, substance VX, Fosdrin) in mice]. Cas Lek Cesk. 1997;136:124-6 pubmed
    ..Oxime HI-6 is the most effective against highly toxic organophosphates and organophosphorus insecticides when combined with the centrally acting parasympatholytic benactyzine. ..
  29. Kassa J. Importance of cholinolytic drug selection for the efficacy of HI-6 against soman in rats. Toxicology. 1997;116:147-52 pubmed
    ..They demonstrate the importance of cholinolytic drug selection in the treatment of soman poisoning in rats. Ltd. ..
  30. Kuca K, Musilek K, Pohanka M, Dohnal V, Patocka J. Reactivation potency of the acetylcholinesterase reactivator obidoxime is limited. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2009;153:259-62 pubmed
    ..It is also needed by the fact that clinical findings considering this oxime are controversial...
  31. Kassa J, Karasova J, Caisberger F, Musilek K, Kuca K, Jung Y. A comparison of reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of the oxime K203 and its fluorinated analog (KR-22836) with currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) against tabun in rats and mice. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2010;25:480-4 pubmed publisher
  32. Karasova J, Chladek J, Hroch M, Josef F, Hnidkova D, Kuca K. Pharmacokinetic study of two acetylcholinesterase reactivators, trimedoxime and newly synthesized oxime K027, in rat plasma. J Appl Toxicol. 2013;33:18-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, oxime K027 might have superior pK properties that may be translated in its faster absorption and subsequent tissue distribution...
  33. Kassa J, Hatlapatková J, Žďárová Karasová J. The Evaluation of the Potency of Newly Developed Oximes (K727, K733) and Trimedoxime to Counteract Acute Neurotoxic Effects of Tabun in Rats. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2015;58:135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the newly developed oximes are not suitable for the replacement of commonly used oximes such as trimedoxime in the treatment of acute tabun poisonings. ..
  34. Gorecki L, Korabecny J, Musilek K, Nepovimova E, Malinak D, Kucera T, et al. Progress in acetylcholinesterase reactivators and in the treatment of organophosphorus intoxication: a patent review (2006-2016). Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2017;27:971-985 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of detection of OP also has to be taken into consideration. Especially, with the fast spreading toxic effect when death can occur within minutes. ..
  35. Pejchal J, Osterreicher J, Kuca K, Jun D, Bajgar J, Kassa J. The influence of acetylcholinesterase reactivators on selected hepatic functions in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008;103:119-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We found impaired hepatic transporter function after administration of HI-6, obidoxime and higher concentration of K027, which might be the underlying mechanism of acetylcholinesterase reactivators' hepatotoxicity...
  36. Kassa J, Humlicek V. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) to counteract acute toxic effects of tabun and cyclosarin in mice. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2008;31:127-35 pubmed
  37. Jun D, Kuca K, Picha J, Koleckar V, Marek J. Potency of novel oximes to reactivate sarin inhibited human cholinesterases. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2008;31:1-9 pubmed
    ..Due to this, in future, only bisquaternary compounds derived from HI-6 or obidoxime should be designed as new potential cholinesterase reactivators...
  38. Kassa J, Fusek J. Effect of Panpal pretreatment and antidotal treatment (HI-6 plus benactyzine) on respiratory and circulatory function in soman-poisoned rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1997;16:563-9 pubmed
  39. Kassa J, Jun D, Kuca K, Bajgar J. Comparison of reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of two salts of the oxime HI-6 against tabun, soman and cyclosarin in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;101:328-32 pubmed
  40. Kassa J, Karasova J, Vasina L. The evaluation of neuroprotective efficacy of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in cyclosarin-poisoned rats. J Appl Toxicol. 2007;27:621-30 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the oxime HI-6 is still the most suitable oxime for the antidotal treatment of acute poisonings with cyclosarin due to its neuroprotective as well as reactivating efficacy...
  41. Kassa J, Krejcova G, Samnaliev I. A comparison of the neuroprotective efficacy of pharmacological pretreatment and antidotal treatment in soman-poisoned rats. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2003;46:101-7 pubmed
    ..The pharmacological pretreatment containing pyridostigmine and biperiden appears to be more efficacious to eliminate soman-induced neurotoxic sings than PANPAL. ..
  42. Bartosova L, Kuca K, Kunesova G. Effectivity of new acetylcholinesterase reactivators in treatment of cyclosarin poisoning in mice and rats. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2005;149:425-7 pubmed
    ..The BI-6 oxime was significantly more efficacious than obidoxime (in both mice and rats) and HS-6 (in rats) but its effectiveness did not reach the efficacy of HI-6...
  43. Bartosova L, Kuca K, Jun D, Kunesova G. Bispyridinium oximes as antidotal treatment of cyclosarin poisoning-in vitro and in vivo testing. Int J Toxicol. 2005;24:399-402 pubmed
    ..The HI-6 oxime appeared to be the most effective oxime in vitro and in vivo...
  44. Bajgar J, Hajek P, Zdarova J, Kassa J, Paseka A, Slizova D, et al. A comparison of tabun-inhibited rat brain acetylcholinesterase reactivation by three oximes (HI-6, obidoxime, and K048) in vivo detected by biochemical and histochemical techniques. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2010;25:790-7 pubmed publisher
    ..AChE activity in the pontomedullar area and frontal cortex seems to be the most important for the therapeutic effect of the reactivators. HI-6 was not a good reactivator for the treatment of tabun intoxication...
  45. Kassa J, Bajgar J. The influence of pharmacological pretreatment on efficacy of HI-6 oxime in combination with benactyzine in soman poisoning in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1996;15:383-8 pubmed
    ..4. These findings confirm that PANPAL prophylaxis can improve prognosis of soman poisoning especially by protection of cholinesterases. ..
  46. Kassa J, Bielavský J. The efficacy of monopyridinium (2-PAAM, 2-PAEM) and bispyridinium (obidoxime, HI-6) oximes against mevinphos in mice. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1997;81:144-6 pubmed
  47. Kassa J. [The effect of pharmacologic prophylaxis with Panpal on acetylcholinesterase activity in the diaphragm and various parts of the brain in rats during treated and untreated Soman poisoning]. Cas Lek Cesk. 1998;137:299-302 pubmed
  48. Kassa J, Cabal J. A comparison of the efficacy of a new asymmetric bispyridinium oxime BI-6 with currently available oximes and H oximes against soman by in vitro and in vivo methods. Toxicology. 1999;132:111-8 pubmed
  49. Kuca K, Kassa J. In vitro reactivation of acetylcholinesterase using the oxime K027. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2004;46:15-8 pubmed
    ..HI-6 is currently regarded the most promising reactivator of organophosphates-inhibited AChE...
  50. Kuca K, Juna D, Musilek K. Structural requirements of acetylcholinesterase reactivators. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2006;6:269-77 pubmed
    ..It is shown that there are several structural fragments possibly involving in the structure of proposed AChE reactivators. Finally, an attempt of a future course of new AChE reactivators development is discussed. ..
  51. Kuca K, Cabal J, Kassa J, Jun D, Hrabinova M. In vitro potency of H oximes (HI-6, HLö-7), the oxime BI-6, and currently used oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime, trimedoxime) to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited rat brain acetylcholinesterase. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2006;69:1431-40 pubmed
    ..More than one oxime may be necessary for the antidotal treatment of nerve agent-exposed individuals...
  52. Kassa J, Jun D, Kuca K. The reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of oximes to counteract Russian VX poisonings. Int J Toxicol. 2006;25:397-401 pubmed
    ..Thus, the oxime HI-6 seems to be the most suitable oxime for the antidotal treatment of acute poisonings with Russian VX as in the case of VX, sarin, cyclosarin, and soman poisonings...
  53. Kuca K, Musilek K, Paar M, Jun D, Stodulka P, Hrabinova M, et al. Targeted synthesis of 1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-pyridiniumpropane dibromide--a new nerve agent reactivator. Molecules. 2007;12:1964-72 pubmed
    ..A potent oxime for treatment of tabun and cyclosarin-caused intoxications was thus obtained via slight modification of the reactivator structure (compared to trimedoxime and K027). ..
  54. Pohanka M, Karasova J, Musilek K, Kuca K, Kassa J. Effect of five acetylcholinesterase reactivators on tabun-intoxicated rats: induction of oxidative stress versus reactivation efficacy. J Appl Toxicol. 2009;29:483-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The oxidative stress provoked by HI-6 and K628 was found to be significant on probability level P = 0.05. The others reactivators did not affect antioxidant levels...
  55. Kuca K, Cabal J, Kassa J. A comparison of the efficacy of a bispyridinium oxime--1,4-bis-(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium) butane dibromide and currently used oximes to reactivate sarin, tabun or cyclosarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase by in vitro methods. Pharmazie. 2004;59:795-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, oxime K033 seems to be a relatively efficacious broad spectrum acetylcholinesterase reactivator and, therefore, could be useful if no information about the type of nerve agent used was available. ..
  56. Kassa J, Kunesova G. The benefit of combination of oximes for the neuroprotective efficacy of antidotal treatment of sarin-poisoned rats. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2012;22:260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, both tested combinations of oximes in combination with atropine bring a small benefit for the neuroprotective efficacy of antidotal treatment of acute sarin poisonings...
  57. Karasova J, Pohanka M, Musilek K, Zemek F, Kuca K. Passive diffusion of acetylcholinesterase oxime reactivators through the blood-brain barrier: influence of molecular structure. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:1838-44 pubmed publisher
  58. Soukup O, Kristofikova Z, Jun D, Tambor V, Ripova D, Kuca K. The interaction of standard oxime reactivators with hemicholinium-3 sensitive choline carriers. Toxicol Lett. 2012;212:315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of reactivators on the carriers could be unfavorable in the case of their prolonged administration in vivo. From this point of view, the application of methoxime appears to be the best...
  59. Kuca K, Cabal J, Jun D, Hrabinova M. Potency of five structurally different acetylcholinesterase reactivators to reactivate human brain cholinesterases inhibited by cyclosarin. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2007;45:512-5 pubmed
    ..Moreover, according to the results, we can describe basic structural requirements, which are necessary for the efficacious reactivation process...
  60. Musilek K, Jun D, Cabal J, Kassa J, Gunn Moore F, Kuca K. Design of a potent reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase--synthesis and evaluation of (E)-1-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-4-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-but-2-ene dibromide (K203). J Med Chem. 2007;50:5514-8 pubmed
  61. Kassa J, Karasova J, Pavlikova R, Misik J, Caisberger F, Bajgar J. The influence of combinations of oximes on the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment of tabun poisoning in rats and mice. J Appl Toxicol. 2010;30:120-4 pubmed publisher
  62. Kassa J, Bajgar J. [Comparison of the effect of selected anticholinergic agents on cholinergic and noncholinergic effects of GV substances during acute poisoning in rats]. Ceska Slov Farm. 1994;43:222-5 pubmed
    ..It means that the centrally acting cholinolytic agents benactyzine and G 3063 are more advantageous for the therapy of GV substance poisonings than the peripherally acting atropine. ..