Look AHEAD: Action for Health in Diabetes

Summary

Principal Investigator: THOMAS A contact WADDEN
Affiliation: University of Pennsylvania
Country: USA
Abstract: Look AHEAD is randomized clinical trial examining the long-term health effects of an intensive weight loss intervention in approximately 5,145 overweight volunteers with type 2 diabetes. Participants are randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention designed to achieve and maintain weight loss by decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity, or to a control program of diabetes support and education. The primary outcome of Look AHEAD is the aggregate occurrence of severe cardiovascular events (fatal and non-fatal Ml and stroke and cardiovascular deaths) over a planed follow-up of 11.5 years. The original grant application provided funding for the first 7 years of the study (1 year for study design and 6 for execution of the trial). The present grant application is for an additional 7 years of funding to complete the Look AHEAD trial. All aspects of the study have proceeded extremely well - the sample of 5,145 was recruited on time; retention has been excellent and the intervention has been effective in producing initial weight loss and maintaining it over time. All 16 clinical sites have been successful in recruitment, retention, and delivery of the intervention and the DSMB has been very positive about the execution of the trial. The present application reviews the overall design of Look AHEAD, progress to date, and plans for the future. Specific Aims are to retain the cohort over time, continue to complete annual in-person visits and semi-annual telephone interviews for outcome assessments and continue to administer the lifestyle intervention. These procedures will enable us to analyze the effects of the intervention on serious cardiovascular- related factors and complications, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention.
Funding Period: 1999-09-30 - 2013-07-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Patterns of weight change associated with long-term weight change and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Look AHEAD Study
    Rebecca H Neiberg
    Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 20:2048-56. 2012
  2. pmc The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and self-reported stroke or coronary heart disease in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Thomas B Rice
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Sleep 35:1293-8. 2012
  3. pmc Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: the Look AHEAD Study
    L Maria Belalcazar
    Department of Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    J Lipid Res 53:2726-33. 2012
  4. pmc Effect of improved fitness beyond weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes in the Look AHEAD study
    Bethany Barone Gibbs
    The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
    Eur J Prev Cardiol 21:608-17. 2014
  5. pmc Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD study
    Paul M Ribisl
    Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27109, USA
    J Obes 2012:309196. 2012
  6. doi Association of an intensive lifestyle intervention with remission of type 2 diabetes
    Edward W Gregg
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    JAMA 308:2489-96. 2012
  7. pmc Four-year analysis of cardiovascular disease risk factors, depression symptoms, and antidepressant medicine use in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial of weight loss in diabetes
    Richard R Rubin
    Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Diabetes Care 36:1088-94. 2013
  8. pmc The long-term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in severely obese individuals
    Jessica L Unick
    Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, The Miriam Hospital and Warren Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
    Am J Med 126:236-42, 242.e1-2. 2013
  9. pmc Long-term effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea severity in obese patients with type 2 diabetes
    Samuel T Kuna
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Sleep 36:641-649A. 2013
  10. ncbi Human cardiovascular disease IBC chip-wide association with weight loss and weight regain in the look AHEAD trial
    Jeanne M McCaffery
    Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, The Miriam Hospital and Brown Medical School, Providence, R I, USA
    Hum Hered 75:160-74. 2013

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications60

  1. pmc Patterns of weight change associated with long-term weight change and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Look AHEAD Study
    Rebecca H Neiberg
    Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 20:2048-56. 2012
    ..001). While relationships with year 4 weight loss were stronger, the pattern of larger monthly weight loss during year 1 was also independently predictive of year 4 levels of HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure...
  2. pmc The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and self-reported stroke or coronary heart disease in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Thomas B Rice
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Sleep 35:1293-8. 2012
    ..We sought to determine the association between OSA and CVD in an overweight and obese population with T2DM...
  3. pmc Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: the Look AHEAD Study
    L Maria Belalcazar
    Department of Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    J Lipid Res 53:2726-33. 2012
    ..Data supported the contribution of changes in both HMW- and non-HMW-adiponectin to the improvement in HDL-C with ILI...
  4. pmc Effect of improved fitness beyond weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes in the Look AHEAD study
    Bethany Barone Gibbs
    The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
    Eur J Prev Cardiol 21:608-17. 2014
    ....
  5. pmc Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD study
    Paul M Ribisl
    Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27109, USA
    J Obes 2012:309196. 2012
    ..3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR...
  6. doi Association of an intensive lifestyle intervention with remission of type 2 diabetes
    Edward W Gregg
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    JAMA 308:2489-96. 2012
    ..The frequency of remission of type 2 diabetes achievable with lifestyle intervention is unclear...
  7. pmc Four-year analysis of cardiovascular disease risk factors, depression symptoms, and antidepressant medicine use in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial of weight loss in diabetes
    Richard R Rubin
    Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Diabetes Care 36:1088-94. 2013
    ..To study the association of depressive symptoms or antidepressant medicine (ADM) use with subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial of weight loss in type 2 diabetes...
  8. pmc The long-term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in severely obese individuals
    Jessica L Unick
    Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, The Miriam Hospital and Warren Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
    Am J Med 126:236-42, 242.e1-2. 2013
    ....
  9. pmc Long-term effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea severity in obese patients with type 2 diabetes
    Samuel T Kuna
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Sleep 36:641-649A. 2013
    ..To examine whether the initial benefit of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity at 1 year is maintained at 4 years...
  10. ncbi Human cardiovascular disease IBC chip-wide association with weight loss and weight regain in the look AHEAD trial
    Jeanne M McCaffery
    Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, The Miriam Hospital and Brown Medical School, Providence, R I, USA
    Hum Hered 75:160-74. 2013
    ..The present study identified genetic predictors of weight change during behavioral weight loss treatment...
  11. pmc Genetic modifiers of cardiorespiratory fitness response to lifestyle intervention
    Inga Peter
    1Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 2Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 3Department of Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 4Department of Health and Physical Activity, Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 5Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, The Miriam Hospital and Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 6Translational Metabolism Unit, Diabetes Research Center, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 7Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 8Diabetes Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 9Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC and 10Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Center for Translational Genomics, Tufts Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, MA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 46:302-11. 2014
    ....
  12. pmc Consent for genetics studies among clinical trial participants: findings from Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD)
    M A Espeland
    Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Clin Trials 3:443-56. 2006
    ..Increasingly, genetic specimens are collected to expand the value of clinical trials through study of genetic effects on disease incidence, progression or response to interventions...
  13. pmc Effect of intensive lifestyle intervention on sexual dysfunction in women with type 2 diabetes: results from an ancillary Look AHEAD study
    Rena R Wing
    Corresponding author Rena R Wing
    Diabetes Care 36:2937-44. 2013
    ..Sexual dysfunction is a prevalent problem in obese women with type 2 diabetes. This study examined the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in these women...
  14. pmc Intensive weight loss intervention in older individuals: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Type 2 diabetes mellitus trial
    Mark A Espeland
    Department of Biostatistical Sciences, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 61:912-22. 2013
    ..To compare the effects of 4 years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in older and younger individuals...
  15. pmc Effect of varying accelerometry criteria on physical activity: the look ahead study
    Gary D Miller
    Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 21:32-44. 2013
    ..Although accelerometers offer an objective measure of activity that provide a valuable tool for intervention research, considerations for processing these data need further development...
  16. pmc The development and description of the comparison group in the Look AHEAD trial
    Jacqueline Ann Wesche-Thobaben
    The Look AHEAD Research Group, Look AHEAD studyPhysical Activity and Weight Management Research Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Clin Trials 8:320-9. 2011
    ..The Diabetes Support and Education Committee was charged with developing the Diabetes Support and Education Intervention with the primary aim of participant retention...
  17. pmc Four-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with long-term success
    Thomas A Wadden
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 19:1987-98. 2011
    ..e., ≥ 5%) in overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes and maintain this loss in more than 45% of patients at 4 years...
  18. pmc Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD trial
    Jessica L Unick
    Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, The Miriam Hospital and Brown Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
    Diabetes Care 34:2152-7. 2011
    ....
  19. pmc One-year changes in symptoms of depression and weight in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes in the Look AHEAD study
    Lucy F Faulconbridge
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 20:783-93. 2012
    ..Mild (or greater) symptoms of depression at baseline did not prevent overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes from achieving significant weight loss...
  20. pmc Factors influencing enrollment of African Americans in the Look AHEAD trial
    David L Mount
    Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Clin Trials 9:80-9. 2012
    ..We used the experience from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial screening process to examine the differential impact eligibility criteria had on the enrollment of African Americans compared to other volunteers...
  21. pmc Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study
    Tiffany L Gary-Webb
    Department of Epidemiology, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA
    BMC Public Health 11:349. 2011
    ..The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression...
  22. pmc Association of type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci with one-year weight loss in the look AHEAD clinical trial
    Inga Peter
    Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 20:1675-82. 2012
    ....
  23. pmc Midcourse correction to a clinical trial when the event rate is underestimated: the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study
    Frederick L Brancati
    The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Clin Trials 9:113-24. 2012
    ..This article describes this process in the Look AHEAD study and places it in the context of recent articles on endpoint modification and recent trials that reported endpoint modification...
  24. pmc Effect of 1 year of an intentional weight loss intervention on bone mineral density in type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD randomized trial
    Ann V Schwartz
    Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:619-27. 2012
    ..One year of an intensive lifestyle intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes, resulting in weight loss, was associated with a modest increase in hip bone loss despite improved fitness and glycemic control...
  25. pmc Lifestyle change and mobility in obese adults with type 2 diabetes
    W Jack Rejeski
    Reynolda Campus, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27109, USA
    N Engl J Med 366:1209-17. 2012
    ..Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus often have limitations in mobility that increase with age. An intensive lifestyle intervention that produces weight loss and improves fitness could slow the loss of mobility in such patients...
  26. pmc Obesity susceptibility loci and dietary intake in the Look AHEAD Trial
    Jeanne M McCaffery
    Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI 02903, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:1477-86. 2012
    ..Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified consistent associations with obesity. However, the mechanisms remain unclear...
  27. pmc Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: four-year results of the Look AHEAD trial
    Rena R Wing
    Department of Psychiatry, The Miriam Hospital Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02860, USA
    Arch Intern Med 170:1566-75. 2010
    ..We examined the effects of lifestyle intervention on changes in weight, fitness, and CVD risk factors during a 4-year study...
  28. pmc Intensive lifestyle intervention improves physical function among obese adults with knee pain: findings from the Look AHEAD trial
    Capri G Foy
    Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 19:83-93. 2011
    ..The ILI condition also resulted in significant weight loss and improved fitness, which are possible mechanisms through which the ILI condition improved physical function...
  29. pmc Neighborhood and weight-related health behaviors in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study
    Tiffany L Gary-Webb
    Department of Epidemiology, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA
    BMC Public Health 10:312. 2010
    ..This study aims to conduct a multi-level analysis to examine the relationship between neighborhood SES and weight-related health behaviors...
  30. pmc Cardiovascular disease risk factors, depression symptoms and antidepressant medicine use in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial of weight loss in diabetes
    R R Rubin
    Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Diabetologia 53:1581-9. 2010
    ..To determine the associations of baseline depression symptoms and use of antidepressant medicines (ADMs) with baseline cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial participants...
  31. pmc Effect of the look AHEAD study intervention on medication use and related cost to treat cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes
    J Bruce Redmon
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Diabetes Care 33:1153-8. 2010
    ..To examine the effect of a lifestyle intervention to produce weight loss and increased physical fitness on use and cost of medications to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes...
  32. pmc Weight loss prevents urinary incontinence in women with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD trial
    Suzanne Phelan
    Kinesiology Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California 93407 0386, USA
    J Urol 187:939-44. 2012
    ....
  33. doi Suboptimal control of glycemia, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol in overweight adults with diabetes: the Look AHEAD Study
    Alain G Bertoni
    Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Diabetes Complications 22:1-9. 2008
    ..The characteristics associated with meeting goals for glycemia, blood pressure (BP), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol for participants with diabetes were examined...
  34. pmc Weight loss strategies associated with BMI in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes at entry into the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial
    Hollie A Raynor
    Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown Medical School The Miriam Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
    Diabetes Care 31:1299-304. 2008
    ....
  35. pmc Measurement characteristics of the ankle-brachial index: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes study
    Mark A Espeland
    Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Vasc Med 13:225-33. 2008
    ..Replicating SBP measurements reduces the error and bias of ABI. Averaging leg-specific values may increase power for characterizing cardiovascular disease risk...
  36. pmc Weight loss treatment influences untreated spouses and the home environment: evidence of a ripple effect
    A A Gorin
    Department of Psychology, Center for Health, Intervention and Prevention, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:1678-84. 2008
    ..To examine whether a weight loss program delivered to one spouse has beneficial effects on the untreated spouse and the home environment...
  37. ncbi Exercise capacity and cardiovascular/metabolic characteristics of overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Look AHEAD clinical trial
    Paul M Ribisl
    Health and Exercise Sciences, Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest University, Wake Forest Road, Winston Salem, NC 27109, USA
    Diabetes Care 30:2679-84. 2007
    ..0 kg/m2) men and women with type 2 diabetes who were randomized participants for the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial...
  38. ncbi Fitness, fatness, and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: look ahead study
    Rena R Wing
    Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Providence, RI 02903, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:2107-16. 2007
    ..The present study examined the association of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity with CVD risk factors in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes...
  39. pmc Reduction in weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: one-year results of the look AHEAD trial
    Xavier Pi-Sunyer
    St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA
    Diabetes Care 30:1374-83. 2007
    ..This report describes 1-year changes in CVD risk factors in a trial designed to examine the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the incidence of major CVD events...
  40. ncbi Lifestyle modification in the treatment of obesity: an educational challenge and opportunity
    L R Jones
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 81:776-9. 2007
    ..The latter term, as applied to weight control, refers to a set of principles and techniques to help patients adopt new diet and exercise habits that can be sustained long term to promote health...
  41. ncbi Correlates of health-related quality of life in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes
    W Jack Rejeski
    Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27109, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:870-83. 2006
    ..Analyses examined the relationship that demographic characteristics, disease burden, and cardiovascular fitness had with HRQL: the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II...
  42. pmc The Look AHEAD study: a description of the lifestyle intervention and the evidence supporting it
    Thomas A Wadden
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA corrected
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:737-52. 2006
    ..After Year 4, participants are offered monthly individual visits. The intervention is delivered by a multidisciplinary team that includes medical staff who monitor participants at risk of hypoglycemic episodes...
  43. ncbi Health-related quality of life and symptoms of depression in extremely obese persons seeking bariatric surgery
    Anthony N Fabricatore
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19128 3309, USA
    Obes Surg 15:304-9. 2005
    ..This study examined the relationships among BMI, HRQoL, and symptoms of depression in persons with extreme obesity...
  44. pmc Binge eating and weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD trial
    Amy A Gorin
    Department of Psychology, Center for Health, Intervention, and Prevention, University of Connecticut, 2006 Hillside Rd, Unit 1248, Storrs, CT 06269 1248, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:1447-55. 2008
    ..Binge eating (BE) is common in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but little is known about how BE affects weight loss in this population...
  45. pmc Effect of a lifestyle intervention on change in cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD Study
    J M Jakicic
    Department of Health and Physical Activity, Physical Activity and Weight Management Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15203, USA
    Int J Obes (Lond) 33:305-16. 2009
    ..To examine the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (ILI) compared to diabetes support and education (DSE) on changes in fitness and physical activity in the Look AHEAD trial...
  46. pmc A randomized study on the effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea among obese patients with type 2 diabetes: the Sleep AHEAD study
    Gary D Foster
    Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University, 3223 N Broad St, Ste 175, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    Arch Intern Med 169:1619-26. 2009
    ..The belief that weight loss improves obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has limited empirical support. The purpose of this 4-center study was to assess the effects of weight loss on OSA over a 1-year period...
  47. pmc Constructing common cohorts from trials with overlapping eligibility criteria: implications for comparing effect sizes between trials
    David L Mount
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Clin Trials 6:416-29. 2009
    ..Comparing findings from separate trials is necessary to choose among treatment options, however differences among study cohorts may impede these comparisons...
  48. ncbi Effects of weight loss intervention on erectile function in older men with type 2 diabetes in the Look AHEAD trial
    Rena R Wing
    The Miriam Hospital Brown Medical School, Providence, RI, USA
    J Sex Med 7:156-65. 2010
    ..Overweight men with diabetes often report erectile dysfunction (ED), but few studies have examined effects of weight loss on this problem...
  49. pmc Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial: baseline evaluation of selected nutrients and food group intake
    Mara Z Vitolins
    Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27104, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 109:1367-75. 2009
    ..Little has been reported regarding food and nutrient intake in individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and most reports have been based on findings in select groups or individuals who self-reported having diabetes...
  50. pmc Describing patterns of weight changes using principal components analysis: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) research group
    Mark A Espeland
    Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine and Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 19:701-10. 2009
    ..To demonstrate how principal components analysis can be used to describe patterns of weight changes in response to an intensive lifestyle intervention...
  51. pmc Prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence in overweight and obese diabetic women: action for health in diabetes (look ahead) study
    Suzanne Phelan
    Kinesiology Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California, USA
    Diabetes Care 32:1391-7. 2009
    ..Increasing obesity (BMI > or =35 kg/m(2)) was the strongest modifiable risk factor for overall incontinence and stress incontinence in this diverse cohort...
  52. pmc Obstructive sleep apnea among obese patients with type 2 diabetes
    Gary D Foster
    Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Diabetes Care 32:1017-9. 2009
    ..To assess the risk factors for the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among obese patients with type 2 diabetes...
  53. pmc Obesity and albuminuria among adults with type 2 diabetes: the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study
    Holly Kramer
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois, USA
    Diabetes Care 32:851-3. 2009
    ..To determine the association between obesity measures and albuminuria in adults with type 2 diabetes...
  54. doi Erectile dysfunction in type 2 diabetic men: relationship to exercise fitness and cardiovascular risk factors in the Look AHEAD trial
    Raymond C Rosen
    New England Research Institutes, 9 Galen Street, Watertown, MA, USA
    J Sex Med 6:1414-22. 2009
    ..Determinants of erectile dysfunction in diabetic men have not been adequately investigated as potential mediators of change...
  55. pmc One-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with success
    Thomas A Wadden
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:713-22. 2009
    ..The lifestyle intervention was clinically effective in all subsets of an ethnically and demographically diverse population...
  56. pmc Impact of a weight management program on health-related quality of life in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes
    Donald A Williamson
    Health Psychology Department, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, 6400 Perkins Rd, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 4124, USA
    Arch Intern Med 169:163-71. 2009
    ..We tested the efficacy of a weight management program for improving HRQOL in overweight or obese adults diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  57. ncbi Behavioral treatment of obesity
    Thomas A Wadden
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 3535 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Psychiatr Clin North Am 28:151-70, ix. 2005