Multicenter Aids Cohort Study- Part B (Baltimore Site)

Summary

Principal Investigator: Joseph Margolick
Affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Country: USA
Abstract: The Study to Help the AIDS Research Effort (SHARE) was funded by NAID and NCI in 1983 to study the natural history of infection with human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV). SHARE, along with similar sites in Chicago, Pittsburgh, and Los Angeles, forms the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). MACS participants, including 1447 enrolled in SHARE, have been followed semiannually since 1984 and have provided questionnaire data, physical exam data, laboratory data (including HIV serostatus and T-cell subset measurements), and a large repository of plasma, serum, cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells and other specimens. Evaluating and following the prevalent and incident cases of HIV-infection in SHARE and the MACS, has provided key insights into risk factors for infection with HIV-1, monitoring and mechanisms of progression of HIV infection once it is established, host defense against HIV, genetic factors affecting HIV pathogenesis, and use and efficacy of different therapies for HIV infection and for opportunistic pathogens. SHARE and MACS have just completed the recruitment of 1326 additional participants, including 352 in SHARE, who are younger and more non-Caucasian than the cohort previously recruited. This application requests the continuation of the follow-up of the SHARE cohort from 2004 to 2008. Expected survival and continuation in the study of HIV-infected cohort members through this time period is 88%. Specific Aims of the renewal include: determine the long-term effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); define determinants of individual responses to HAART including host genetic characteristics, co-infections (hepatitis viruses, HHV-8), immune responses to HIV, adherence, race/ethnicity; define mechanisms of host resistance to HIV infection and progression of the infection; and serve as a platform for independently funded pathogenesis studies and other collaborative research, including virological and immunological mechanisms of HIV-1 pathogenesis, laboratory correlates of disease progression or non-progression, and biological interactions between co-infections and HIV. These aims can be addressed only with continued follow-up of this extremely well-characterized cohort. SHARE and the MACS should continue to play a leading role in studies designed to lead to better treatments and preventive vaccines for HIV infection.
Funding Period: 1993-04-01 - 2009-03-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Multistage genomewide association study identifies a locus at 1q41 associated with rate of HIV-1 disease progression to clinical AIDS
    Joshua T Herbeck
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195 8070, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:618-26. 2010
  2. pmc Anal cancer screening behaviors and intentions in men who have sex with men
    Gypsyamber D'Souza
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 23:1452-7. 2008
  3. doi Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study
    Gypsyamber D'Souza
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:491-9. 2008
  4. pmc Failure to restore the Vgamma2-Jgamma1.2 repertoire in HIV-infected men receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
    Andrew M Hebbeler
    Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Clin Immunol 128:349-57. 2008
  5. doi Antiretroviral therapy is associated with an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype among HIV-1-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
    Sharon A Riddler
    Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:281-8. 2008
  6. doi The antiviral drug selected hepatitis B virus rtA181T/sW172* mutant has a dominant negative secretion defect and alters the typical profile of viral rebound
    Nadia Warner
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Hepatology 48:88-98. 2008
  7. pmc Sexual activity and Kaposi's sarcoma among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human herpesvirus type 8-coinfected men
    Eric W Nawar
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 18:517-21. 2008
  8. doi The generalized F distribution: an umbrella for parametric survival analysis
    Christopher Cox
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room E7642, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Stat Med 27:4301-12. 2008
  9. doi Host genetic influences on highly active antiretroviral therapy efficacy and AIDS-free survival
    Sher L Hendrickson
    Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:263-71. 2008
  10. pmc Lack of evidence for changing virulence of HIV-1 in North America
    Joshua T Herbeck
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e1525. 2008

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. pmc Multistage genomewide association study identifies a locus at 1q41 associated with rate of HIV-1 disease progression to clinical AIDS
    Joshua T Herbeck
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195 8070, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:618-26. 2010
    ..To investigate host genetic determinants of the rate of progression to clinical AIDS, we performed a multistage genomewide association study...
  2. pmc Anal cancer screening behaviors and intentions in men who have sex with men
    Gypsyamber D'Souza
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 23:1452-7. 2008
    ..The incidence of anal cancer has increased in the past decade, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-infected individuals. There is controversy about whether to routinely screen for anal cancer in MSM...
  3. doi Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study
    Gypsyamber D'Souza
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:491-9. 2008
    ..To examine the incidence and risk factors for anal cancer in a multicenter cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men followed between 1984 and 2006 (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study)...
  4. pmc Failure to restore the Vgamma2-Jgamma1.2 repertoire in HIV-infected men receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
    Andrew M Hebbeler
    Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Clin Immunol 128:349-57. 2008
    ..2Vdelta2 T cell repertoire did not recover after HAART initiation irrespective of treatment duration. These studies highlight important defects among cell subsets lost due to indirect effects of HIV...
  5. doi Antiretroviral therapy is associated with an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype among HIV-1-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
    Sharon A Riddler
    Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:281-8. 2008
    ..Alterations in serum lipids and an increased risk of myocardial infarction have been associated with HIV-1 infection and its treatment...
  6. doi The antiviral drug selected hepatitis B virus rtA181T/sW172* mutant has a dominant negative secretion defect and alters the typical profile of viral rebound
    Nadia Warner
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Hepatology 48:88-98. 2008
    ....
  7. pmc Sexual activity and Kaposi's sarcoma among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human herpesvirus type 8-coinfected men
    Eric W Nawar
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 18:517-21. 2008
    ..Here, we explore sexual activity as a proxy for a sexually transmitted determinant beyond HIV-1 and HHV-8...
  8. doi The generalized F distribution: an umbrella for parametric survival analysis
    Christopher Cox
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room E7642, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Stat Med 27:4301-12. 2008
    ..We also discuss fitting the GF with an alternative parameterization using standard statistical software and refine a description of the hazard functions for death after a diagnosis of clinical AIDS in four different eras of HIV therapy...
  9. doi Host genetic influences on highly active antiretroviral therapy efficacy and AIDS-free survival
    Sher L Hendrickson
    Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:263-71. 2008
    ..27; P=0.01). ARG influence after HAART suggests residual HIV-1 replication, and spread continues even in patients successfully suppressing detectable viral RNA...
  10. pmc Lack of evidence for changing virulence of HIV-1 in North America
    Joshua T Herbeck
    University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e1525. 2008
    ....
  11. pmc Homeostasis of the naive CD4+ T cell compartment during aging
    Ryan D Kilpatrick
    University of California AIDS Institute and Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte, CA 90095, USA
    J Immunol 180:1499-507. 2008
    ..Our results provide insight into naive CD4+ T cell homeostasis during aging that can be used to better understand the mechanisms that may contribute to immunosenescence within this compartment...
  12. ncbi Selegiline transdermal system (STS) for HIV-associated cognitive impairment: open-label report of ACTG 5090
    Scott R Evans
    Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    HIV Clin Trials 8:437-46. 2007
    ..To assess the long-term safety (primary aim) and efficacy (secondary aim) of the MAO-B inhibitor Selegiline Transdermal System (STS) for the treatment of HIV-associated cognitive impairment...
  13. ncbi FcgammaRIIa genotype predicts progression of HIV infection
    Donald N Forthal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    J Immunol 179:7916-23. 2007
    ..These results demonstrate the importance of FcgammaRs in AIDS pathogenesis and point toward a critical role for interactions between FcgammaRs and immune complexes in disease progression...
  14. ncbi HIV-1 infection is associated with an earlier occurrence of a phenotype related to frailty
    Loic Desquilbet
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62:1279-86. 2007
    ..We investigated whether HIV infection increases the prevalence of a frailty-related phenotype (FRP) that approximates a clinical definition of frailty...
  15. pmc Proliferation and foxp3 expression in virus-specific memory CD8+ T lymphocytes
    Aki Hoji
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:1087-95. 2008
    ....
  16. pmc Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
    Lawrence A Kingsley
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    AIDS 22:1589-99. 2008
    ..To evaluate the association of HIV infection and cumulative exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with the presence and extent of coronary artery calcification (CAC)...
  17. pmc Low CD4+ T-cell count as a major atherosclerosis risk factor in HIV-infected women and men
    Robert C Kaplan
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    AIDS 22:1615-24. 2008
    ..To assess the association of HIV infection, HIV disease parameters (including CD4+ T-cell counts, HIV viral load, and AIDS) and antiretroviral medication use with subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis...
  18. pmc Using marginal structural measurement-error models to estimate the long-term effect of antiretroviral therapy on incident AIDS or death
    Stephen R Cole
    University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, MacGavran Greenberg Hall, CB 7435, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 171:113-22. 2010
    ....
  19. pmc Vascular risk factors, HIV serostatus, and cognitive dysfunction in gay and bisexual men
    J T Becker
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Neurology 73:1292-9. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive performance, risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy...
  20. pmc Combination HBV therapy is linked to greater HBV DNA suppression in a cohort of lamivudine-experienced HIV/HBV coinfected individuals
    Gail V Matthews
    National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, UNSW, Sydney, Australia
    AIDS 23:1707-15. 2009
    ..To determine if highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with combination anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapy compared to HAART with HBV monotherapy leads to greater HBV DNA suppression in an HIV/HBV coinfected cohort...
  21. pmc Hepatitis B and long-term HIV outcomes in coinfected HAART recipients
    Christopher J Hoffmann
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    AIDS 23:1881-9. 2009
    ..Chronic hepatitis B (CH-B) is common among HIV-infected individuals and increases liver-related mortality in the absence of HAART. The impact of CH-B on long-term HAART outcomes has not been fully characterized...
  22. pmc Evaluation of adherence and factors affecting adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among White, Hispanic, and Black men in the MACS Cohort
    Debora Lee Oh
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 52:290-3. 2009
    ..This study investigated levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in white, Hispanic, and black men and isolated factors associated with adherence among each racial group...
  23. pmc Investigation of pre-diagnostic virological markers for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients
    Mary K Grabowski
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Med Virol 81:1140-50. 2009
    ..0, 95% CI: 1.2-394.5). The results suggest that persistent JCV viruria and increasing urinary concentration of JCV DNA may be predictive of PML for some patients...
  24. pmc Smoking enhances risk for new external genital warts in men
    Dorothy J Wiley
    Division of Primary Care, School of Nursing, University of California at Los Angeles UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 6:1215-34. 2009
    ..Multivariate analyses showed smoking, prior episodes of EGWs, HIV infection and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count among the infected, each differentially influenced the risk for new EGWs...
  25. pmc Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incident AIDS using calendar period as an instrumental variable
    Lauren E Cain
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 169:1124-32. 2009
    ..These methods may help resolve discrepancies between observational and randomized evidence...
  26. pmc Relationship between a frailty-related phenotype and progressive deterioration of the immune system in HIV-infected men
    Loic Desquilbet
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 50:299-306. 2009
    ..Using a frailty-related phenotype (FRP), we investigated in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study whether progressive deterioration of the immune system among HIV-positive individuals independently predicts onset of FRP...
  27. pmc Interaction between RANTES promoter variant and CCR5Delta32 favors recovery from hepatitis B
    Chloe L Thio
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Immunol 181:7944-7. 2008
    ....
  28. pmc Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups influence AIDS progression
    Sher L Hendrickson
    Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    AIDS 22:2429-39. 2008
    ....
  29. pmc Effect of tuberculosis on the survival of HIV-infected men in a country with low tuberculosis incidence
    Hugo Lopez-Gatell
    Directorate of Epidemiology, Ministry of Health, Mexico, Mexico
    AIDS 22:1869-73. 2008
    ..2-4.7). Results underscore the importance of avoiding TB by using preventive interventions such as treatment of latent TB infection, particularly in populations with a large prevalence of HIV/TB co-infected individuals...
  30. pmc Constructing inverse probability weights for marginal structural models
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 168:656-64. 2008
    ..However, as with all methods, diagnostics and sensitivity analyses are essential for proper use...
  31. ncbi Patterns and predictors of changes in adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy: longitudinal study of men and women
    Mariana Lazo
    Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Epidemiology, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:1377-85. 2007
    ..Adherence to therapy is a dynamic behavior. However, few studies have identified factors associated with changes in adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among men and women...
  32. ncbi Ten-year predicted coronary heart disease risk in HIV-infected men and women
    Robert C Kaplan
    Department of Epidemiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:1074-81. 2007
    ..Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), in addition to traditional vascular risk factors, may affect coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
  33. ncbi Elevated serum soluble CD30 precedes the development of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma
    Elizabeth Crabb Breen
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1740, USA
    Tumour Biol 27:187-94. 2006
    ....
  34. ncbi Characteristics of drug resistant HBV in an international collaborative study of HIV-HBV-infected individuals on extended lamivudine therapy
    Gail V Matthews
    National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    AIDS 20:863-70. 2006
    ..Little is known about the prevalence and pattern of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations in HIV/HBV co-infected individuals on long-term lamivudine (3TC) therapy...
  35. ncbi Longitudinal analysis of clinical markers following antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute or early HIV type 1 infection
    Sigall Kassutto
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:1024-31. 2006
    ..Potential predictors of time to virological suppression and CD4+ cell count at > or =12 months were assessed...
  36. ncbi Effect of early and late GB virus C viraemia on survival of HIV-infected individuals: a meta-analysis
    W Zhang
    Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    HIV Med 7:173-80. 2006
    ..To conduct a meta-analysis to synthesize the evidence regarding the effect of co-infection with GB virus C (GBV-C) on survival of HIV-infected individuals, and to estimate the effect...
  37. ncbi C-reactive protein is a marker for human immunodeficiency virus disease progression
    Bryan Lau
    Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Arch Intern Med 166:64-70. 2006
    ..Limited data on acute-phase C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection exist...
  38. ncbi Serum levels of the homeostatic B cell chemokine, CXCL13, are elevated during HIV infection
    Daniel P Widney
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, 27 139 Center for Health Sciences, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1740, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 25:702-6. 2005
    ....
  39. ncbi Elevated levels of soluble CD44 precede the development of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma
    Elizabeth Crabb Breen
    AIDS 19:1711-2. 2005
  40. ncbi Cumulative exposure to nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors is associated with insulin resistance markers in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
    Todd T Brown
    Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 19:1375-83. 2005
    ..To estimate insulin resistance and its relationship to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a cohort of HIV-infected persons with comparison to HIV-seronegative controls...
  41. ncbi Marginal structural models for estimating the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation on CD4 cell count
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 162:471-8. 2005
    ....
  42. pmc Mannose binding lectin genotypes influence recovery from hepatitis B virus infection
    Chloe L Thio
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Virol 79:9192-6. 2005
    ..76; 95% CI, 1.02 to 3.01; P = 0.04). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that functional MBL plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acute hepatitis B...
  43. ncbi HLA-B, -DRB1/3/4/5, and -DQB1 gene polymorphisms in human immunodeficiency virus-related Kaposi's sarcoma
    M Tevfik Dorak
    Department of Epidemiology and Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0022, USA
    J Med Virol 76:302-10. 2005
    ..Alternatively, the relationship might hold a clue to the predilection of KS for men because that haplotype harbors the mutant form of the 21-hydroxylase gene...
  44. ncbi How condom use, number of receptive anal intercourse partners and history of external genital warts predict risk for external anal warts
    D J Wiley
    Division of Primary Care, School of Nursing, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 6919, USA
    Int J STD AIDS 16:203-11. 2005
    ....
  45. ncbi Structural accelerated failure time models for survival analysis in studies with time-varying treatments
    Miguel A HernĂ¡n
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 14:477-91. 2005
    ..The parameters of nested structural models are estimated by g-estimation and those of marginal structural models by inverse probability weighting...
  46. ncbi Detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in normal prostates
    J D Montgomery
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Prostate 66:1302-10. 2006
    ..We have analyzed prostate tissues from HHV-8 seropositive men for the expression of viral proteins and determined if expression of these proteins are associated with increased inflammation...
  47. ncbi Impact of inversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio on the natural history of HIV-1 infection
    Joseph B Margolick
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 42:620-6. 2006
    ..HIV-1 infection is characterized by an inverted CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio, but the distribution of inversions over time after seroconversion and whether delay of inversion is associated with a favorable prognosis are not known...
  48. ncbi Structured treatment interruptions following immediate initiation of HAART in eight patients with acute HIV-1 seroconversion
    M Vogel
    Department of Internal Medicine I University of Bonn, Germany
    Eur J Med Res 11:273-8. 2006
    ..The immunological and clinical benefits of structured treatment interruptions (STIs) during primary HIV-1 infection remain largely unclear...
  49. ncbi Proton MRS and neuropsychological correlates in AIDS dementia complex: evidence of subcortical specificity
    Robert H Paul
    Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Missouri, St Louis, St Louis, MO 63121, USA
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 19:283-92. 2007
    ..Prospective studies are needed to elucidate the evolution of these changes in the setting of antiretroviral therapy...
  50. pmc The generalizability of neurocognitive test/retest data derived from a nonclinical sample for detecting change among two HIV+ cohorts
    Andrew J Levine
    Department of Neurology, National Neurological AIDS Bank, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 29:669-78. 2007
    ..Thus, the accuracy of the two methods examined for determining clinically significant change among HIV+ cohorts differs depending upon their similarity with the normative sample...
  51. ncbi Delayed reconstitution of CD4+ iNKT cells after effective HIV type 1 therapy
    Otto O Yang
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:913-22. 2007
    ....
  52. pmc Antiviral activity of a Rac GEF inhibitor characterized with a sensitive HIV/SIV fusion assay
    Suzanne Pontow
    Departments of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Box 8069, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Virology 368:1-6. 2007
    ..This assay allowed identification of entry inhibitors, and characterization of an antagonist of a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor, as an inhibitor of HIV-mediated fusion...
  53. ncbi Determining the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA viral load using a marginal structural left-censored mean model
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:219-27. 2007
    ..In conclusion, the clinically important protective effect of HAART on dampening viral load appears to be rapid, present at CD4 cell counts greater than 350 cells/mm(3), and sustained beyond 6 years...
  54. pmc The effect of antiretroviral therapy on secondary transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men
    Alethea W McCormick
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 44:1115-22. 2007
    ..However, the potential reduction in secondary transmission associated with ART may be offset by the longer duration of infectiousness...
  55. ncbi Parametric survival analysis and taxonomy of hazard functions for the generalized gamma distribution
    Christopher Cox
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Stat Med 26:4352-74. 2007
    ..Description of standard statistical software (Stata, SAS and S-Plus) for the computations is included and available at http://statepi.jhsph.edu/software...
  56. ncbi Early and delayed benefits of HIV-1 suppression: timeline of recovery of innate immunity effector cells
    Livio Azzoni
    The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    AIDS 21:293-305. 2007
    ..The kinetics of recovery for innate immune effectors following antiretroviral therapy are unknown...
  57. ncbi Estimating the benefit of an HIV-1 vaccine that reduces viral load set point
    Swati B Gupta
    Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA, USA
    J Infect Dis 195:546-50. 2007
    ..5-1.25 log(10) copies/mL lower than the reference group. By quantifying the anticipated clinical benefits associated with a reduction in viral set point, these findings support the use of virologic end points in HIV-1 vaccine trials...
  58. pmc Genetic protection against hepatitis B virus conferred by CCR5Delta32: Evidence that CCR5 contributes to viral persistence
    Chloe L Thio
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 81:441-5. 2007
    ....
  59. ncbi Longitudinal anthropometric changes in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men
    Todd Brown
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:356-62. 2006
    ....
  60. pmc Nrf2 regulates an adaptive response protecting against oxidative damage following diquat-mediated formation of superoxide anion
    William O Osburn
    Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 454:7-15. 2006
    ..Thus the enhanced sensitivity of N0 cells does not reflect basal differences in antioxidative capacity, but rather an impaired ability to mount an adaptive response to sustained oxidative stress...
  61. pmc Bimodal virological response to antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection: an application using a mixture model with left censoring
    Xiuhong Li
    Room E7648, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 60:811-8. 2006
    ..To assess whether HIV RNA levels (log(10) scale) in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) treated population have a bimodal distribution, suggesting optimal or suboptimal response to HAART...
  62. ncbi Application of case-crossover and case-time-control study designs in analyses of time-varying predictors of T-cell homeostasis failure
    Michael F Schneider
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 15:137-44. 2005
    ..75 years prior to an initial diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)...