ADHD: Genetics, Cognition and Neuroimaging
Principal Investigator: S V Faraone
Affiliation: SUNY Upstate Medical University
Abstract: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder of childhood associated with school failure, psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial disability. Because family and twin studies suggest that ADHD has a substantial genetic component, several research groups have now begun molecular genetic studies of the disorder. These studies have already produced two replicated findings: one showing an association between ADHD and the D4 dopamine receptor gene and the other between ADHD and the dopamine transporter gene. Another well replicated feature of ADHD is its pattern of cognitive dysfunction along with structural and functional abnormalities in frontal-subcortical neural networks. Notably, the areas of cognitive deficit seen in ADHD are moderately heritable, as are the volumes of implicated brain structures. We are thus proposing a networking grant which seeks to establish collaborative partnerships among scientists who study basic behavioral processes associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and those who study the genetics of the disorder. Thus, there are three main facts that underlie the present proposal: 1) ADHD is heritable; 2) it is associated with a pattern of cognitive dysfunction; and 3) it is associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities. These facts lead us to believe that it will be fruitful to create a network of researchers studying these domains of inquiry. The main aims of the proposed network are: 1) to provide a venue for basic and clinical investigators to initiate and explore the potential of research collaborations that focus on genetics and cognition in ADHD; 2) to identify cognitive phenotypes suitable for molecular genetic studies of ADHD; 3) to identify neuroimaging phenotypes suitable for molecular genetic studies of ADHD; 4) to design research projects aimed at finding genes that mediate the neuropsychological and neuroimaging abnormalities associated with ADHD; 5) to identify candidate genes that mediate these phenotypes; 6) to design protocols that use neuropsychological and neuroimaging methods to clarify the functional significance of gene variants implicated in the etiology of ADHD; and 7) to encourage junior investigators to develop research careers that integrate the domains of genetics, cognition and neuroimaging in ADHD.
Funding Period: 2005-06-01 - 2007-07-31
more information: NIH RePORT
- Causal heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: do we need neuropsychologically impaired subtypes?Joel T Nigg
Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
Biol Psychiatry 57:1224-30. 2005....
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder endophenotypesAlysa E Doyle
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Biol Psychiatry 57:1324-35. 2005..We conclude that these endophenotypes will not be a quick fix for the field but offer potential if careful consideration is given to issues of heterogeneity, measurement and statistical power...
- Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic reviewErik G Willcutt
Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
Biol Psychiatry 57:1336-46. 2005..Difficulties with EF appear to be one important component of the complex neuropsychology of ADHD...
- Are endophenotypes based on measures of executive functions useful for molecular genetic studies of ADHD?Alysa E Doyle
Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46:774-803. 2005..Thus far, potential endophenotypes for ADHD have not been systematically studied...
- Meta-analysis of structural imaging findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderEve M Valera
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Biol Psychiatry 61:1361-9. 2007..Our goal was to statistically analyze structural imaging data via a meta-analysis to help resolve these issues...
- Candidate gene studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderStephen V Faraone
Medical Genetics Research Program and Department of Psychiatry, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
J Clin Psychiatry 67:13-20. 2006..This literature review discusses the relevance and implications of genetic associations with ADHD for clinical practice and future research...
- Environmental risk factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorderTania Das Banerjee
Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA
Acta Paediatr 96:1269-74. 2007....
- Familial transmission of derived phenotypes for molecular genetic studies of substance use disordersStephen V Faraone
Department of Psychiatry, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams St, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
Drug Alcohol Depend 92:100-7. 2008..001; cognitive impairment: OR=1.33, p=0.04); in offspring, baseline psychopathology predicted SUD at follow-up assessments (OR=1.55, p=0.01). Results suggest that these candidate SUD phenotypes may be useful for genetic studies of SUD...