STEROID-CATECHOLAMINE INTERACTIONS AND SEX BEHAVIOR

Summary

Principal Investigator: GREGORY BALL
Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University
Country: USA
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract): The goal of this research program is to elucidate the nature of the interaction between a steroid-sensitive neural circuit and the DAergic system. This interaction mediates, in part, the activation of masculine reproductive behavior. DA and testosterone are well-known to play a stimulatory role in the control of male reproductive behavior. It is, however, unclear how the activational effects of DA relate to the regulation of male sex behavior by testosterone. It is hypothesized that DA is part of the biochemical cascade initiated by testosterone that ultimately results in male copulatory behavior and that DA may facilitate male sexual behavior by increasing the behavioral effectiveness of testosterone. The proposed work capitalizes on a number of recent findings concerning the quail preoptic area (POA) which makes this a unique model: The quail POA contains a sexually dimorphic and testosterone-sensitive nucleus, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), which provides a clearly defined morphological definition of the area critical for the action of testosterone on sexual behavior. The testosterone-metabolizing pathways (in particular its aromatization) mediating the activation of behavior have been described and an immunocytochemical (ICC) procedure has been developed that permits the visualization of aromatase-containing cells in the quail POA. DA turnover is sexually differentiated in the quail POM (higher turnover in males). Finally, in quail there is evidence that the DAergic system regulates aromatase activity in the POA. A series of 11 experiments are proposed that are designed to analyze four specific aspects of the DA action in the activation of male sexual behavior. The first set of experiments will characterize the central mechanisms controlling anticipatory aspects of sexual behavior and thereby provide a comparison with those mechanisms activating the consummatory aspects. A second set of experiments will have the goal of characterizing the DAergic inputs to the POM and nucleus Accumbens of the Stria Terminalis (Ac-nST) complex and their relation to the activation of anticipatory and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior. The third series of experiments will investigate whether the sexual dimorphism in behavior and the dimorphism in preoptic aromatase activity can be explained, at least in part, by the dimorphism in DAergic activity in the POM. Finally, the fourth series of experiments will ask whether DA stimulates male sexual behavior by modulating the action of testosterone (changes in aromatization) or by acting on other steroid-dependent or -independent mechanisms.
Funding Period: 1993-07-01 - 1998-06-30
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Rapid effects of aromatase inhibition on male reproductive behaviors in Japanese quail
    Charlotte A Cornil
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, Belgium
    Horm Behav 49:45-67. 2006
  2. pmc Relationships between rapid changes in local aromatase activity and estradiol concentrations in male and female quail brain
    M J Dickens
    GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, 1 Avenue de l Hôpital Bat B36, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Horm Behav 65:154-64. 2014
  3. pmc Sex differences in the expression of sex steroid receptor mRNA in the quail brain
    C Voigt
    GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    J Neuroendocrinol 21:1045-62. 2009
  4. pmc Testosterone recruits new aromatase-imunoreactive cells in neonatal quail brain
    Sylvia M Bardet
    GIGA Neurosciences, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Neuroreport 21:376-80. 2010
  5. pmc Rapid control of male typical behaviors by brain-derived estrogens
    Charlotte A Cornil
    GIGA Neurosciences, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Front Neuroendocrinol 33:425-46. 2012
  6. pmc Brain aromatase and circulating corticosterone are rapidly regulated by combined acute stress and sexual interaction in a sex-specific manner
    M J Dickens
    GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, 1 Avenue de l Hopital, Liege, Belgium
    J Neuroendocrinol 24:1322-34. 2012
  7. pmc Neuroestrogens rapidly regulate sexual motivation but not performance
    Aurore L Seredynski
    Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium
    J Neurosci 33:164-74. 2013
  8. pmc Distinct neuroendocrine mechanisms control neural activity underlying sex differences in sexual motivation and performance
    Jacques Balthazart
    GIGA Neurosciences, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Eur J Neurosci 37:735-42. 2013
  9. doi Neurochemical control of rapid stress-induced changes in brain aromatase activity
    M J Dickens
    GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    J Neuroendocrinol 25:329-39. 2013
  10. doi Modulation of testosterone-dependent male sexual behavior and the associated neuroplasticity
    Thierry D Charlier
    Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Belgium
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 190:24-33. 2013

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. pmc Rapid effects of aromatase inhibition on male reproductive behaviors in Japanese quail
    Charlotte A Cornil
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, Belgium
    Horm Behav 49:45-67. 2006
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that aromatase inhibition rapidly decreases both consummatory and appetitive aspects of male sexual behavior...
  2. pmc Relationships between rapid changes in local aromatase activity and estradiol concentrations in male and female quail brain
    M J Dickens
    GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, 1 Avenue de l Hôpital Bat B36, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Horm Behav 65:154-64. 2014
    ..Overall, this study highlights the complex mechanisms regulating local E2 concentrations including rapid stimulus-driven changes in production and stress-induced changes in catabolism. ..
  3. pmc Sex differences in the expression of sex steroid receptor mRNA in the quail brain
    C Voigt
    GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    J Neuroendocrinol 21:1045-62. 2009
    ....
  4. pmc Testosterone recruits new aromatase-imunoreactive cells in neonatal quail brain
    Sylvia M Bardet
    GIGA Neurosciences, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Neuroreport 21:376-80. 2010
    ..This recruitment concerns all brain nuclei normally expressing the enzyme even if it is more prominent in the ventromedial hypothalamus than in other nuclei...
  5. pmc Rapid control of male typical behaviors by brain-derived estrogens
    Charlotte A Cornil
    GIGA Neurosciences, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Front Neuroendocrinol 33:425-46. 2012
    ..Finally, we suggest that the brain estrogen provision may also play a significant role in females. Together these data bolster the hypothesis that brain-derived estrogens should be considered as neuromodulators...
  6. pmc Brain aromatase and circulating corticosterone are rapidly regulated by combined acute stress and sexual interaction in a sex-specific manner
    M J Dickens
    GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, 1 Avenue de l Hopital, Liege, Belgium
    J Neuroendocrinol 24:1322-34. 2012
    ..By contrast, female reproduction appears more nuanced and context specific, with subjects responding physiologically and behaviourally to stress, the male partner's stress exposure, and female-directed male behaviour...
  7. pmc Neuroestrogens rapidly regulate sexual motivation but not performance
    Aurore L Seredynski
    Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium
    J Neurosci 33:164-74. 2013
    ....
  8. pmc Distinct neuroendocrine mechanisms control neural activity underlying sex differences in sexual motivation and performance
    Jacques Balthazart
    GIGA Neurosciences, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Eur J Neurosci 37:735-42. 2013
    ..Overall these data confirm the difference in endocrine controls and probably neural mechanisms supporting ASB and CSB in quail, and highlight the complexity of mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior...
  9. doi Neurochemical control of rapid stress-induced changes in brain aromatase activity
    M J Dickens
    GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    J Neuroendocrinol 25:329-39. 2013
    ....
  10. doi Modulation of testosterone-dependent male sexual behavior and the associated neuroplasticity
    Thierry D Charlier
    Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Belgium
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 190:24-33. 2013
    ....
  11. pmc Neural pathways mediating control of reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail
    J Martin Wild
    Department of Anatomy with Radiology, Faculty of Medical and Health Science, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    J Comp Neurol 521:2067-87. 2013
    ..1997], Neuroscience 80:587-598)...
  12. pmc C-fos down-regulation inhibits testosterone-dependent male sexual behavior and the associated learning
    Neville Andrew Niessen
    Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Avenue de l Hôpital 1 Bat B36, B 4000, Liege 1, Belgium
    Eur J Neurosci 38:3325-37. 2013
    ..Taken together, the data suggest that c-fos expression in the POM modulates copulatory behavior and sexual learning in male quail...
  13. pmc Peripubertal proliferation of progenitor cells in the preoptic area of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)
    Karen Mouriec
    GIGA Neurosciences, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Brain Res 1516:20-32. 2013
    ..Large numbers of new cells thus arise around puberty in the caudal preoptic area and presumably contribute to the reorganization of this structure that precedes the emergence of adult reproductive behaviors...
  14. pmc Fos expression in monoaminergic cell groups in response to sociosexual interactions in male and female Japanese quail
    Onur Iyilikci
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences
    Behav Neurosci 128:48-60. 2014
    ..PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). ..
  15. pmc Dopamine release in the medial preoptic area is related to hormonal action and sexual motivation
    Hayley K Kleitz-Nelson
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Behav Neurosci 124:773-9. 2010
    ..Taken together, these results provide further support for the hypothesis that DA action in the mPOA is specifically linked to sexual motivation as compared to copulatory behavior per se...
  16. pmc Effects of social experience on subsequent sexual performance in naïve male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)
    Charlotte A Cornil
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA
    Horm Behav 57:515-22. 2010
    ..This experience effect is independent of any hormonal effect (such as one resulting from changes in secretion following different social interactions) given that the subjects were castrates chronically treated with testosterone...
  17. pmc Sex steroid-induced neuroplasticity and behavioral activation in birds
    Jacques Balthazart
    University of Liege, GIGA Neurosciences, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Avenue de l Hopital, 1 BAT B36, B 4000 Liege 1, Belgium
    Eur J Neurosci 32:2116-32. 2010
    ..Together, these data illustrate the high degree of plasticity that extends into adulthood and is characteristic of avian brain structures. Many questions still remain concerning the regulation and specific function of this plasticity...
  18. pmc Rapid behavioural effects of oestrogens and fast regulation of their local synthesis by brain aromatase
    C A Cornil
    Behavioral Neuroendocrinology Research Group, GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    J Neuroendocrinol 22:664-73. 2010
    ..Taken together, these data provide compelling evidence of how rapid changes in the local production and action of oestrogens can shape complex behaviours...
  19. pmc Rapid activation of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase after sexual stimulation in male mice
    Melanie Taziaux
    Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neuroreport 22:294-8. 2011
    ..MAPK phosphorylation thus seems to be a useful marker to study short-term neural activation associated with the expression of specific behaviors...
  20. pmc Is sexual motivational state linked to dopamine release in the medial preoptic area?
    H K Kleitz-Nelson
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Behav Neurosci 124:300-4. 2010
    ..Together, these findings support the hypothesis that dopamine action in the mPOA is specifically linked to sexual motivation and not only to copulatory behavior or physical arousal...
  21. pmc Effects of sex steroids on aromatase mRNA expression in the male and female quail brain
    Cornelia Voigt
    GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 170:180-8. 2011
    ....
  22. pmc Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail
    Charlotte A Cornil
    GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 6:e19196. 2011
    ....
  23. pmc Japanese quail as a model system for studying the neuroendocrine control of reproductive and social behaviors
    Gregory F Ball
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    ILAR J 51:310-25. 2010
    ..With this base of knowledge and the recent cloning of the entire genome of the closely related chicken, quail will be valuable for future studies connecting gene expression to sexual and social behaviors...
  24. pmc Human and quail aromatase activity is rapidly and reversibly inhibited by phosphorylating conditions
    Thierry D Charlier
    University of Liege, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Groupe Interdisciplinaire de Génoprotéomique Appliquée Neurosciences, 1 Avenue de l Hôpital Bat B36, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Endocrinology 152:4199-210. 2011
    ..These processes provide a new general mechanism by which local estrogen concentration can be rapidly altered in the brain and other tissues...
  25. pmc Diversity of mechanisms involved in aromatase regulation and estrogen action in the brain
    Thierry D Charlier
    GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1800:1094-105. 2010
    ....
  26. pmc Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail
    Molly J Dickens
    University of Liege, GIGA Neurosciences, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, 1 avenue de l hopital B36, 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Endocrinology 152:4242-51. 2011
    ..Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction...
  27. pmc The underestimated role of olfaction in avian reproduction?
    Jacques Balthazart
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Behav Brain Res 200:248-59. 2009
    ..Experimental analysis of this phenomenon is thus warranted and should lead to a significant change in our understanding of avian biology...
  28. pmc Sex differences in the rapid control of aromatase activity in the quail preoptic area
    A T M Konkle
    Research Group in Behavioural Neuroendocrinology, GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    J Neuroendocrinol 23:424-34. 2011
    ..Additional characterizations of intracellular calcium in both sexes would therefore be appropriate to better understand aromatase regulation...
  29. pmc Specific activation of estrogen receptor alpha and beta enhances male sexual behavior and neuroplasticity in male Japanese quail
    Aurore L Seredynski
    Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 6:e18627. 2011
    ..Simultaneous activation of both receptors or treatments with higher doses may be required to fully activate sexual behavior and the associated neurochemical events...
  30. pmc Differential effects of central injections of D1 and D2 receptor agonists and antagonists on male sexual behavior in Japanese quail
    H K Kleitz-Nelson
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 32:118-29. 2010
    ..Together, these data support the claim that dopamine specifically regulates male sexual behavior...
  31. pmc Pheromones in birds: myth or reality?
    Samuel P Caro
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 196:751-66. 2010
    ..The unequivocal identification of an avian pheromone is, however, still ahead of us but there are now many exciting opportunities to unravel the behavioral and physiological particularities of chemical communication in birds...
  32. pmc Steroid receptor coactivator 2 modulates steroid-dependent male sexual behavior and neuroplasticity in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)
    Neville Andrew Niessen
    University of Liege, GIGA Neurosciences, Liege, Belgium
    J Neurochem 119:579-93. 2011
    ..These results demonstrate that SRC-2 plays a prominent role in the control of steroid-dependent male sexual behavior and its associated neuroplasticity in Japanese quail...
  33. pmc Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?
    Gregory F Ball
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Horm Behav 59:645-55. 2011
    ....
  34. ncbi Neuroanatomical specificity in the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos following expression of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviour in Japanese quail
    M Taziaux
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioural Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, 1 Boulevard de l Hôpital Bat B36, B 4000 Liege 1, Belgium
    Eur J Neurosci 23:1869-87. 2006
    ....
  35. pmc Species differences in the relative densities of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptor subtypes in the Japanese quail and rats: an in vitro quantitative receptor autoradiography study
    Hayley K Kleitz
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Brain Behav Evol 73:81-90. 2009
    ....
  36. doi Importance of steroid receptor coactivators in the modulation of steroid action on brain and behavior
    Thierry D Charlier
    University of Liege, GIGA Neuroscience, 1 Avenue de l Hôpital Bat B36, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 34:S20-9. 2009
    ..The study of the expression of the coactivator and their function in vivo is required to fully understand steroid action and specificity in the brain...
  37. pmc Site-specific effects of anosmia and cloacal gland anesthesia on Fos expression induced in male quail brain by sexual behavior
    Melanie Taziaux
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, 1 Avenue de l Hôpital Bat B36, B 4000 Liege 1, Belgium
    Behav Brain Res 194:52-65. 2008
    ..Future work should specify the nature of these stimuli and their function in the expression of avian male sexual behavior...
  38. pmc Functional significance of the rapid regulation of brain estrogen action: where do the estrogens come from?
    Charlotte A Cornil
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 108 Ames Hall, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 2686, USA
    Brain Res 1126:2-26. 2006
    ..Such mechanisms thus fulfill the gap existing between the fast actions of estrogen and their mode of production and open new avenues for the understanding of estrogenic effects on the brain...
  39. pmc Enhanced neural activation in brain regions mediating sexual responses following exposure to a conditioned stimulus that predicts copulation
    M Taziaux
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, 1 Avenue de l Hôpital Bat B36, B 4000 Liege 1, Belgium
    Neuroscience 151:644-58. 2008
    ..These results suggest a link between a proximate result of sexual CS presentation, male brain activation, and a known ultimate outcome, increased fertilizations...
  40. ncbi Sex differences in projections from preoptic area aromatase cells to the periaqueductal gray in Japanese quail
    Claudio Carere
    University of Liege, Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Liège B 4000, Belgium
    J Comp Neurol 500:894-907. 2007
    ..These data therefore support the hypothesis that sex differences in POM-PAG connectivity are causally linked to the sex difference in the behavioral response to testosterone...
  41. ncbi Is brain estradiol a hormone or a neurotransmitter?
    Jacques Balthazart
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, University of Liege, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Trends Neurosci 29:241-9. 2006
    ..In this article, we develop the hypothesis that brain estrogens display many, if not all, functional characteristics of neuromodulators or even neurotransmitters...
  42. ncbi Sexual versus individual differentiation: the controversial role of avian maternal hormones
    Claudio Carere
    Section of Behavioural Neurosciences, Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 18:73-80. 2007
    ..Separate effects could result from the action of different hormones, at different doses or at different times, on different targets...
  43. doi Estradiol, a key endocrine signal in the sexual differentiation and activation of reproductive behavior in quail
    Jacques Balthazart
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol 311:323-45. 2009
    ....
  44. pmc Rapid regulation of brain oestrogen synthesis: the behavioural roles of oestrogens and their fates
    C A Cornil
    Behavioral Neuroendocrinology Research Group, GIGA Neurosciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    J Neuroendocrinol 21:217-26. 2009
    ..Subsequently, a few unanswered questions are discussed, such as the mechanism of oestrogen inactivation or the potential cellular sites of action of brain-derived oestrogens on male sexual behaviour...
  45. pmc Rapid action on neuroplasticity precedes behavioral activation by testosterone
    Thierry D Charlier
    University of Liege, Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Liege, Belgium
    Horm Behav 54:488-95. 2008
    ....
  46. pmc Individual variation and the endocrine regulation of behaviour and physiology in birds: a cellular/molecular perspective
    Gregory F Ball
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:1699-710. 2008
    ..This approach along with the use of newly developed molecular genetic tools represents a promising avenue for avian eco-physiologists to pursue...
  47. ncbi Differential c-fos expression in the brain of male Japanese quail following exposure to stimuli that predict or do not predict the arrival of a female
    M Taziaux
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioural Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, Belgium
    Eur J Neurosci 25:2835-46. 2007
    ..Further, these data suggest that conditioned and unconditioned sexual stimuli activate different brain regions but have similar behavioural consequences...
  48. pmc Interplay among catecholamine systems: dopamine binds to alpha2-adrenergic receptors in birds and mammals
    Charlotte A Cornil
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    J Comp Neurol 511:610-27. 2008
    ..Together, these data provide evidence for an interaction between the dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in the vertebrate brain, albeit with species variations...
  49. pmc Topography in the preoptic region: differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors
    Jacques Balthazart
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, 1 Avenue de 1 Hôpital Bat B36, B 4000 Liege 1, Belgium
    Front Neuroendocrinol 28:161-78. 2007
    ..It could thus reflect general principles about POA organization and function in the vertebrate brain...
  50. pmc Behavioral effects of brain-derived estrogens in birds
    Jacques Balthazart
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1163:31-48. 2009
    ..Brain estrogens thus affect behavior on different time scales by genomic and nongenomic mechanisms similar to those of a hormone or a neurotransmitter...
  51. pmc Interactions between kinases and phosphatases in the rapid control of brain aromatase
    J Balthazart
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioural Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    J Neuroendocrinol 17:553-9. 2005
    ....
  52. pmc Rapid decreases in preoptic aromatase activity and brain monoamine concentrations after engaging in male sexual behavior
    C A Cornil
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, University of Liege, 1 Boulevard de l Hopital Bâtiment B36 4000 Liege 1, Belgium
    Endocrinology 146:3809-20. 2005
    ..Sexual interactions with the female decreased aromatase and dopamine activities. These data challenge established views about the causal relationships among dopamine, estrogen action, and male sexual behavior...
  53. ncbi Sexual behavior activity tracks rapid changes in brain estrogen concentrations
    Melanie Taziaux
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, University of Liege, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    J Neurosci 27:6563-72. 2007
    ..Sexual behavior can thus be used to monitor changes in local estrogen concentrations and analyze the mechanisms mediating the rapid decline in estrogen signaling that takes place after inhibition of estrogen synthesis...
  54. pmc How useful is the appetitive and consummatory distinction for our understanding of the neuroendocrine control of sexual behavior?
    Gregory F Ball
    Horm Behav 53:307-11; author reply 315-8. 2008
  55. pmc Are rapid changes in gonadal testosterone release involved in the fast modulation of brain estrogen effects?
    Charlotte A Cornil
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 163:298-305. 2009
    ....
  56. ncbi Neuroanatomical specificity of sex differences in expression of aromatase mRNA in the quail brain
    Cornelia Voigt
    Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, University of Liege, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    J Chem Neuroanat 33:75-86. 2007
    ....