Genetic Determinants of PTSD in Women

Summary

Principal Investigator: Karestan Koenen
Affiliation: Harvard University
Country: USA
Abstract: One in nine American women will meet criteria for the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their lifetime. Although twin studies suggest genetic influences account for substantial variance in PTSD risk, little progress has been made in identifying variants in specific genes that influence liability to this common, debilitating disorder. We propose to use the unique resource of the Nurses Health Study II, a prospective epidemiologic cohort of 68,518 women, to conduct what promises to be the largest candidate gene association study of PTSD to date. The entire cohort will be screened for trauma exposure and PTSD; 3,000 women will be selected for PTSD diagnostic interviews based on the screening data. Our nested case-control study will genotype lOOO women who developed PTSD following a history of trauma exposure; 1000 controls will be selected from women who experienced similar traumas but did not develop PTSD. The primary aim of this study is to detect genetic variants that predict the development of PTSD following trauma. We posit inherited vulnerability to PTSD is mediated by genetic variation in three specific neurobiological systems whose alterations are implicated in PTSD etiology: the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis, the locus coeruleus/noradrenergic system, and the limbic-frontal neuro-circuitry of fear. The secondary, exploratory aim of this study is to dissect genetic influences on PTSD in the broader genetic and environmental context for the candidate genes that show significant association with PTSD in detection analyses. This will involve: conducting conditional tests to identify the causal genetic variant among multiple correlated signals; testing whether the effect of PTSD genetic risk variants is moderated by age of first trauma, trauma type, and trauma severity; and exploring gene-gene interactions using a novel gene-based statistical approach. Identification of liability genes for PTSD would represent a major advance in understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder. Such understanding could advance the development of new pharmacological agents for PTSD treatment and prevention. Moreover, the addition of PTSD assessment data will make the NHSII cohort an unparalleled resource for future genetic studies of PTSD as well as provide the unique opportunity for the prospective examination of PTSD-disease associations.
Funding Period: 2007-09-25 - 2011-04-30
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Elevated risk of posttraumatic stress in sexual minority youths: mediation by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity
    Andrea L Roberts
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Division of Adolescent Young Adult Medicine, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Public Health 102:1587-93. 2012
  2. pmc A genome-wide association study of post-traumatic stress disorder identifies the retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene as a significant risk locus
    M W Logue
    Biomedical Genetics, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 18:937-42. 2013
  3. pmc The course of posttraumatic stress symptoms and functional impairment following a disaster: what is the lasting influence of acute versus ongoing traumatic events and stressors?
    M Cerda
    Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, University Mailman School of Public Health, 722 W168th St, 10032, New York, NY, USA
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 48:385-95. 2013
  4. pmc Does maltreatment in childhood affect sexual orientation in adulthood?
    Andrea L Roberts
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Kresge Building, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA
    Arch Sex Behav 42:161-71. 2013
  5. pmc Adcyap1r1 genotype, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression among women exposed to childhood maltreatment
    Monica Uddin
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Depress Anxiety 30:251-8. 2013
  6. doi Potentially traumatic events and the risk of six physical health conditions in a population-based sample
    Katherine M Keyes
    Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Depress Anxiety 30:451-60. 2013
  7. doi Putting the 'epi' into epigenetics research in psychiatry
    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed
    Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 67:610-6. 2013
  8. pmc Rethinking our public health genetics research paradigm
    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed
    Abdulrahman M El Sayed, Karestan C Koenen, and Sandro Galea are with the Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY Abdulrahman El Sayed is also with the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University
    Am J Public Health 103:S14-8. 2013
  9. pmc Genetic association analysis of 300 genes identifies a risk haplotype in SLC18A2 for post-traumatic stress disorder in two independent samples
    Nadia Solovieff
    1 Department of Center of Human Genetics Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA 2 Department of Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, The Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA 3 Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 39:1872-9. 2014
  10. pmc Women's experience of abuse in childhood and their children's smoking and overweight
    Andrea L Roberts
    Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA Electronic address
    Am J Prev Med 46:249-58. 2014

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. pmc Elevated risk of posttraumatic stress in sexual minority youths: mediation by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity
    Andrea L Roberts
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Division of Adolescent Young Adult Medicine, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Public Health 102:1587-93. 2012
    ....
  2. pmc A genome-wide association study of post-traumatic stress disorder identifies the retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene as a significant risk locus
    M W Logue
    Biomedical Genetics, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 18:937-42. 2013
    ..This study represents an important step toward identifying the genetic underpinnings of PTSD. ..
  3. pmc The course of posttraumatic stress symptoms and functional impairment following a disaster: what is the lasting influence of acute versus ongoing traumatic events and stressors?
    M Cerda
    Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, University Mailman School of Public Health, 722 W168th St, 10032, New York, NY, USA
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 48:385-95. 2013
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of acute hurricane-related exposures and ongoing post-hurricane exposures on the short- and long-term course of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and functional impairment (FI)...
  4. pmc Does maltreatment in childhood affect sexual orientation in adulthood?
    Andrea L Roberts
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Kresge Building, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA
    Arch Sex Behav 42:161-71. 2013
    ..Better understanding of this potentially complex causal structure is critical to developing targeted strategies to reduce sexual orientation disparities in exposure to abuse...
  5. pmc Adcyap1r1 genotype, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression among women exposed to childhood maltreatment
    Monica Uddin
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Depress Anxiety 30:251-8. 2013
    ..We sought to test whether childhood maltreatment (CM) interacts with ADCYAP1R1 genotype to predict PTSD in women...
  6. doi Potentially traumatic events and the risk of six physical health conditions in a population-based sample
    Katherine M Keyes
    Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Depress Anxiety 30:451-60. 2013
    ..Potentially traumatic events (PTEs) are common in the population, yet, the impact of total burden and specific types of PTEs on physical health has not been systematically investigated...
  7. doi Putting the 'epi' into epigenetics research in psychiatry
    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed
    Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 67:610-6. 2013
    ..We employ an epidemiological lens to discuss these challenges and to provide recommendations for future studies in this area...
  8. pmc Rethinking our public health genetics research paradigm
    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed
    Abdulrahman M El Sayed, Karestan C Koenen, and Sandro Galea are with the Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY Abdulrahman El Sayed is also with the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University
    Am J Public Health 103:S14-8. 2013
    ..We argue that a population health genetics that incorporates genetics into large, multiwave, multilevel cohorts has the best potential to clarify how genes, in combination and with the environment, jointly influence population health. ..
  9. pmc Genetic association analysis of 300 genes identifies a risk haplotype in SLC18A2 for post-traumatic stress disorder in two independent samples
    Nadia Solovieff
    1 Department of Center of Human Genetics Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA 2 Department of Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, The Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA 3 Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 39:1872-9. 2014
    ..Genome-wide studies with very large samples sizes are needed to detect these types of effects. ..
  10. pmc Women's experience of abuse in childhood and their children's smoking and overweight
    Andrea L Roberts
    Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA Electronic address
    Am J Prev Med 46:249-58. 2014
    ..This limited effectiveness may be partly because these risk factors are patterned by parents' experiences preceding the individual's birth...
  11. pmc The weight of traumatic stress: a prospective study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and weight status in women
    Laura D Kubzansky
    Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
    JAMA Psychiatry 71:44-51. 2014
    ..This prevalent condition has been identified as a possible risk factor for obesity. Whether PTSD symptoms alter the trajectory of weight gain or constitute a comorbid condition has not been established...
  12. pmc Genome-wide association study implicates a novel RNA gene, the lincRNA AC068718.1, as a risk factor for post-traumatic stress disorder in women
    Guia Guffanti
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 38:3029-38. 2013
    ..1, as risk factor for PTSD in women and add to emerging evidence that non-coding RNA genes may play a crucial role in shaping the landscape of gene regulation with putative pathological effects that lead to phenotypic differences. ..
  13. pmc The association between childhood emotional functioning and adulthood inflammation is modified by early-life socioeconomic status
    Allison A Appleton
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Health Psychol 31:413-22. 2012
    ..We examined whether the association of child emotional functioning and adult health risk was modified by child socioeconomic status (CSES), or whether child emotional functioning mediated the association of CSES and adult health risk...
  14. pmc Epigenetic and inflammatory marker profiles associated with depression in a community-based epidemiologic sample
    M Uddin
    Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health, Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Psychol Med 41:997-1007. 2011
    ..We also investigate the physiologic consequences that may be associated with these profiles...
  15. pmc Corticotrophin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor gene (CRHR1) variants predict posttraumatic stress disorder onset and course in pediatric injury patients
    Ananda B Amstadter
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, 23298 0126, USA
    Dis Markers 30:89-99. 2011
    ..Although results are not definitive, the findings from this study warrant future replication studies on how variation in this gene relates to response to traumatic event exposure in youth...
  16. pmc Race/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events, development of post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment-seeking for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States
    A L Roberts
    Department of Society, Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Psychol Med 41:71-83. 2011
    ....
  17. pmc How does the social environment 'get into the mind'? Epigenetics at the intersection of social and psychiatric epidemiology
    Satoshi Toyokawa
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Soc Sci Med 74:67-74. 2012
    ....
  18. pmc Childhood gender nonconformity: a risk indicator for childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress in youth
    Andrea L Roberts
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Pediatrics 129:410-7. 2012
    ..Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with poorer relationships with parents, but it is unknown if childhood gender nonconformity is associated with childhood abuse or risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in youth...
  19. pmc Adulthood stressors, history of childhood adversity, and risk of perpetration of intimate partner violence
    Andrea L Roberts
    Department of Society, Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Am J Prev Med 40:128-38. 2011
    ..women and more than 100,000 men are treated for injuries from intimate partner violence (IPV) annually, making IPV perpetration a major public health problem. However, little is known about causes of perpetration across the life course...
  20. pmc The stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder: does it matter?
    Andrea L Roberts
    Departments of Society, Human Development, and Health and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 73:e264-70. 2012
    ..We examine whether symptoms, course, and consequences of PTSD vary predictably with the type of stressful event that precipitates symptoms...
  21. pmc Home foreclosure and risk of psychiatric morbidity during the recent financial crisis
    K A McLaughlin
    Division of General Pediatrics, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Psychol Med 42:1441-8. 2012
    ..We examined the effects of foreclosure on psychiatric symptomatology in a prospective, population-based community survey...
  22. pmc The urban environment and mental disorders: Epigenetic links
    Sandro Galea
    Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Epigenetics 6:400-4. 2011
    ..Importantly, evidence that epigenetic changes are reversible offers new opportunities for ameliorating the impact of adverse urban environments on human health...
  23. pmc Emotional functioning at age 7 years is associated with C-reactive protein in middle adulthood
    Allison A Appleton
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Psychosom Med 73:295-303. 2011
    ..Therefore, we evaluated whether child emotional functioning at age 7 years is associated with C-reactive protein (CRP), an indicator of systemic inflammation, in middle adulthood...
  24. pmc SLC6A4 methylation modifies the effect of the number of traumatic events on risk for posttraumatic stress disorder
    Karestan C Koenen
    Departments of Society, Human Development, and Health and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Depress Anxiety 28:639-47. 2011
    ....
  25. pmc Research review: gene-environment interaction research in youth depression - a systematic review with recommendations for future research
    Erin C Dunn
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:1223-38. 2011
    ..However, there has been no systematic review of GxE in youth depression to date...
  26. pmc Child maltreatment increases sensitivity to adverse social contexts: neighborhood physical disorder and incident binge drinking in Detroit
    Katherine M Keyes
    Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, 722 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032 3725, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 122:77-85. 2012
    ..We evaluated whether the association between neighborhood physical disorder and binge drinking was modified by child maltreatment exposure...
  27. pmc Posttraumatic stress disorder across two generations: concordance and mechanisms in a population-based sample
    Andrea L Roberts
    Department of Society, Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 72:505-11. 2012
    ..We sought to determine whether mothers' posttraumatic stress symptoms were associated with PTSD in their young adult children and whether this association was mediated by higher trauma exposure in children of women with PTSD...
  28. pmc Childhood social environment, emotional reactivity to stress, and mood and anxiety disorders across the life course
    Katie A McLaughlin
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Depress Anxiety 27:1087-94. 2010
    ..We investigate whether emotional reactivity to stress is a mechanism in the association between childhood environment characteristics and adult mood and anxiety disorders...
  29. pmc Maternal smoking during pregnancy and criminal offending among adult offspring
    Angela D Paradis
    Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Society, Human Development and Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 65:1145-50. 2011
    ....
  30. pmc Gene-environment interaction in posttraumatic stress disorder: an update
    Karestan C Koenen
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Trauma Stress 22:416-26. 2009
    ..The authors posit that GxE research is vital to elucidating risk and resilience following exposure to a potentially traumatic event...
  31. pmc Childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and risk of past-year psychiatric disorder: a test of the stress sensitization hypothesis in a population-based sample of adults
    K A McLaughlin
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Psychol Med 40:1647-58. 2010
    ..We provide a test of the stress sensitization hypothesis in a national sample...
  32. pmc NPY moderates the relation between hurricane exposure and generalized anxiety disorder in an epidemiologic sample of hurricane-exposed adults
    Ananda B Amstadter
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, 67 President Street, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Depress Anxiety 27:270-5. 2010
    ....
  33. pmc Gender differences in the genetic and environmental determinants of adolescent depression
    Monica Uddin
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, 48109 2029, USA
    Depress Anxiety 27:658-66. 2010
    ....
  34. pmc Pervasive trauma exposure among US sexual orientation minority adults and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder
    Andrea L Roberts
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Public Health 100:2433-41. 2010
    ..We assessed sexual orientation disparities in exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events and onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a representative US sample...
  35. pmc Epigenetic and immune function profiles associated with posttraumatic stress disorder
    Monica Uddin
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:9470-5. 2010
    ....
  36. pmc State-level women's status and psychiatric disorders among US women
    Katie A McLaughlin
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 46:1161-71. 2011
    ..We examined these associations in the current report...
  37. pmc Witness of intimate partner violence in childhood and perpetration of intimate partner violence in adulthood
    Andrea L Roberts
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 21:809-18. 2010
    ..Witnessing such violence in childhood has been proposed as a principal cause of adulthood perpetration, yet it remains unknown whether the association between witnessing intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration is causal...
  38. pmc Genetics of post-traumatic stress disorder: review and recommendations for genome-wide association studies
    Marilyn C Cornelis
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 12:313-26. 2010
    ..Genome-wide association studies offer the best opportunity to identify novel "true" risk variants for the disorder that in turn has the potential to inform our understanding of PTSD etiology...
  39. pmc Posttraumatic stress disorder and the genetic structure of comorbidity
    Erika J Wolf
    National Center for PTSD, VA Boston Healthcare System and Department of Psychology, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 119:320-30. 2010
    ..Shared genetic variance across the 2 dimensions explained 67% of their phenotypic correlation (r = .52). These findings have implications for conceptualizations of the etiology of PTSD and its location in an empirically based nosology...
  40. pmc Persisting posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and their relationship to functioning in Vietnam veterans: a 14-year follow-up
    Karestan C Koenen
    Departments of Society, Human Development, and Health and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    J Trauma Stress 21:49-57. 2008
    ..Further investigation is needed to determine whether the PTSD-functioning relationship is causal and if successful treatment of PTSD is associated with improvement in functioning...
  41. pmc Genetics of post-traumatic stress disorder: informing clinical conceptualizations and promoting future research
    Nicole R Nugent
    Brown Medical School and Bradley Hasbro Children s Research Center, USA
    Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 148:127-32. 2008
    ..Finally, we summarize findings from molecular genetic studies, which have the potential to inform our understanding of underlying biological mechanisms for the development of PTSD...
  42. pmc Gene-environment interaction in posttraumatic stress disorder: review, strategy and new directions for future research
    Karestan C Koenen
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 258:82-96. 2008
    ..Finally, we propose some promising new directions for PTSD G x E research. We suggest that G x E research in PTSD is essential to understanding vulnerability and resilience following exposure to a traumatic event...
  43. pmc The developmental mental-disorder histories of adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study
    Karestan C Koenen
    Department of Society Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 117:460-6. 2008
    ..Juvenile mental-disorder histories may help indicate which individuals are most likely to develop PTSD in populations at high risk of trauma exposure...
  44. pmc RGS2 and generalized anxiety disorder in an epidemiologic sample of hurricane-exposed adults
    Karestan C Koenen
    Department of Society, Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Depress Anxiety 26:309-15. 2009
    ..We examined whether rs4606, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3' UTR of RGS2, was associated with GAD in an epidemiologic sample of adults exposed to the 2004 Florida Hurricanes...
  45. pmc Childhood IQ and adult mental disorders: a test of the cognitive reserve hypothesis
    Karestan C Koenen
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Kresge 613, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 166:50-7. 2009
    ..The authors tested the hypothesis that low childhood IQ is associated with increased risk and severity of adult mental disorders...
  46. pmc Variant in RGS2 moderates posttraumatic stress symptoms following potentially traumatic event exposure
    Ananda B Amstadter
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    J Anxiety Disord 23:369-73. 2009
    ..RGS2 rs4606 modifies risk of postdisaster and lifetime PTSD symptoms under conditions of high stressor exposure. This is the first demonstration of gene-environment interaction for this locus...
  47. pmc A prospective study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and coronary heart disease in women
    Laura D Kubzansky
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Health Psychol 28:125-30. 2009
    ..No study has tested this hypothesis in women even though PTSD is more prevalent among women than men. This study aims to examine whether higher levels of PTSD symptoms are associated with increased risk of incident CHD among women...
  48. pmc Posttraumatic stress symptoms and trajectories in child sexual abuse victims: an analysis of sex differences using the national survey of child and adolescent well-being
    Andrea Kohn Maikovich
    Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, 3720 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Abnorm Child Psychol 37:727-37. 2009
    ..Implications for theory and intervention are discussed...
  49. pmc Modification of the association between serotonin transporter genotype and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults by county-level social environment
    Karestan C Koenen
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 169:704-11. 2009
    ..These results suggest that social environment modifies the effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on PTSD risk...
  50. pmc Is posttraumatic stress disorder related to development of heart disease? An update
    Laura D Kubzansky
    Department of Soci ety, Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cleve Clin J Med 76:S60-5. 2009
    ..A better understanding of the relationship will increase prevention and intervention efforts. Cardiologists may be most effective when they can recognize and manage emotional distress in practice...
  51. pmc Protocol for investigating genetic determinants of posttraumatic stress disorder in women from the Nurses' Health Study II
    Karestan C Koenen
    Department of Society, Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    BMC Psychiatry 9:29. 2009
    ..Although twin studies suggest genetic influences account for substantial variance in PTSD risk, little progress has been made in identifying variants in specific genes that influence liability to this common, debilitating disorder...
  52. pmc The posttraumatic stress disorder project in Brazil: neuropsychological, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in victims of urban violence
    Rodrigo A Bressan
    Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurosciencias Clínicas LiNC, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    BMC Psychiatry 9:30. 2009
    ..This paper shows the research rationale and design for these three case-control studies...
  53. pmc Variation in RGS2 is associated with suicidal ideation in an epidemiological study of adults exposed to the 2004 Florida hurricanes
    Ananda B Amstadter
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    Arch Suicide Res 13:349-57. 2009
    ..59 times increased risk of having current ideation. No gene-by-environment interactions were found, perhaps due to low power. RGS2 rs4606 is related to risk of current suicidal ideation in stressor-exposed adults...
  54. pmc A prospective study of sex differences in the lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among abused and neglected children grown up
    Karestan C Koenen
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Trauma Stress 22:566-74. 2009
    ..Future research should identify mechanisms that make female victims particularly vulnerable to revictimization and the development of PTSD...
  55. pmc Association between COMT, PTSD, and increased smoking following hurricane exposure in an epidemiologic sample
    Ananda B Amstadter
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, USA
    Psychiatry 72:360-9. 2009
    ..This study represents the first genetic association study (to our knowledge) of smoking behavior following an acute stressor...
  56. ncbi Genetics of posttraumatic stress disorder: Review and recommendations for future studies
    Karestan C Koenen
    Department of Society, Human Development, and Health and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Trauma Stress 20:737-50. 2007
    ..Recommendations for future studies are presented with emphasis on study design and assessment issues particular to the field of trauma and PTSD. Clinical implications of PTSD genetic studies are discussed...