Associatively-activated event representations

Summary

Principal Investigator: Peter Holland
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Most contemporary learning theorists describe conditioning in terms of the acquisition of associations between internal representations of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). These associations allow presentation of the CS to activate the US representation, so that the CS can substitute for the US in a variety of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive functions originally controlled by the US alone. The proposed research would explore the nature and function of CS-evoked event representations, especially their ability to activate perceptual or memorial images of the US, allowing the formation of new associations with that US, even in its absence. The research would determine the conditions under which various functions of CS-activated event representations are displayed, and would explore a number of limitations on those functions. Although the proposed research is primarily intended to address questions about fundamental behavioral properties of learning and memory, it also has clinical relevance For example, food aversions mediated by evoked cognitive images rather than physical illness may contribute to eating disorders. Similarly, implicitly conditioned imagery may contribute to the establishment and display of inappropriate emotional behavior in some cases of anxiety and reaction to trauma. Likewise, many clinical therapeutic treatments involve patients' use of techniques of imagery in which activation of images of emotionally significant events is placed under the control of explicit prompts through conditioning-like procedures. The proposed research provides a basis for the understanding of basic processing of imaginal events in associative learning.
Funding Period: 2002-09-05 - 2007-07-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Odor-mediated taste learning requires dorsal hippocampus, but not basolateral amygdala activity
    Daniel S Wheeler
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 101:1-7. 2013
  2. pmc Pavlovian influences on goal-directed behavior in mice: the role of cue-reinforcer relations
    Hans S Crombag
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Learn Mem 15:299-303. 2008
  3. pmc The influence of CS-US interval on several different indices of learning in appetitive conditioning
    Andrew R Delamater
    Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 34:202-22. 2008
  4. pmc Learned contextual cue potentiates eating in rats
    Gorica D Petrovich
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States
    Physiol Behav 90:362-7. 2007
  5. pmc The basolateral amygdala mediates the effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior
    Ezequiel M Galarce
    Johns Hopkins University, USA
    Brain Res 1350:112-22. 2010
  6. pmc Reinforcer-specificity of appetitive and consummatory behavior of rats after Pavlovian conditioning with food reinforcers
    Ezequiel M Galarce
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States
    Physiol Behav 91:95-105. 2007
  7. pmc Amount of training effects in representation-mediated food aversion learning: no evidence of a role for associability changes
    Peter C Holland
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 22128, USA
    Learn Behav 33:464-78. 2005
  8. pmc Racial and sex disparities in life expectancy losses among HIV-infected persons in the united states: impact of risk behavior, late initiation, and early discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy
    Elena Losina
    Divisions of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, MA 02114, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 49:1570-8. 2009
  9. pmc Effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior
    Ezequiel M Galarce
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States
    Appetite 52:693-702. 2009
  10. pmc Cognitive versus stimulus-response theories of learning
    Peter C Holland
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Learn Behav 36:227-41. 2008

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications18

  1. pmc Odor-mediated taste learning requires dorsal hippocampus, but not basolateral amygdala activity
    Daniel S Wheeler
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 101:1-7. 2013
    ..Considered with past studies, the results implicate the dorsal hippocampus in mediated learning generally, and suggest a limit on the importance of the basolateral amygdala...
  2. pmc Pavlovian influences on goal-directed behavior in mice: the role of cue-reinforcer relations
    Hans S Crombag
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Learn Mem 15:299-303. 2008
    ..Whereas 10-sec training conditions produced strong CRf (and no PIT), 2-min training conditions produced robust PIT (but no CRf)...
  3. pmc The influence of CS-US interval on several different indices of learning in appetitive conditioning
    Andrew R Delamater
    Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 34:202-22. 2008
    ....
  4. pmc Learned contextual cue potentiates eating in rats
    Gorica D Petrovich
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States
    Physiol Behav 90:362-7. 2007
    ..Furthermore, the data suggest that CS-potentiation of eating does not induce a general motivation to eat, akin to hunger, but instead more likely produces a more specific motivational state, akin to craving...
  5. pmc The basolateral amygdala mediates the effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior
    Ezequiel M Galarce
    Johns Hopkins University, USA
    Brain Res 1350:112-22. 2010
    ..These studies extend our knowledge of the psychological and neural processes underlying cue-induced feeding. Understanding these mechanisms may contribute our understanding of the etiology and treatment of binge eating disorders...
  6. pmc Reinforcer-specificity of appetitive and consummatory behavior of rats after Pavlovian conditioning with food reinforcers
    Ezequiel M Galarce
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States
    Physiol Behav 91:95-105. 2007
    ..The closer an action comes to ingestion, the more it is controlled by sensory properties conveyed by learned cues. These data are discussed in the context of allostatic regulation of food foraging and intake...
  7. pmc Amount of training effects in representation-mediated food aversion learning: no evidence of a role for associability changes
    Peter C Holland
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 22128, USA
    Learn Behav 33:464-78. 2005
    ..These results suggest that the nature of associatively activated event representations changes over the course of training.
  8. pmc Racial and sex disparities in life expectancy losses among HIV-infected persons in the united states: impact of risk behavior, late initiation, and early discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy
    Elena Losina
    Divisions of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, MA 02114, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 49:1570-8. 2009
    ....
  9. pmc Effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior
    Ezequiel M Galarce
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States
    Appetite 52:693-702. 2009
    ..These experiments may provide a novel animal model of binge-like behaviors in sated rats induced by external cues paired with meal interruption...
  10. pmc Cognitive versus stimulus-response theories of learning
    Peter C Holland
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Learn Behav 36:227-41. 2008
    ..In the course of describing Spence's views and my research, I hope to communicate some of the richness of Spence's S-R psychology and its currency within modern scientific analyses of behavior...
  11. pmc Formation of excitatory and inhibitory associations between absent events
    Peter C Holland
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 34:324-35. 2008
    ..The results indicated that the nature of representation-mediated learning is influenced by some of the same variables as more standard associative learning...
  12. pmc A limited role for mediodorsal thalamus in devaluation tasks
    Charles L Pickens
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, USA
    Behav Neurosci 122:659-76. 2008
    ....
  13. pmc Limitations on representation-mediated potentiation of flavour or odour aversions
    Peter C Holland
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 59:233-50. 2006
    ....
  14. pmc Excitatory and inhibitory learning with absent stimuli
    Daniel S Wheeler
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 34:247-55. 2008
    ..The results show the dynamic influence of temporal contiguity on mediated learning...
  15. pmc Amount of training and cue-evoked taste-reactivity responding in reinforcer devaluation
    Peter C Holland
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 34:119-32. 2008
    ..Early in training, CSs may be capable of activating preevaluative processing of an absent food reinforcer that includes information about its palatability, but that capability is lost as training proceeds...
  16. pmc Control of appetitive and aversive taste-reactivity responses by an auditory conditioned stimulus in a devaluation task: a FOS and behavioral analysis
    Erin C Kerfoot
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Learn Mem 14:581-9. 2007
    ..Thus, through associative learning, auditory cues for food gained access to neural processing in several brain regions importantly involved in the processing of taste memory information...
  17. pmc A neural systems analysis of the potentiation of feeding by conditioned stimuli
    Peter C Holland
    Johns Hopkins University, 222 Ames Hall, 3400 North Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Physiol Behav 86:747-61. 2005
    ....