CELL-CELL INTERACTIONS IN DEVELOPING RETINA

Summary

Principal Investigator: Nicholas Baker
Affiliation: Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Country: USA
Abstract: The aim of the research is to understand how cell-cell interactions regulate the formation of a critical cell type in the developing retina. Cell-cell interactions mediated by extracellular factors play a major role in the determination of cell type during development. They are the main factor in cell determination in both vertebrate and Drosophila retina. Drosophila can be studied by identifying genes through mutations that affect development, and characterizing how the genes function through developmental and molecular studies. Therefore the determination of R8 photoreceptor cells in Drosophila retina will be studied as a model to understand mechanisms of cell-cell interaction. In this system the behavior of individual calls can be studied, genetic techniques used" to identify and study gene products that are involved. R8 photoreceptor cells are the first cells to differentiate in the retina. The pattern of R8 photoreceptor cells is determined by a process involving lateral inhibition. Determination of cells in other parts of the Drosophila nervous system appears to be similar and requires some of the same genes. Lateral inhibition is also used to determine various cell types in other organisms. Two mutations known to affect the pattern of R8 photoreceptor cells are scabrous and Notch. scabrous encodes a putative secreted protein. Notch encodes a transmembrane protein. Notch is the Drosophila homologue of TAN-1 , a human proto-oncogene. scabrous and Notch also regulate cell determination in other parts of the Drosophila nervous system. To study cell-cell interactions in R8 photoreceptor determination, further important genes will be identified using a novel genetic screen based on properties of scabrous and Notch mutations. The roles of previously known genes will be investigated using scabrous expression as a sensitive assay for determination in their mutants. To test if Notch or other proteins is a receptor for scabrous, the nature of the scabrous protein products and Notch scabrous binding will be investigated biochemically.
Funding Period: 1992-08-01 - 1997-07-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Eye development
    Nicholas E Baker
    Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, United States Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, United States Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, United States Electronic address
    Methods 68:252-9. 2014
  2. pmc Developmental regulation of nucleolus size during Drosophila eye differentiation
    Nicholas E Baker
    Departments of Genetics, Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, and Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
    PLoS ONE 8:e58266. 2013
  3. pmc The role of the bHLH protein hairy in morphogenetic furrow progression in the developing Drosophila eye
    Abhishek Bhattacharya
    Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e47503. 2012
  4. pmc Switch and template pattern formation in a discrete reaction-diffusion system inspired by the Drosophila eye
    M W Pennington
    Biophysics Program, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, 450 Church St, 48109, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Eur Phys J E Soft Matter 33:129-48. 2010
  5. pmc A dynamical model of ommatidial crystal formation
    David K Lubensky
    Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1040, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11145-50. 2011
  6. pmc Cell cycle arrest by a gradient of Dpp signaling during Drosophila eye development
    Lucy C Firth
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    BMC Dev Biol 10:28. 2010
  7. doi Retinal determination genes function along with cell-cell signals to regulate Drosophila eye development: examples of multi-layered regulation by master regulators
    Nicholas E Baker
    Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Department of Opthalmology and Visual Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA
    Bioessays 33:538-46. 2011
  8. pmc A network of broadly expressed HLH genes regulates tissue-specific cell fates
    Abhishek Bhattacharya
    Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Cell 147:881-92. 2011
  9. pmc Notch activity opposes Ras-induced differentiation during the Second Mitotic Wave of the developing Drosophila eye
    Lihui Yang
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    BMC Dev Biol 6:8. 2006
  10. pmc Spitz from the retina regulates genes transcribed in the second mitotic wave, peripodial epithelium, glia and plasmatocytes of the Drosophila eye imaginal disc
    Lucy C Firth
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY 10461, USA
    Dev Biol 307:521-38. 2007

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications14

  1. pmc Eye development
    Nicholas E Baker
    Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, United States Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, United States Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, United States Electronic address
    Methods 68:252-9. 2014
    ..Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. ..
  2. pmc Developmental regulation of nucleolus size during Drosophila eye differentiation
    Nicholas E Baker
    Departments of Genetics, Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, and Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
    PLoS ONE 8:e58266. 2013
    ....
  3. pmc The role of the bHLH protein hairy in morphogenetic furrow progression in the developing Drosophila eye
    Abhishek Bhattacharya
    Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e47503. 2012
    ..These findings question whether hairy is an important regulator of the progression of retinal differentiation in Drosophila, alone or redundantly with extramacrochaete...
  4. pmc Switch and template pattern formation in a discrete reaction-diffusion system inspired by the Drosophila eye
    M W Pennington
    Biophysics Program, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, 450 Church St, 48109, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Eur Phys J E Soft Matter 33:129-48. 2010
    ..Our work highlights the important role that cellularization and cell-autonomous feedback can play in biological pattern formation...
  5. pmc A dynamical model of ommatidial crystal formation
    David K Lubensky
    Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1040, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11145-50. 2011
    ....
  6. pmc Cell cycle arrest by a gradient of Dpp signaling during Drosophila eye development
    Lucy C Firth
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    BMC Dev Biol 10:28. 2010
    ..The dpp gene is expressed at multiple locations in the eye imaginal disc, including the morphogenetic furrow that sweeps across the eye disc as differentiation initiates...
  7. doi Retinal determination genes function along with cell-cell signals to regulate Drosophila eye development: examples of multi-layered regulation by master regulators
    Nicholas E Baker
    Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Department of Opthalmology and Visual Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA
    Bioessays 33:538-46. 2011
    ....
  8. pmc A network of broadly expressed HLH genes regulates tissue-specific cell fates
    Abhishek Bhattacharya
    Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Cell 147:881-92. 2011
    ..Similar regulation is found in multiple Drosophila tissues and in mammalian cells and therefore is likely to be a conserved general feature of developmental regulation by HLH proteins...
  9. pmc Notch activity opposes Ras-induced differentiation during the Second Mitotic Wave of the developing Drosophila eye
    Lihui Yang
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    BMC Dev Biol 6:8. 2006
    ..It is not known how fate specification is limited to G1-arrested cells...
  10. pmc Spitz from the retina regulates genes transcribed in the second mitotic wave, peripodial epithelium, glia and plasmatocytes of the Drosophila eye imaginal disc
    Lucy C Firth
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY 10461, USA
    Dev Biol 307:521-38. 2007
    ..These novel targets suggest that during eye development, EGFR activity coordinates transcriptional programs in other tissues with retinal differentiation...
  11. pmc Retinal determination genes as targets and possible effectors of extracellular signals
    Lucy C Firth
    Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Dev Biol 327:366-75. 2009
    ....
  12. pmc The HLH protein Extramacrochaetae is required for R7 cell and cone cell fates in the Drosophila eye
    Abhishek Bhattacharya
    Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Dev Biol 327:288-300. 2009
    ..A model is proposed in which Extramacrochaetae acts in parallel to or as a feed-forward regulator of the E(spl)-Complex to promote Notch signaling in particular cellular contexts...
  13. pmc Regulation of Hh signal transduction as Drosophila eye differentiation progresses
    Nicholas E Baker
    Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Dev Biol 335:356-66. 2009
    ..A model is presented for regulation of the Cullin-3 and Cullin-1 pathways that modifies Hedgehog signaling as the morphogenetic furrow moves and the responses of retinal cells change...
  14. ncbi Extracellular signals responsible for spatially regulated proliferation in the differentiating Drosophila eye
    Lucy C Firth
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    Dev Cell 8:541-51. 2005
    ..These studies identify the specific extracellular signals that pattern the retinal cell cycles and show how differentiation can be uncoupled from cell cycle exit...