Solid State X-ray Image Intensifier Development

Summary

Principal Investigator: S Rudin
Affiliation: University at Buffalo
Country: USA
Abstract: The long-term objective is to develop the new Solid State X-ray Image Intensifier (SSXII) into the preferred dynamic x-ray imaging device with clear advantages over flat-panel devices (FPD) and x-ray image intensifiers (XII). These advantages include higher spatial resolution with smaller pixels, lower instrumentation noise hence better operation at lower exposure, huge dynamic range due to adjustable on-chip gain, no lag, no ghosting, and scalable production based on existing solid state technology. The SSXII consists of an array of modules each with a fiber optic taper that focuses light from a structured phosphor x-ray converter such as CsI(Tl) onto an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD). EMCCDs are relatively new sensors that have all the benefits of standard CCDs (high resolution, high speed, low noise, no lag) with the addition of on-chip gain created by an extra row of hundreds of special multiplying elements. Adjustment of a low voltage (tens of volts) applied to these electron multiplying elements provides on-chip gains from 1 to greater than 1000X. The specific aims for the project include development of prototype detectors made of arrays of EMCCD-based modules. A 2x2 system made of commercial EMCCD-based cameras will enable early testing over a limited field of view (FOV). The larger 3x3 array built from components because of its modularity will demonstrate a design that is extensible to full clinical FOVs and may completely replace the functions of XIIs or FPDs but with additional benefits of higher resolution and lower dose operation. For the evaluation of these new array detectors, we will obtain quantitative physical characterizations using linear systems analysis and, using patient specific rapid-prototyped phantoms, we will simulate complete interventions. An operator-friendly LabVIEW-software-based graphics user interface will provide control over the SSXII during fluoroscopy with roadmapping and angiography acquisitions. We will also evaluate the prototype SSXIIs in animal models to explore the wide variety of potential applications prior to planning for initial human studies. Applications we will begin to study are to neuro- and cardio-vascular procedures such as endovascular image guided interventions (EIGI) for treating aneurysms and stenotic vessels deep in the cranial vasculature, diagnosis and treatment of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) as well as investigations of possible applications to anti-angiogenic tumor treatment. Additional new modalities involving region of interest (ROI) fluoroscopy, angiography, and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), where the unique high resolution capabilities of the SSXII can be used while maintaining lower integral dose to the patient, will also be explored. Possible applications in addition to EIGI procedures include mammographic CT and tomosynthesis and other imaging where the low noise characteristics of the SSXII will enable increased number of lower dose views to reduce reconstruction artifacts. In summary, the proposed new SSXII once developed may become the future dynamic x-ray detector of choice with higher resolution and lower exposure operation than is possible with current FPDs or XIIs.
Funding Period: ----------------2008 - ---------------2012-
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. doi Implementation of digital multiplexing for high resolution X-ray detector arrays
    P Sharma
    Electrical Engineering Department and Toshiba Stroke Research Center at University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 1920, USA
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2012:5979-82. 2012
  2. doi A 2×2 array of EMCCD-based solid state x-ray detectors
    P Sharma
    Electrical Engineering Department and Toshiba Stroke Research Center at University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 1920, USA
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2012:5983-6. 2012
  3. pmc Evaluation of the microangiographic fluoroscope (MAF) using generalized system performance metrics
    Amit Jain
    Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA
    Med Phys 40:031915. 2013
  4. pmc EMCCD-based high resolution dynamic x-ray detector for neurovascular interventions
    P Sharma
    Electrical Engineering Department and Toshiba Stroke Research Center, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 1920, USA
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2011:7787-90. 2011
  5. pmc Spatially different, real-time temporal filtering and dose reduction for dynamic image guidance during neurovascular interventions
    S N Swetadri Vasan
    Electrical Engineering Department, and Toshiba Stroke Research Center at University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 1920, USA
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2011:6192-5. 2011
  6. pmc Image geometric corrections for a new EMCCD-based dual modular x-ray imager
    Bin Qu
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2011:2634-7. 2011
  7. pmc Accurate MTF measurement in digital radiography using noise response
    Andrew Kuhls-Gilcrist
    Toshiba Stroke Research Center University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Biomedical Research Building, Room 445, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA
    Med Phys 37:724-35. 2010
  8. pmc A theoretical and experimental evaluation of the microangiographic fluoroscope: A high-resolution region-of-interest x-ray imager
    Amit Jain
    Toshiba Stroke Research Center, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA
    Med Phys 38:4112-26. 2011

Scientific Experts

  • Andrew Kuhls-Gilcrist
  • Amit Jain
  • P Sharma
  • S N Swetadri Vasan
  • A N Cartwright
  • A H Titus
  • S Rudin
  • D R Bednarek
  • Bin Qu
  • Ying Huang
  • Alexander N Cartwright
  • A Panse
  • Albert H Titus
  • Stephen Rudin
  • C N Ionita
  • Weiyuan Wang
  • Daniel R Bednarek

Detail Information

Publications38

  1. doi Implementation of digital multiplexing for high resolution X-ray detector arrays
    P Sharma
    Electrical Engineering Department and Toshiba Stroke Research Center at University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 1920, USA
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2012:5979-82. 2012
    ..X-ray images taken through the 2×2 array of EMCCD based detectors using this two stage configuration of MMMICs are shown successfully demonstrating the concept...
  2. doi A 2×2 array of EMCCD-based solid state x-ray detectors
    P Sharma
    Electrical Engineering Department and Toshiba Stroke Research Center at University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 1920, USA
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2012:5983-6. 2012
    ..The total field of view (FOV) of the array is 8.45 cm × 8.45 cm. The system is designed to also provide the ability to do region-of- interest imaging (ROI) by selectively enabling individual modules of the array...
  3. pmc Evaluation of the microangiographic fluoroscope (MAF) using generalized system performance metrics
    Amit Jain
    Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA
    Med Phys 40:031915. 2013
    ....
  4. pmc EMCCD-based high resolution dynamic x-ray detector for neurovascular interventions
    P Sharma
    Electrical Engineering Department and Toshiba Stroke Research Center, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 1920, USA
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2011:7787-90. 2011
    ....
  5. pmc Spatially different, real-time temporal filtering and dose reduction for dynamic image guidance during neurovascular interventions
    S N Swetadri Vasan
    Electrical Engineering Department, and Toshiba Stroke Research Center at University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 1920, USA
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2011:6192-5. 2011
    ..This enables patient dose savings along with improved image quality...
  6. pmc Image geometric corrections for a new EMCCD-based dual modular x-ray imager
    Bin Qu
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2011:2634-7. 2011
    ..Results show an accurate and fine stitching of the two outputs from the two modules...
  7. pmc Accurate MTF measurement in digital radiography using noise response
    Andrew Kuhls-Gilcrist
    Toshiba Stroke Research Center University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Biomedical Research Building, Room 445, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA
    Med Phys 37:724-35. 2010
    ..The authors describe a new technique to determine the system presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) in digital radiography using only the detector noise response...
  8. pmc A theoretical and experimental evaluation of the microangiographic fluoroscope: A high-resolution region-of-interest x-ray imager
    Amit Jain
    Toshiba Stroke Research Center, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA
    Med Phys 38:4112-26. 2011
    ....