Genomes and Genes
Genes Inducing Bladder Smooth Muscle Formation
Principal Investigator: Laurence Baskin
Affiliation: University of California
Abstract: GENES INDUCING BLADDER SMOOTH MUSCLE FORMATION The goal of this proposal is to investigate the mechanism of bladder smooth muscle formation. Previously, we have shown that the induction of bladder smooth muscle is dependent on an epithelial signal to the undifferentiated bladder mesenchyme. The key question is what are the signals or gene products from the urothelium that control bladder smooth muscle formation. The hypothesis of this proposal is that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling from bladder urothelium acts as a morphogenetic switch, inducing as well as inhibiting bladder smooth muscle formation as a function of Shh concentration. We propose that Shh signals the adjacent undifferentiated bladder mesenchyme to activate the Shh receptor Patched (Ptc). In turn through the downstream Shh signaling pathway, Serum Response Factor (SRF) is activated localizing to the periphery of the bladder. Subsequently the activated SRF pathway induces smooth muscle formation in the periphery of the bladder away from the Shh inducing epithelium. This would explain the two fundamental features of embryonic bladder development: 1) epithelium is necessary for bladder smooth muscle formation and 2) smooth muscle formation occurs at a defined distance in the peripheral bladder mesenchvme away from the inducing epithelium. Specific Aim # 1 and #2 will define the ontogeny of smooth muscle structural proteins and regulatory proteins in the Shh and Serum Response Factor pathways during bladder development in wild- type and Shh null mouse embryos. Specific Aim #3 (Blocking Experiments) will disrupt Shh signaling during murine bladder development which should impair smooth muscle formation. Specific Aim #4 (Gain of function) will induce bladder smooth muscle in undifferentiated bladder mesenchyme with A) recombinant Shh impregnated microbeads and B) an over-expressing Shh cell line. Tissue recombination experiments will be performed in specific aim #5 to control smooth muscle patterning as a function of normal and ectopic urothelial (Shh) signaling. In summary, we have designed experiments to explore the role of Shh both as an inducer and inhibitor of bladder smooth muscle formation via activation of the SRF pathway. Understanding the mechanism of bladder smooth muscle formation has the potential to facilitate development of new therapeutics to prevent bladder fibrosis, the sequelae of congenital hydronephrosis and the treatment of urinary incontinence.
Funding Period: 2007-07-15 - 2012-06-30
more information: NIH RePORT
- Smooth muscle differentiation and patterning in the urinary bladderGregory Tasian
Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, Frank Hinman Jr Urological Research Laboratory, 513 Parnassus Avenue, HSW 1434, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Differentiation 80:106-17. 2010..We also discuss emerging signaling molecules, transcription factors, and mesenchyme properties that might be fruitful areas of future research in the process of smooth muscle formation in the bladder...
- Urothelium-derived Sonic hedgehog promotes mesenchymal proliferation and induces bladder smooth muscle differentiationMei Cao
Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, Frank Hinman Jr Urological Research Laboratory, 513 Parnassus Avenue, HSW 1434, San Francisco, CA, USA
Differentiation 79:244-50. 2010..In fetal mouse bladders, urothelium-derived Shh is necessary for mesenchymal proliferation and smooth muscle differentiation. Shh concentration affects mesenchymal proliferation and patterning of bladder smooth muscle...
- Urothelial sonic hedgehog signaling plays an important role in bladder smooth muscle formationYoshiyuki Shiroyanagi
Department of Urology, UCSF Children s Hospital, University of California San Francisco, P O Box 0738, 400 Parnassus A640, San Francisco, CA 94143 0738, USA
Differentiation 75:968-77. 2007..Based on Shh expression by urothelium and the effects of Shh inhibition on bladder SM induction, we hypothesize that urothelial-derived Shh orchestrates induction of SM in the fetal mouse bladder...
- Urothelium patterns bladder smooth muscle locationMei Cao
Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
Pediatr Res 64:352-7. 2008....
- Differential expression of microRNAs in mouse embryonic bladderBenchun Liu
Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 385:528-33. 2009..The identification of unique miRNAs expression before and after smooth muscle differentiation in site-specific area of the bladder indicates their roles in embryogenesis and may aid in future clinical intervention...
- Signalling molecules involved in mouse bladder smooth muscle cellular differentiationBenchun Liu
Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Int J Dev Biol 54:175-80. 2010..Genes downstream of Shh are differentially expressed in the prospective submucosa vs. the peripheral bladder mesenchyme as a function gestation age and smooth muscle differentiation...