LONGITUDINAL STUDY--FLUORIDE EXPOSURE & DENTAL FLUORIDE
Principal Investigator: S M Levy
Affiliation: University of Iowa
Abstract: Several recent studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the United States, thought to be due to the widespread adoption of various preventive dentistry initiatives using fluoride. Several retrospective studies have found associations between dental fluorosis and these fluoride exposures, especially water fluoridation and fluoride tablets and drops. In this study, a methodology will be developed and implemented for use in longitudinal studies to record dietary and non-dietary fluoride exposures on a 3 month basis in a 'birth cohort' from the time of birth until the age of 3 to 4 years (and in a subsequent study until age 8 years). 1530 mothers with newborns will be recruited from post-partum wards of hospitals. The parents will provide data on infant and childhood exposures and ingestion of fluoride every 3 months during the study, with an additional report at 6 weeks of age (due to frequent feeding habit changes during the first 3 months of life). Data on fluoride intake have not previously been collected in this manner and will be valuable in characterizing the multiple fluoride exposures among infants and young children in the U.S. Composite indexes of exposures to both individual and various combinations of fluoride sources over time will be developed. Total dietary fluoride intake will be estimated. Dental caries and dental fluorosis of the primary teeth will be assessed at age 3 to 4. The distributions of fluoride exposures and intake will be characterized. Multivariate relationships will be investigated among prevalence and severity of primary tooth dental fluorosis and dental caries and the various fluoride exposures. A subsequent study will follow the cohort to age 7 to 8 allowing longitudinal data on fluoride exposures to be collected from birth to age 7 to 8. Then, relationships between primary and permanent tooth dental fluorosis will be assessed and the strength of the associations between the prevalence and severity of permanent tooth dental fluorosis and the "prospectively-collected" data on fluoride exposures would be assessed. The study results will increase current understanding about the delicate balance between the optimal use of fluorides for caries prevention and increased risks of dental fluorosis so that fluoride can continue to be used appropriately for maximum public health caries prevention with minimal risk of dental fluorosis.
Funding Period: 1991-09-01 - 1996-08-31
more information: NIH RePORT
- Diet quality in young children is influenced by beverage consumptionTeresa A Marshall
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, N335 Dental Science Building, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
J Am Coll Nutr 24:65-75. 2005..Replacement of milk with sugar-containing beverages could affect calcium intake and overall diet quality...
- Fluoride intake levels in relation to fluorosis development in permanent maxillary central incisors and first molarsLiang Hong
Department of Dental Public Health and Behavioral Science, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA
Caries Res 40:494-500. 2006..The study suggests that fluorosis prevalence is related to elevated fluoride intake when averaged over the first 3 years of life, but is even more strongly related to fluoride intake that is elevated for all of the first 3 years of life...
- Comparison of the intakes of sugars by young children with and without dental caries experienceTeresa A Marshall
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, N 335, Dental Science Building, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 1010, USA
J Am Dent Assoc 138:39-46. 2007..Relationships among sugars and dental caries in contemporary societies are unclear. The authors describe young children's intakes of nonmilk extrinsic (NME) and intrinsic/milk sugars and relate those intakes to dental caries...
- Fluoride assay methodology for carbonated beveragesJudith R Heilman
Dows Institute for Dental Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA
J Dent Child (Chic) 73:136-9. 2006....
- Effects of toothbrush size and dentifrice type/brand on pea-sized and larger amounts of dentifricePatita Bhuridej
Department of Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
Int Dent J 57:71-6. 2007..To assess the effects of toothbrush size and dentifrice type/brand on amounts of dentifrice being placed when trying to replicate pictures with different amounts of dentifrice, including a pea-sized amount...
- An investigation of bottled water use and caries in the mixed dentitionBarbara Broffitt
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA
J Public Health Dent 67:151-8. 2007..Because the majority of commercial bottled water is low in fluoride, there is the potential for an increase in dental caries. In these secondary data analyses, associations between bottled water use and dental caries were explored...
- Dental caries and childhood obesity: roles of diet and socioeconomic statusTeresa A Marshall
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1010, USA
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 35:449-58. 2007..Our objective was to determine (a) if caries and obesity were associated in a pediatric population and (b) if so, then to explore diet and socioeconomic status as additional risk factors...
- Relative esthetic importance of orthodontic and color abnormalitiesJessica Lawson
College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
Angle Orthod 78:889-94. 2008..To assess the relative importance of an orthodontic esthetic index, dental fluorosis and nonfluoride opacities, with respect to parents' satisfaction with their children's dental esthetics...
- Relative validity of the Iowa Fluoride Study targeted nutrient semi-quantitative questionnaire and the block kids' food questionnaire for estimating beverage, calcium, and vitamin D intakes by childrenTeresa A Marshall
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, N335 Dental Science Bldg, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
J Am Diet Assoc 108:465-72. 2008....
- Measuring activity in children and adolescents using self-report: PAQ-C and PAQ-AKathleen F Janz
Department of Health and Sports Studies, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:767-72. 2008....
- Subjective and objective measures of physical activity in relationship to bone mineral content during late childhood: the Iowa Bone Development StudyK F Janz
Department of Health and Sport Studies, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Br J Sports Med 42:658-63. 2008..This study compared accelerometry to self-report for the assessment of physical activity (PA) in relation to bone mineral content (BMC). In addition, we compared the ability of these measures to assess PA in boys versus girls...
- Considerations on optimal fluoride intake using dental fluorosis and dental caries outcomes--a longitudinal studyJohn J Warren
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1010, USA
J Public Health Dent 69:111-5. 2009....
- Sustained effect of early physical activity on body fat mass in older childrenKathleen F Janz
Department of Health and Sport Studies, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
Am J Prev Med 37:35-40. 2009..Physical activity is assumed to reduce excessive fatness in children. This study examined whether the benefits of early childhood moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on fatness are sustained throughout childhood...
- Association between enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in primary second molars: a cohort studyL Hong
Department of Dental Public Health and Behavioral Science, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108 2784, USA
Caries Res 43:345-53. 2009..Enamel hypoplasia appears to be a significant risk factor for caries and should be considered in caries risk assessment...
- Associations between dental fluorosis of the permanent and primary dentitionsSteven M Levy
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, 328 Dental Science Building, North Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
J Public Health Dent 66:180-5. 2006..Relatively little is known about associations between primary and permanent tooth fluorosis. In this study, associations between dental fluorosis of the permanent and primary dentitions were assessed...
- Oral health behaviors of children in low and high socioeconomic status familiesAbed Al Hadi Hamasha
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid
Pediatr Dent 28:310-5. 2006..This prospective longitudinal study compared the patterns of oral health behaviors between low and high socioeconomic status (SES) families participating in the Iowa Fluoride Study for a period of 9 years...
- Timing of fluoride intake in relation to development of fluorosis on maxillary central incisorsLiang Hong
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1010, USA
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 34:299-309. 2006..32) and fourth (P = 0.82) were not. CONCLUSIONS: The first two years of life were most important to fluorosis development in permanent maxillary central incisors; however, this study also suggests the importance of other individual years...
- Percentile distributions of bone measurements in Iowa children: the Iowa Bone Development StudyMarcia C Willing
Department of Pediatrics, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
J Clin Densitom 8:39-47. 2005..Gender, age, and height are useful clinical predictors of BMD and BMC in young children...
- Patterns of dietary fluoride supplement use in children from birth to 96 months of ageAbed Al Hadi Hamasha
Faculty of Dentistry, Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan
J Public Health Dent 65:7-13. 2005..This paper reports on fluoride supplement use from birth to age 96 months...
- Longitudinal patterns of vitamin and mineral supplement use in young white childrenJulie M Eichenberger Gilmore
Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, N 342 DSB, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
J Am Diet Assoc 105:763-72; quiz 773-4. 2005....
- Tracking of activity and sedentary behaviors in childhood: the Iowa Bone Development StudyKathleen F Janz
Department of Health and Sport Studies, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 52242, USA
Am J Prev Med 29:171-8. 2005..This study examined the tracking of activity and sedentary behavior in relation to adiposity during middle childhood...
- Patterns of fluoride mouthrinse and gel use by children 6 to 96 months of ageAbed A Hamasha
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
Pediatr Dent 27:217-20. 2005..The purpose of this paper was to report longitudinally on parental reports of mouthrinse/gel use at home and at preschool/elementary school until age 8...
- Association of amoxicillin use during early childhood with developmental tooth enamel defectsLiang Hong
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, Dows Institute for Dental Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:943-8. 2005..CONCLUSION: The findings from this study suggest a link between amoxicillin use during infancy and developmental enamel defects of permanent teeth; however, further research is needed...
- Validation evidence for the Netherlands physical activity questionnaire for young children: the Iowa bone development studyKathleen F Janz
Department of Health and Sports Studies, The University of Iowa, IA 52242, USA
Res Q Exerc Sport 76:363-9. 2005
- Effects of nonnutritive sucking habits on occlusal characteristics in the mixed dentitionJohn J Warren
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
Pediatr Dent 27:445-50. 2005..The purpose of this study was to report on the relationship between certain occlusal traits in the mixed dentition and longitudinal sucking behaviors...
- Factors associated with parents' esthetic perceptions of children's mixed dentition fluorosis and demarcated opacitiesSteven M Levy
University of Iowa College of Public Health, Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, USA
Pediatr Dent 27:486-92. 2005....
- Longitudinal study of non-cavitated carious lesion progression in the primary dentitionJohn J Warren
Dental Science Bldg, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1010, USA
J Public Health Dent 66:83-7. 2006..This study reports changes in non-cavitated tooth surface diagnoses after a 4-year period...
- Use of the fluorosis risk index in a cohort study: the Iowa fluoride studySteven M Levy
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 1010, USA
J Public Health Dent 66:92-6. 2006..Several studies have used the Fluorosis Risk Index (FRI) to assess risk factors for dental fluorosis. This study reports fluorosis prevalence estimates in a birth cohort using the FRI in different ways...
- Fluoride dentifrice ingestion and fluorosis of the permanent incisorsMichael R Franzman
Department of Periodontics, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA
J Am Dent Assoc 137:645-52. 2006..CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: These results support recommendations that young children use only a pea-sized amount of dentifrice. Parents should supervise young children as they brush their teeth with fluoride dentifrice...
- Physical activity augments bone mineral accrual in young children: The Iowa Bone Development studyKathleen F Janz
Department of Health and Sport Studies, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
J Pediatr 148:793-9. 2006..This 3-year follow-up study examined associations between physical activity and bone mineral content (BMC) and whether physical activity augments BMC accrual...
- Associations of fluoride intake with children's bone measures at age 11Steven M Levy
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 37:416-26. 2009..Relationships between fluoride intake and bone health continue to be of interest, as previous studies show conflicting results...