LONGITUDINAL STUDY--FLUORIDE EXPOSURE & DENTAL FLUORIDE

Summary

Principal Investigator: S M Levy
Affiliation: University of Iowa
Country: USA
Abstract: Several recent studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the United States, thought to be due to the widespread adoption of various preventive dentistry initiatives using fluoride. Several retrospective studies have found associations between dental fluorosis and these fluoride exposures, especially water fluoridation and fluoride tablets and drops. In this study, a methodology will be developed and implemented for use in longitudinal studies to record dietary and non-dietary fluoride exposures on a 3 month basis in a 'birth cohort' from the time of birth until the age of 3 to 4 years (and in a subsequent study until age 8 years). 1530 mothers with newborns will be recruited from post-partum wards of hospitals. The parents will provide data on infant and childhood exposures and ingestion of fluoride every 3 months during the study, with an additional report at 6 weeks of age (due to frequent feeding habit changes during the first 3 months of life). Data on fluoride intake have not previously been collected in this manner and will be valuable in characterizing the multiple fluoride exposures among infants and young children in the U.S. Composite indexes of exposures to both individual and various combinations of fluoride sources over time will be developed. Total dietary fluoride intake will be estimated. Dental caries and dental fluorosis of the primary teeth will be assessed at age 3 to 4. The distributions of fluoride exposures and intake will be characterized. Multivariate relationships will be investigated among prevalence and severity of primary tooth dental fluorosis and dental caries and the various fluoride exposures. A subsequent study will follow the cohort to age 7 to 8 allowing longitudinal data on fluoride exposures to be collected from birth to age 7 to 8. Then, relationships between primary and permanent tooth dental fluorosis will be assessed and the strength of the associations between the prevalence and severity of permanent tooth dental fluorosis and the "prospectively-collected" data on fluoride exposures would be assessed. The study results will increase current understanding about the delicate balance between the optimal use of fluorides for caries prevention and increased risks of dental fluorosis so that fluoride can continue to be used appropriately for maximum public health caries prevention with minimal risk of dental fluorosis.
Funding Period: 1991-09-01 - 1996-08-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Longitudinal changes in parental satisfaction: mixed dentition esthetics
    Hyrum M Cannon
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    J Dent Child (Chic) 77:166-73. 2010
  2. pmc Sustained effects of physical activity on bone health: Iowa Bone Development Study
    Shelby L Francis
    Department of Health and Human Physiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Electronic address
    Bone 63:95-100. 2014
  3. pmc Relative validity of an FFQ for assessing dietary fluoride intakes of infants and young children living in Iowa
    Scott J Rankin
    Public Health Dentist, US Army, 2050 Worth RD, MCDS, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78249, USA
    Public Health Nutr 14:1229-36. 2011
  4. pmc Physical activity and femoral neck bone strength during childhood: the Iowa Bone Development Study
    Kathleen F Janz
    Department of Health and Sport Studies, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Bone 41:216-22. 2007
  5. pmc Tracking of accelerometry-measured physical activity during childhood: ICAD pooled analysis
    Soyang Kwon
    Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago Children, Children s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL 60614, USA
    Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9:68. 2012
  6. pmc Using family data as a verification standard to evaluate copy number variation calling strategies for genetic association studies
    Xiaojing Zheng
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Genet Epidemiol 36:253-62. 2012
  7. pmc Specific types of family support and adolescent non-school physical activity levels
    Joanna L Morrissey
    Dept of Health and Human Physiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Pediatr Exerc Sci 24:333-46. 2012
  8. pmc Which contributes more to childhood adiposity-high levels of sedentarism or low levels of moderate-through-vigorous physical activity? The Iowa Bone Development Study
    Soyang Kwon
    Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Chicago, IL, USA
    J Pediatr 162:1169-74. 2013
  9. pmc Effects of life-long fluoride intake on bone measures of adolescents: a prospective cohort study
    S M Levy
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, Iowa City, IA, USA
    J Dent Res 93:353-9. 2014
  10. pmc Genome-wide two-marker linkage disequilibrium mapping of quantitative trait loci
    Jie Yang
    Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11790, USA
    BMC Genet 15:20. 2014

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications60

  1. ncbi Longitudinal changes in parental satisfaction: mixed dentition esthetics
    Hyrum M Cannon
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    J Dent Child (Chic) 77:166-73. 2010
    ..This study's purpose was to report on parents' esthetic perceptions of their children's mixed dentition and parental satisfaction changes over time...
  2. pmc Sustained effects of physical activity on bone health: Iowa Bone Development Study
    Shelby L Francis
    Department of Health and Human Physiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Electronic address
    Bone 63:95-100. 2014
    ..Children's early PA appears to have a modest effect on adolescent BMC at the critical regions of spine and hip; benefits may be greater for geometric changes, which future studies should include. ..
  3. pmc Relative validity of an FFQ for assessing dietary fluoride intakes of infants and young children living in Iowa
    Scott J Rankin
    Public Health Dentist, US Army, 2050 Worth RD, MCDS, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78249, USA
    Public Health Nutr 14:1229-36. 2011
    ..To determine the relative validity of a quantitative FFQ in assessing dietary fluoride intakes using 3 d food and beverage diaries for reference...
  4. pmc Physical activity and femoral neck bone strength during childhood: the Iowa Bone Development Study
    Kathleen F Janz
    Department of Health and Sport Studies, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Bone 41:216-22. 2007
    ..These results suggest that physical activity is an important contributor to bone strength prior to adolescence and that increasing levels of physical activity during childhood are likely to enhance optimal bone strength...
  5. pmc Tracking of accelerometry-measured physical activity during childhood: ICAD pooled analysis
    Soyang Kwon
    Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago Children, Children s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL 60614, USA
    Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9:68. 2012
    ..We compared tracking of PA according to PA level and type of day (weekday/weekend) in a pool of five children's cohort studies...
  6. pmc Using family data as a verification standard to evaluate copy number variation calling strategies for genetic association studies
    Xiaojing Zheng
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Genet Epidemiol 36:253-62. 2012
    ..But if we understand the error process, we can still use CNV calls appropriately in genetic association studies...
  7. pmc Specific types of family support and adolescent non-school physical activity levels
    Joanna L Morrissey
    Dept of Health and Human Physiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Pediatr Exerc Sci 24:333-46. 2012
    ..5% of the variance in male nonschool MVPA, while having a family member participate with him explained 6.4% of the variance in nonschool total PA. Despite adolescents' growing independence, family support continues to influence PA levels...
  8. pmc Which contributes more to childhood adiposity-high levels of sedentarism or low levels of moderate-through-vigorous physical activity? The Iowa Bone Development Study
    Soyang Kwon
    Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Chicago, IL, USA
    J Pediatr 162:1169-74. 2013
    ..To examine the relative importance of sedentarism and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for adiposity development in children and adolescents...
  9. pmc Effects of life-long fluoride intake on bone measures of adolescents: a prospective cohort study
    S M Levy
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, Iowa City, IA, USA
    J Dent Res 93:353-9. 2014
    ..34 and all partial R(2) ≤ 0.01). The findings suggest that fluoride exposures at the typical levels for most US adolescents in fluoridated areas do not have significant effects on bone mineral measures. ..
  10. pmc Genome-wide two-marker linkage disequilibrium mapping of quantitative trait loci
    Jie Yang
    Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11790, USA
    BMC Genet 15:20. 2014
    ..However, most current LD mapping methods mainly employed single-marker analysis, overlooking the rich information contained within adjacent linked loci...
  11. ncbi Associations between fluorosis of permanent incisors and fluoride intake from infant formula, other dietary sources and dentifrice during early childhood
    Steven M Levy
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 1010, USA
    J Am Dent Assoc 141:1190-201. 2010
    ..The authors describe associations between dental fluorosis and fluoride intakes, with an emphasis on intake from fluoride in infant formula...
  12. pmc Genome-wide association scan for childhood caries implicates novel genes
    J R Shaffer
    Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Dent Res 90:1457-62. 2011
    ..Verification/replication of suggestive loci may highlight biological mechanisms and/or pathways leading to a fuller understanding of the genetic risks for dental caries...
  13. pmc Epithelial integrins with special reference to oral epithelia
    H Larjava
    Laboratory of Periodontal Biology, Department of Oral Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Dent Res 90:1367-76. 2011
    ..In this review, we will discuss the structure and function of epithelial integrins and their extracellular ligands and elaborate on their potential role in disease and repair processes in the oral cavity...
  14. pmc A hip analysis protocol for pediatric bone densitometry: the Iowa Bone Development Study
    Julie M Eichenberger Gilmore
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    J Clin Densitom 13:361-9. 2010
    ..The IBDS protocol provides a reproducible method for evaluating pediatric proximal femur DXA scans during growth...
  15. pmc Effects of adiposity on physical activity in childhood: Iowa Bone Development Study
    Soyang Kwon
    Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:443-8. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to examine whether adiposity level is associated with subsequent physical activity (PA) level in childhood...
  16. doi A literature review of aesthetic perceptions of dental fluorosis and relationships with psychosocial aspects/oral health-related quality of life
    Oitip Chankanka
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 38:97-109. 2010
    ..However, no comprehensive review article summarizing the studies investigating this issue has been published...
  17. pmc Early physical activity provides sustained bone health benefits later in childhood
    Kathleen F Janz
    Department of Health and Sport Studies, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 42:1072-8. 2010
    ..This study examined the potential effect of early childhood moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on later bone health...
  18. pmc Streptococcus mutans strains recovered from caries-active or caries-free individuals differ in sensitivity to host antimicrobial peptides
    E Phattarataratip
    Dows Institute for Dental Research, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Mol Oral Microbiol 26:187-99. 2011
    ..mutans strains that are more resistant to these peptides may have an ecological advantage to preferentially colonize within dental plaque and increase the risk of dental caries...
  19. pmc Association between light-intensity physical activity and adiposity in childhood
    Soyang Kwon
    Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
    Pediatr Exerc Sci 23:218-29. 2011
    ..Among girls, LPA was negatively associated with fat mass at ages 8 and 11, but not at age 5. LPA may have a beneficial effect against excess adiposity among older children...
  20. pmc Mixed dentition cavitated caries incidence and dietary intake frequencies
    Oitip Chankanka
    Faculty, Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla Province, Thailand
    Pediatr Dent 33:233-40. 2011
    ..This study examined risk factors for children having new cavitated caries between 5 and 9 years old...
  21. pmc Genetic and environmental factors associated with dental caries in children: the Iowa Fluoride Study
    X Wang
    Center for Craniofacial and Dental Genetics, University of Pittsburgh Suite 500 Bridgeside Point, 100 Technology Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA xiw23 pitt edu
    Caries Res 46:177-84. 2012
    ..Our results support the concept that genes can modify the susceptibility of caries in children. Replication analysis in independent cohorts is highly needed in order to verify the validity of our findings...
  22. pmc Comparison of dental esthetic perceptions of young adolescents and their parents
    Golnaz Kavand
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa, IA, USA
    J Public Health Dent 72:164-71. 2012
    ..To compare dental esthetic perceptions of adolescents at age 13 with those of parents and to assess associations with dental fluorosis...
  23. pmc Examiner reliability of fluorosis scoring: a comparison of photographic and clinical examination findings
    Noemi Cruz-Orcutt
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    J Public Health Dent 72:172-5. 2012
    ..To assess and compare examiner reliability of clinical and photographic fluorosis examinations using the Fluorosis Risk Index (FRI) among children in the Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS)...
  24. pmc Measuring alcohol consumption for genomic meta-analyses of alcohol intake: opportunities and challenges
    Arpana Agrawal
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:539-47. 2012
    ..In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with harmonizing alcohol-consumption data from studies with widely different assessment instruments, with a particular focus on large-scale genetic studies...
  25. pmc Breaks in sedentary time during childhood and adolescence: Iowa bone development study
    Soyang Kwon
    Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago Children, Children s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL 60614, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 44:1075-80. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to describe the change in the frequency of sedentary breaks during a 10-yr period from ages 5 to 15 yr...
  26. pmc Tracking of TV and video gaming during childhood: Iowa Bone Development Study
    Shelby L Francis
    Department of Health and Human Physiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 8:100. 2011
    ..This study examined tracking of TV viewing (TV) and video game use (VG) from middle childhood through early adolescence after adjusting for moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), percentage of body fat (% BF), and maturity...
  27. pmc Genome-wide association study identifies four loci associated with eruption of permanent teeth
    Frank Geller
    Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002275. 2011
    ..5 (95% confidence interval: 2.9-4.1) fewer permanent teeth than children with 0 or 1 of these alleles...
  28. pmc Physical activity in childhood may be the key to optimizing lifespan skeletal health
    Katherine B Gunter
    School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, College of Public Health and Human Sciences Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 40:13-21. 2012
    ..This review examines the potential for early childhood activity to improve bone mineralization and structure and explores childhood activity as prevention for osteoporosis in later life...
  29. ncbi Dental caries and childhood obesity: roles of diet and socioeconomic status
    Teresa A Marshall
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1010, USA
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 35:449-58. 2007
    ..Our objective was to determine (a) if caries and obesity were associated in a pediatric population and (b) if so, then to explore diet and socioeconomic status as additional risk factors...
  30. ncbi Validation evidence for the Netherlands physical activity questionnaire for young children: the Iowa bone development study
    Kathleen F Janz
    Department of Health and Sports Studies, The University of Iowa, IA 52242, USA
    Res Q Exerc Sport 76:363-9. 2005
  31. pmc Associations of fluoride intake with children's bone measures at age 11
    Steven M Levy
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 37:416-26. 2009
    ..Relationships between fluoride intake and bone health continue to be of interest, as previous studies show conflicting results...
  32. pmc Association between enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in primary second molars: a cohort study
    L Hong
    Department of Dental Public Health and Behavioral Science, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108 2784, USA
    Caries Res 43:345-53. 2009
    ..Enamel hypoplasia appears to be a significant risk factor for caries and should be considered in caries risk assessment...
  33. ncbi Physical activity augments bone mineral accrual in young children: The Iowa Bone Development study
    Kathleen F Janz
    Department of Health and Sport Studies, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Pediatr 148:793-9. 2006
    ..This 3-year follow-up study examined associations between physical activity and bone mineral content (BMC) and whether physical activity augments BMC accrual...
  34. ncbi Fluoride dentifrice ingestion and fluorosis of the permanent incisors
    Michael R Franzman
    Department of Periodontics, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA
    J Am Dent Assoc 137:645-52. 2006
    ..Fluoride dentifrice is a primary means of preventing childhood caries, but it is also an important risk factor for fluorosis. The authors examine the influence of fluoride dentifrice ingestion on fluorosis of the permanent incisors...
  35. ncbi Use of the fluorosis risk index in a cohort study: the Iowa fluoride study
    Steven M Levy
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 1010, USA
    J Public Health Dent 66:92-6. 2006
    ..Several studies have used the Fluorosis Risk Index (FRI) to assess risk factors for dental fluorosis. This study reports fluorosis prevalence estimates in a birth cohort using the FRI in different ways...
  36. ncbi Longitudinal study of non-cavitated carious lesion progression in the primary dentition
    John J Warren
    Dental Science Bldg, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1010, USA
    J Public Health Dent 66:83-7. 2006
    ..This study reports changes in non-cavitated tooth surface diagnoses after a 4-year period...
  37. ncbi Factors associated with parents' esthetic perceptions of children's mixed dentition fluorosis and demarcated opacities
    Steven M Levy
    University of Iowa College of Public Health, Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, USA
    Pediatr Dent 27:486-92. 2005
    ....
  38. ncbi Effects of nonnutritive sucking habits on occlusal characteristics in the mixed dentition
    John J Warren
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Pediatr Dent 27:445-50. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to report on the relationship between certain occlusal traits in the mixed dentition and longitudinal sucking behaviors...
  39. ncbi Association of amoxicillin use during early childhood with developmental tooth enamel defects
    Liang Hong
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, Dows Institute for Dental Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:943-8. 2005
    ..It has been speculated that amoxicillin use could be associated with dental enamel defects...
  40. ncbi Patterns of fluoride mouthrinse and gel use by children 6 to 96 months of age
    Abed A Hamasha
    Department of Preventive Dentistry, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
    Pediatr Dent 27:217-20. 2005
    ..The purpose of this paper was to report longitudinally on parental reports of mouthrinse/gel use at home and at preschool/elementary school until age 8...
  41. ncbi Tracking of activity and sedentary behaviors in childhood: the Iowa Bone Development Study
    Kathleen F Janz
    Department of Health and Sport Studies, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 52242, USA
    Am J Prev Med 29:171-8. 2005
    ..This study examined the tracking of activity and sedentary behavior in relation to adiposity during middle childhood...
  42. ncbi Longitudinal patterns of vitamin and mineral supplement use in young white children
    Julie M Eichenberger Gilmore
    Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, N 342 DSB, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 105:763-72; quiz 773-4. 2005
    ....
  43. ncbi Patterns of dietary fluoride supplement use in children from birth to 96 months of age
    Abed Al Hadi Hamasha
    Faculty of Dentistry, Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan
    J Public Health Dent 65:7-13. 2005
    ..This paper reports on fluoride supplement use from birth to age 96 months...
  44. ncbi Percentile distributions of bone measurements in Iowa children: the Iowa Bone Development Study
    Marcia C Willing
    Department of Pediatrics, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Densitom 8:39-47. 2005
    ..Gender, age, and height are useful clinical predictors of BMD and BMC in young children...
  45. ncbi Timing of fluoride intake in relation to development of fluorosis on maxillary central incisors
    Liang Hong
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1010, USA
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 34:299-309. 2006
    ..This study reports the relationships of fluoride intake during the first 48 months of life with fluorosis on early-erupting permanent teeth...
  46. ncbi Oral health behaviors of children in low and high socioeconomic status families
    Abed Al Hadi Hamasha
    Department of Preventive Dentistry, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid
    Pediatr Dent 28:310-5. 2006
    ..This prospective longitudinal study compared the patterns of oral health behaviors between low and high socioeconomic status (SES) families participating in the Iowa Fluoride Study for a period of 9 years...
  47. pmc Sustained effect of early physical activity on body fat mass in older children
    Kathleen F Janz
    Department of Health and Sport Studies, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Am J Prev Med 37:35-40. 2009
    ..Physical activity is assumed to reduce excessive fatness in children. This study examined whether the benefits of early childhood moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on fatness are sustained throughout childhood...
  48. ncbi Considerations on optimal fluoride intake using dental fluorosis and dental caries outcomes--a longitudinal study
    John J Warren
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1010, USA
    J Public Health Dent 69:111-5. 2009
    ....
  49. ncbi Subjective and objective measures of physical activity in relationship to bone mineral content during late childhood: the Iowa Bone Development Study
    K F Janz
    Department of Health and Sport Studies, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Br J Sports Med 42:658-63. 2008
    ..This study compared accelerometry to self-report for the assessment of physical activity (PA) in relation to bone mineral content (BMC). In addition, we compared the ability of these measures to assess PA in boys versus girls...
  50. doi Measuring activity in children and adolescents using self-report: PAQ-C and PAQ-A
    Kathleen F Janz
    Department of Health and Sports Studies, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:767-72. 2008
    ....
  51. ncbi Relative validity of the Iowa Fluoride Study targeted nutrient semi-quantitative questionnaire and the block kids' food questionnaire for estimating beverage, calcium, and vitamin D intakes by children
    Teresa A Marshall
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, N335 Dental Science Bldg, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 108:465-72. 2008
    ....
  52. ncbi Relative esthetic importance of orthodontic and color abnormalities
    Jessica Lawson
    College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Angle Orthod 78:889-94. 2008
    ..To assess the relative importance of an orthodontic esthetic index, dental fluorosis and nonfluoride opacities, with respect to parents' satisfaction with their children's dental esthetics...
  53. ncbi An investigation of bottled water use and caries in the mixed dentition
    Barbara Broffitt
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA
    J Public Health Dent 67:151-8. 2007
    ..Because the majority of commercial bottled water is low in fluoride, there is the potential for an increase in dental caries. In these secondary data analyses, associations between bottled water use and dental caries were explored...
  54. ncbi Effects of toothbrush size and dentifrice type/brand on pea-sized and larger amounts of dentifrice
    Patita Bhuridej
    Department of Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Int Dent J 57:71-6. 2007
    ..To assess the effects of toothbrush size and dentifrice type/brand on amounts of dentifrice being placed when trying to replicate pictures with different amounts of dentifrice, including a pea-sized amount...
  55. ncbi Fluoride assay methodology for carbonated beverages
    Judith R Heilman
    Dows Institute for Dental Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA
    J Dent Child (Chic) 73:136-9. 2006
    ....
  56. ncbi Comparison of the intakes of sugars by young children with and without dental caries experience
    Teresa A Marshall
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, N 335, Dental Science Building, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 1010, USA
    J Am Dent Assoc 138:39-46. 2007
    ..Relationships among sugars and dental caries in contemporary societies are unclear. The authors describe young children's intakes of nonmilk extrinsic (NME) and intrinsic/milk sugars and relate those intakes to dental caries...
  57. ncbi Fluoride intake levels in relation to fluorosis development in permanent maxillary central incisors and first molars
    Liang Hong
    Department of Dental Public Health and Behavioral Science, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA
    Caries Res 40:494-500. 2006
    ..The study suggests that fluorosis prevalence is related to elevated fluoride intake when averaged over the first 3 years of life, but is even more strongly related to fluoride intake that is elevated for all of the first 3 years of life...
  58. ncbi Associations between dental fluorosis of the permanent and primary dentitions
    Steven M Levy
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, 328 Dental Science Building, North Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Public Health Dent 66:180-5. 2006
    ..Relatively little is known about associations between primary and permanent tooth fluorosis. In this study, associations between dental fluorosis of the permanent and primary dentitions were assessed...
  59. ncbi Diet quality in young children is influenced by beverage consumption
    Teresa A Marshall
    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, N335 Dental Science Building, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Am Coll Nutr 24:65-75. 2005
    ..Replacement of milk with sugar-containing beverages could affect calcium intake and overall diet quality...