PERIPHERAL GUSTATORY PROCESSING
Principal Investigator: MARION ELIZABETH FRANK
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Recent convergence of several lines of experimental evidence ranging from molecular biology to behavior has helped to expose some of the basic mechanisms of the gustatory system. 3 integrated behavioral, neurophysiological and genetic studies are proposed on golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and laboratory mice aimed at delineating the functioning of their sweet (attracting) and bitter (avoiding) taste systems. (1) Studies of mixtures address the nature, specificity and component inhibition in peripheral mixture processing by testing the ability of hamsters to recognize components in sucrose-quinine, dulcin-quinine and sucrose-quinine-NaCI mixtures. With a quasi-natural conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, hamsters trained to avoid components, by pairing drinking with LiCI injection, are behaviorally tested on binary and ternary mixtures. Chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve recordings are used to test the limits of peripheral stimulation and inhibition on behavior;and, for Na+quinine suppression, stimulus, nerve, and neuron specificity. (2) A definition of a bitter taste quality for hamsters is sought with behavioral and neural assays of aversive stimuli with diverse chemical (e.g., ionic vs. non-ionic) and biological (e.g., exposure-enhanced potency) properties. (3) Studies of genetic variation in sweet and bitter taste domains in multiple inbred strains of golden hamsters and mice seek sources of intake variation with behavioral assays and nerve recordings. Unitary bitter and unitary sweet hypotheses are tested by measuring thresholds for CTA learning and generalizing to multiple stimuli in mice selected for genetic variation in taste preferences and avoidances. The mouse behavioral experiments compare all stimuli at equal CTA saliency to avoid confounding stimulus concentration and intensity. Interpretation of mouse data is greatly facilitated by recent advances in definition of gustatory molecular receptors. By comparing data from hamsters and mice, we hope to establish common features that can be used to describe essential taste phenomena. Understanding taste function is a prerequisite for redressing taste disorders that can lead to serious problems with nutrition and homeostasis. Also, elimination of taste disorders would improve the quality of life that depends on enjoyment of food and drink, a universal human need contributing much to human sociality.
Funding Period: ----------------1999 - ---------------2011-
more information: NIH RePORT
- Sweet and bitter taste of ethanol in C57BL/6J and DBA2/J mouse strainsDavid A Blizard
Center for Developmental and Health Genetics, The Pennsylvania State University, 201, Research Building D, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Behav Genet 37:146-59. 2007..The strain-dependent gustatory profiles for ethanol may make an important contribution to the understanding of the undoubtedly complex mechanisms influencing high ethanol preference of B6 and pronounced ethanol avoidance of D2 mice...
- Cycloheximide: no ordinary bitter stimulusThomas P Hettinger
Center for Neurosciences, Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, United States
Behav Brain Res 180:4-17. 2007..The combination of T2R multiplicity, species divergence and gene duplication results in diverse ligands for multiple species-specific T2R receptors, which confounds definition of 'bitter' stimuli across species...
- Cracking taste codes by tapping into sensory neuron impulse trafficMarion E Frank
Center for Chemosensory Sciences, Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030 1715, United States
Prog Neurobiol 86:245-63. 2008..Establishing the information afferent neurons traffic to the brain about natural taste stimuli imbedded in dynamic complex mixtures will ultimately "crack taste codes."..
- Learning in the 2-bottle alcohol preference testDavid A Blizard
Center for Developmental and Health Genetics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:2041-6. 2008..The 2-bottle preference test is a popular protocol for characterizing a rodent's selection of a variety of solutions. Little attention has been paid, however, to the role of learning in this procedure...
- Amiloride-sensitive and amiloride-insensitive responses to NaCl + acid mixtures in hamster chorda tympani nerveBradley K Formaker
Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Periodontology, Center for Chemosensory Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030 1715, USA
Chem Senses 37:603-12. 2012..The 2 distinct CT pathways are consistent with known rodent behavioral discriminations...
- Effects of selective adaptation on coding sugar and salt tastes in mixturesMarion E Frank
Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Periodontology, Center for Chemosensory Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030 1715, USA
Chem Senses 37:701-9. 2012..Furthermore, like odors, stronger and recent tastes are emphasized in dynamic experimental conditions replicating natural situations...
- Gustatory, trigeminal, and olfactory aspects of nicotine intake in three mouse strainsJoseph P Gyekis
Department of Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University, 201 Research Building D, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Behav Genet 42:820-9. 2012....
- Responses of the hamster chorda tympani nerve to sucrose+acid and sucrose+citrate taste mixturesBradley K Formaker
Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
Chem Senses 34:607-16. 2009..Further study is needed to define the chemical basis for effects of acids and salts in taste mixtures...
- B6-MSM consomic mouse strains reveal multiple loci for genetic variation in sucrose octaacetate aversionAyako Ishii
Mouse Genomics Resource Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan
Behav Genet 41:716-23. 2011..The genetic diversity captured by the MSM model system is shown to be a valuable tool to complement the limited genetic variation in the commonly used stocks derived from M m. domesticus...