A Comparison of Methadone Treatment Systems in California and British Columbia

Summary

Principal Investigator: Bohdan Nosyk
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Opioid dependence is a chronic, recurrent disorder with periods of stabilization during treatment and frequent relapse into chronic use. While attendant crime is of primary social concern, because of injection practices and other lifestyle characteristics, opioid addicts are at elevated risk of mental health conditions, premature mortality, and HIV and other communicable diseases. Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) has been found to be the most effective form of treatment for opioid dependence. The availability of treatment slots, the means by which MMT is delivered, and availability of ancillary services to address co-morbid health conditions varies greatly locally and internationally. Accordingly, the accessibility, comprehensiveness and quality of individual drug treatment practices have important public health implications that require evaluation. The behavioral benefits and economic merits of maximizing access to MMT are well-established;increased access to quality MMT may also help contain the spread of HIV among injection drug users. Differences in drug treatment and criminal justice policies in California (CA) and British Columbia (BC) likely result in different health and economic outcomes for opioid dependent individuals in these jurisdictions. Our broad objective is to quantify these differences within a comprehensive model to determine the effects of actual and simulated policies and practices and how they are manifested in the long-term in these contrasting regions. CA and BC make for an informative comparison in US-Canadian drug policy;both regions feature among the largest per capita populations of opioid dependent individuals in their countries and both feature progressive drug treatment policies relative to other states or provinces. Comparing the types of individuals accessing treatment, their treatment outcomes and the costs they incur on the criminal justice and health systems will contribute to fitting a simulation model explicating the differences in health outcomes and costs over the lifetime of a representative cohort of opioid dependent patients presenting for MMT in CA versus BC. Simulation modeling provides the advantage of being able to determine how specific policies and practices impact health benefits and costs holding other factors constant. The respective drug treatment systems and the policies shaping them will be described through a series of state/province- level individually-linked administrative databases on drug treatment and other health resource utilization, arrests and other criminal justice system involvement, and vital statistics. With two disparate treatment and criminal justice systems being modeled using population-level administrative data, key features of each system can be altered one-at- a-time or jointly to determine and disentangle the expected effect of hypothetical policy changes. A range of specific parameter values can be modified to examine their potential effects in the comparator regions. Inputs from the CA and BC systems such as duration of retention in treatment and differential probability of arrest and incarceration may be exchanged in the regions to quantify differences in health and economic outcomes as a result of specific aspects of the treatment systems. Similarly, other parameters including differences in the incidence of infectious diseases such as HIV can also be modeled, thus providing greater contextual information on specific aspects of public health significance. We expect that the model can subsequently be used as a tool by these and other jurisdictions to study hypothetical effects of policy changes on opioid treatment systems, intervention effects, and the clients they serve.
Funding Period: 2011-07-01 - 2014-04-30
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Defining dosing pattern characteristics of successful tapers following methadone maintenance treatment: results from a population-based retrospective cohort study
    Bohdan Nosyk
    BC Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Addiction 107:1621-9. 2012
  2. pmc Characterizing durations of heroin abstinence in the California Civil Addict Program: results from a 33-year observational cohort study
    Bohdan Nosyk
    University of California, Los Angeles, Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 177:675-82. 2013
  3. ncbi Changes in the characteristics and levels of comorbidity among new patients into methadone maintenance treatment program in British Columbia during its expansion period from 1998-2006
    Behnam Sharif
    School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Subst Use Misuse 48:671-82. 2013
  4. ncbi A call for evidence-based medical treatment of opioid dependence in the United States and Canada
    Bohdan Nosyk
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia
    Health Aff (Millwood) 32:1462-9. 2013
  5. pmc High levels of opioid analgesic co-prescription among methadone maintenance treatment clients in British Columbia, Canada: results from a population-level retrospective cohort study
    Bohdan Nosyk
    BC Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
    Am J Addict 23:257-64. 2014

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications6

  1. pmc Defining dosing pattern characteristics of successful tapers following methadone maintenance treatment: results from a population-based retrospective cohort study
    Bohdan Nosyk
    BC Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Addiction 107:1621-9. 2012
    ..To identify dose-tapering strategies associated with sustained success following methadone maintenance treatment (MMT)...
  2. pmc Characterizing durations of heroin abstinence in the California Civil Addict Program: results from a 33-year observational cohort study
    Bohdan Nosyk
    University of California, Los Angeles, Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 177:675-82. 2013
    ..Public policy facilitating engagement of opioid-dependent individuals in maintenance-oriented drug treatment and employment is recommended to achieve and sustain opioid abstinence...
  3. ncbi Changes in the characteristics and levels of comorbidity among new patients into methadone maintenance treatment program in British Columbia during its expansion period from 1998-2006
    Behnam Sharif
    School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Subst Use Misuse 48:671-82. 2013
    ..MMT entrants were presented with progressively higher levels of comorbidity, independent of other characteristics. Future MMT policies should address higher levels of comorbidity among new patients...
  4. ncbi A call for evidence-based medical treatment of opioid dependence in the United States and Canada
    Bohdan Nosyk
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia
    Health Aff (Millwood) 32:1462-9. 2013
    ..Taking these steps can greatly reduce the harms of opioid dependence by maximizing the individual and public health benefits of treatment...
  5. pmc High levels of opioid analgesic co-prescription among methadone maintenance treatment clients in British Columbia, Canada: results from a population-level retrospective cohort study
    Bohdan Nosyk
    BC Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
    Am J Addict 23:257-64. 2014
    ..Our objective is to describe the prevalence and correlates of PO use among British Columbia (BC) MMT clients from 1996 to 2007...

Research Grants30

  1. Treatment Study Using Depot Naltrexone(3/6)NY/Bellevue Protocol Treatment Site
    JOSHUA D LEE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The data from this study can also be used by the FDA to evaluate the benefits of this treatment that could improve the lives of patients suffering from opioid addiction. ..
  2. SCHS, mitochondria, healthy aging and longevity
    Gino A Cortopassi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. COBRE Center for Central Nervous System Function
    Jerome N Sanes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The COBRE Center will leverage the administrative resources available through the Brown Institute for Brain Science to ensure efficient operation and coordinate with other brain science research activities at Brown. ..
  4. ENVIRONMENTAL APPROACHES TO PREVENTION
    Paul J Gruenewald; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  5. OUHSC Specific Pathogen Free Baboon Research Resource
    Roman F Wolf; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The long term objective is for the SPF baboon colony to be a stable, self-sustaining breeding colony that produces ~100 SPF baboons/year for use in NIH-funded biomedical research. ..
  6. Mexican Children of Immigrants Program
    Nancy S Landale; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed research will produce essential knowledge for the development of sound public policies and interventions to reduce health disparities. ..
  7. Expanding Medication Assisted Therapies in Ukraine
    FREDERICK LEWIS ALTICE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  8. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND GENE EXPRESSION
    Janet L Stein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  9. Drug Abuse, Incarceration &Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS: A Longitudinal Study
    Linda A Teplin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This study responds to the initiatives of NIDA, NIAAA, and other NIH institutes to reduce health disparities in HIV/AIDS in minority populations. ..