Functional MRI Monitoring of Hepatic Chemoembolization

Summary

Principal Investigator: Reed Omary
Affiliation: Northwestern University
Country: USA
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The broad, long-term objective of this application is to improve the prognosis of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is proposed to monitor transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) of patients with HCC. A 4-dimensional transcatheter intraarterial perfusion weighted (TRIP)-MRI technique, using 3 spatial and 1 time dimension, will be used to measure quantitative changes in tumor perfusion at the time of therapy. These quantitative, absolute changes in perfusion will be correlated with clinical outcomes, x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) endpoints, and tumor angiogenic markers on tissue specimens. The rationale is to determine the pivotal role that perfusion plays during TACE as a means of determining endpoints for therapy. Studies will be performed within the same prospective cohort of 100 patients with HCC already scheduled to undergo TACE using a hybrid MR-interventional radiology DSA procedure suite. This suite contains both a 1.5T MRI scanner and a DSA unit. Specific Aim 1 will correlate tumor perfusion changes during TACE with clinical outcomes. It is hypothesized that baseline and interval reductions in quantitative 4D TRIP-MRI perfusion levels during TACE can predict future clinical outcomes. These clinical outcomes will be assessed by conventional anatomic size changes on MRI;functional changes in water mobility using an improved diffusion weighted MRI technique;survival;and toxicity. The health relevance will be to optimize TACE outcomes by measuring absolute perfusion changes for therapy. Specific Aim 2 will correlate DSA endpoints during TACE with perfusion changes and clinical outcomes. It is hypothesized that DSA endpoints during TACE do not correlate with quantitative 4D TRIP-MRI perfusion changes and do not predict clinical outcomes. The health relevance is to use external objective standards to see if a specific DSA endpoint can and should be targeted during therapy. Specific Aim 3 will correlate perfusion changes during TACE with tumor angiogenesis and clinical outcomes. Angiogenic proteins-- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia inducible factor-11 (HIF-11) will be measured on pre-TACE liver biopsy specimens and on available liver explants. It is hypothesized that baseline tissue levels of VEGF and HIF-11 correlate with clinical outcomes after TACE;and that 4D TRIP-MRI perfusion changes during TACE predict future expression of tissue VEGF and HIF-11 on liver explants. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE The health relevance is to see how baseline tissue angiogenic markers affect outcome and to determine which TACE endpoints are most likely to induce angiogenesis. The relevance to public health is to determine the central role that blood flow to tumors plays during treatment of liver cancer. We postulate that measurement of this blood flow during treatment can be used to help predict response to therapy. This information might improve the prognosis of future patients with liver cancer.
Funding Period: 2008-09-01 - 2012-07-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Comparative study of staging systems for hepatocellular carcinoma in 428 patients treated with radioembolization
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, 676 N St Clair, Suite 800, Chicago, IL 60611
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 25:1056-66. 2014
  2. pmc Chemoembolization and radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma
    Riad Salem
    Section of Interventional Radiology, Division of Interventional Oncology, Department of Radiology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:604-11; quiz e43-4. 2013
  3. pmc Four-dimensional transcatheter intraarterial perfusion MRI monitoring of radiofrequency ablation of rabbit VX2 liver tumors
    Kent T Sato
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Magn Reson Imaging 34:563-9. 2011
  4. pmc Structural brain alterations can be detected early in HIV infection
    Ann B Ragin
    Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, USA
    Neurology 79:2328-34. 2012
  5. pmc Radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis: impact of liver function on systemic treatment options at disease progression
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology and Division of Interventional Oncology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Hepatol 58:73-80. 2013
  6. doi Yttrium 90 microspheres for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA
    Recent Results Cancer Res 190:207-24. 2013
  7. pmc MRI-guided biopsy to correlate tissue specimens with MR elastography stiffness readings in liver transplants
    Ryan B Perumpail
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Acad Radiol 19:1121-6. 2012
  8. ncbi Chemoembolization and radioembolization for metastatic disease to the liver: available data and future studies
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Curr Treat Options Oncol 13:403-15. 2012
  9. doi Prospective evaluation of patients with early-/intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma with disease progression following arterial locoregional therapy: candidacy for systemic treatment or clinical trials
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, and Division of Interventional Oncology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 24:1189-1197.e2. 2013
  10. pmc Image-guided local delivery strategies enhance therapeutic nanoparticle uptake in solid tumors
    Samdeep K Mouli
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago Illinois 60611, United States
    ACS Nano 7:7724-33. 2013

Scientific Experts

  • R Salem
  • Dingxin Wang
  • Robert J Lewandowski
  • Khairuddin Memon
  • Robert K Ryu
  • Mary F Mulcahy
  • Ahsun Riaz
  • Reed A Omary
  • Frank H Miller
  • Kent T Sato
  • Ramona Gupta
  • Talia Baker
  • Laura Kulik
  • Michael Vouche
  • Al B Benson
  • Andrew C Larson
  • Michael Abecassis
  • Ryan Hickey
  • Vanessa L Gates
  • Vahid Yaghmai
  • Edward Wang
  • Paul Nikolaidis
  • Laura M Kulik
  • Daniel Ganger
  • Albert A Nemcek
  • Brian Jin
  • Ron C Gaba
  • Seanthan Senthilnathan
  • Kent Sato
  • Rohi Atassi
  • Ann B Ragin
  • Howard B Chrisman
  • Robert L Vogelzang
  • Richard Chen
  • Victoria S Lee
  • Ritu Nayar
  • Ed Wang
  • Scott Resnick
  • Todd Schirmang
  • Samdeep Mouli
  • Daniel Y Sze
  • Samdeep K Mouli
  • Jeremy Collins
  • James Carr
  • Elias Hohlastos
  • Ryan B Perumpail
  • Yi Wang
  • Josh Levitsky
  • Reed Omary
  • Eugene Duke
  • Saad M Ibrahim
  • Johnathan C Chung
  • Jie Deng
  • Jonathan Wang
  • Ali Habib
  • Joseph L McDevitt
  • Y Andrew Wang
  • Daniel Procissi
  • Yang Guo
  • Jonathan Fryer
  • Patrick Tyler
  • Aaron C Eifler
  • Weiguo Li
  • Jodi Nicolai
  • Mary Mulcahy
  • Juan Carlos Caicedo
  • Guang Yu Yang
  • Saurabh Shah
  • Hongyan Du
  • Alfred Shoukry
  • Steven Newman
  • Ning Jin
  • Jennifer Karp
  • Leon G Epstein
  • Christina L Sammet
  • Ying Wu
  • Bradley D Bolster
  • Sven Zuehlsdorff
  • Renee Ochs
  • Bassel Atassi
  • Daniel R Ganger
  • Sambasiva Rao
  • Karen Marshall
  • Rachel A Klein
  • Vanessa Gates
  • Talia B Baker
  • Scott A Resnick
  • Steven B Newman
  • Neel K Naik
  • Michael I Abecassis

Detail Information

Publications39

  1. ncbi Comparative study of staging systems for hepatocellular carcinoma in 428 patients treated with radioembolization
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, 676 N St Clair, Suite 800, Chicago, IL 60611
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 25:1056-66. 2014
    ..To compare the utility of different staging systems and analyze independent predictors of survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization...
  2. pmc Chemoembolization and radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma
    Riad Salem
    Section of Interventional Radiology, Division of Interventional Oncology, Department of Radiology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:604-11; quiz e43-4. 2013
    ....
  3. pmc Four-dimensional transcatheter intraarterial perfusion MRI monitoring of radiofrequency ablation of rabbit VX2 liver tumors
    Kent T Sato
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Magn Reson Imaging 34:563-9. 2011
    ..To investigate the hypothesis that four-dimensional (4D) transcatheter intraarterial perfusion (TRIP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can quantify immediate perfusion changes after radiofrequency (RF) ablation in rabbit VX2 liver tumors...
  4. pmc Structural brain alterations can be detected early in HIV infection
    Ann B Ragin
    Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, USA
    Neurology 79:2328-34. 2012
    ..Brain changes occurring early in HIV infection are not well characterized. The Chicago Early HIV Infection Study aimed to evaluate the presence and extent of structural brain alterations using quantitative MRI...
  5. pmc Radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis: impact of liver function on systemic treatment options at disease progression
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology and Division of Interventional Oncology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Hepatol 58:73-80. 2013
    ..We analyzed liver function, imaging findings, and treatment options (local/systemic) at disease progression following (90)Y treatment in HCC patients with PVT...
  6. doi Yttrium 90 microspheres for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA
    Recent Results Cancer Res 190:207-24. 2013
    ..This article explores the technical and clinical aspects of (90)Y radioembolization with keeping emphasis on patient selection, uses, and complications...
  7. pmc MRI-guided biopsy to correlate tissue specimens with MR elastography stiffness readings in liver transplants
    Ryan B Perumpail
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Acad Radiol 19:1121-6. 2012
    ..In this study, the ability of real-time MRI to guide biopsies of segments of the liver with different MRE stiffness values in the same post-transplant patient was assessed...
  8. ncbi Chemoembolization and radioembolization for metastatic disease to the liver: available data and future studies
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Curr Treat Options Oncol 13:403-15. 2012
    ..Currently, a large number of trials are investigating the combination of locoregional and systemic therapies, and the results are expected to benefit the treating physicians and patients alike...
  9. doi Prospective evaluation of patients with early-/intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma with disease progression following arterial locoregional therapy: candidacy for systemic treatment or clinical trials
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, and Division of Interventional Oncology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 24:1189-1197.e2. 2013
    ..The present study analyzed the candidacy for systemic agents or clinical trials of patients whose disease progresses despite LRTs...
  10. pmc Image-guided local delivery strategies enhance therapeutic nanoparticle uptake in solid tumors
    Samdeep K Mouli
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago Illinois 60611, United States
    ACS Nano 7:7724-33. 2013
    ..The techniques described are versatile enough to be extended to any NP platform, targeting any solid organ malignancy that can be accessed via imaging guidance. ..
  11. doi Radiation lobectomy: time-dependent analysis of future liver remnant volume in unresectable liver cancer as a bridge to resection
    Michael Vouche
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology and Division of Interventional Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
    J Hepatol 59:1029-36. 2013
    ..We aimed at testing this concept by performing a comprehensive time-dependent analysis of liver volumes following radioembolization...
  12. pmc Cancer concepts and principles: primer for the interventional oncologist-part II
    Ryan Hickey
    Department of Radiology and Division of Interventional Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 24:1167-88. 2013
    ....
  13. pmc Cancer concepts and principles: primer for the interventional oncologist-part I
    Ryan Hickey
    Department of Radiology and Division of Interventional Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 24:1157-64. 2013
    ....
  14. ncbi Radiological-pathological analysis of WHO, RECIST, EASL, mRECIST and DWI: Imaging analysis from a prospective randomized trial of Y90 ± sorafenib
    Michael Vouche
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology and Division of Interventional Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL
    Hepatology 58:1655-66. 2013
    ..05). However, a cut-off size of 35 mm was predictive of CPN (P = 0.005). CPN could not be predicted by WHO (P = 0.25 and 0.62), RECIST (P = 0.35 and 0.54), EASL (P = 0.49 and 0.46), mRECIST (P = 0.49 and 0.60) or ADC (P = 0.86 and 0.93)...
  15. doi Increased quality of life among hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with radioembolization, compared with chemoembolization
    Riad Salem
    Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois Electronic address
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:1358-1365.e1. 2013
    ..We performed a health-related QoL study in patients with HCC treated by transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or (90)Y radioembolization...
  16. pmc Yttrium-90 radioembolization for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: safety, response, and survival analysis
    Samdeep Mouli
    Department of Radiology Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 24:1227-34. 2013
    ..To present data on safety, antitumoral response, and survival following yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization for patients with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC)...
  17. doi Locoregional chemoembolic delivery: prediction with transcatheter intraarterial perfusion MRI
    Ron C Gaba
    Department of Radiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 198:1196-202. 2012
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether findings at transcatheter intraarterial perfusion MRI before chemoembolization can be used to predict uptake of the chemoembolic material delivered during chemoembolization...
  18. pmc Alpha-fetoprotein response correlates with EASL response and survival in solitary hepatocellular carcinoma treated with transarterial therapies: a subgroup analysis
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
    J Hepatol 56:1112-20. 2012
    ..We sought to study the: (a) correlation between AFP response and imaging response, and (b) ability of AFP, EASL, and WHO response to predict survival outcomes in patients with solitary HCC...
  19. pmc Radiologic-pathologic correlation of hepatocellular carcinoma treated with chemoembolization
    Ahsun Riaz
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, 676 N St Clair, Suite 800, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 33:1143-52. 2010
    ..The κ coefficient for agreement between WHO and EASL was 0.29. EASL and WHO criteria had minimal intermethod agreement. EASL CR and WHO response were able to predict pathologic necrosis...
  20. pmc Agreement between competing imaging measures of response of hepatocellular carcinoma to yttrium-90 radioembolization
    Eugene Duke
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 21:515-21. 2010
    ..This study evaluated agreement among these competing tumor response classification schemes based on quantitative measurements of tumor size, necrosis, and changes in water mobility...
  21. pmc Imaging response in the primary index lesion and clinical outcomes following transarterial locoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma
    Ahsun Riaz
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA
    JAMA 303:1062-9. 2010
    ..No universally accepted standard exists...
  22. pmc Quantitative 4D transcatheter intraarterial perfusion MRI for monitoring chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Dingxin Wang
    Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Magn Reson Imaging 31:1106-16. 2010
    ....
  23. pmc Chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: comprehensive imaging and survival analysis in a 172-patient cohort
    Robert J Lewandowski
    Dept of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Ctr, Northwestern Memorial Hosp, 676 N St Clair St, Suite 800, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Radiology 255:955-65. 2010
    ..To determine comprehensive imaging and long-term survival outcome following chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  24. pmc Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to predict response of hepatocellular carcinoma to chemoembolization
    Johnathan C Chung
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 737 N Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, United States
    World J Gastroenterol 16:3161-7. 2010
    ..To investigate whether intra-procedural diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can predict response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE)...
  25. pmc Radioembolization results in longer time-to-progression and reduced toxicity compared with chemoembolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Riad Salem
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology and Division of Interventional Oncology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Gastroenterology 140:497-507.e2. 2011
    ..Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 microspheres is a novel, transarterial approach to radiation therapy. We performed a comparative effectiveness analysis of these therapies in patients with HCC...
  26. pmc Role of the EASL, RECIST, and WHO response guidelines alone or in combination for hepatocellular carcinoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation
    Ahsun Riaz
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago IL, USA
    J Hepatol 54:695-704. 2011
    ....
  27. pmc Chemoembolization endpoints: effect on survival among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Brian Jin
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, 737 N Michigan Ave, Ste 1600, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 196:919-28. 2011
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between angiographic embolic endpoints of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  28. pmc Radiographic response to locoregional therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma predicts patient survival times
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern University, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Gastroenterology 141:526-35, 535.e1-2. 2011
    ..We analyzed the association between tumor response and survival times of patients with HCC who were treated with locoregional therapies (LRTs) (chemoembolization and radioembolization)...
  29. pmc Intraprocedural transcatheter intra-arterial perfusion MRI as a predictor of tumor response to chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma
    Dingxin Wang
    Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Acad Radiol 18:828-36. 2011
    ....
  30. pmc Targeted radiofrequency field mapping using 3D reduced field-of-view-catalyzed double-angle method
    Dingxin Wang
    Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Magn Reson Imaging 29:1131-7. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to develop a targeted volumetric radiofrequency field (B(1)(+)) mapping technique to provide region-of-interest B(1)(+) information...
  31. doi Magnetic resonance elastography and biomarkers to assess fibrosis from recurrent hepatitis C in liver transplant recipients
    Victoria S Lee
    Division of Hepatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 N Street Clair, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Transplantation 92:581-6. 2011
    ..Our aim was to compare the accuracy of MRE and biomarkers in staging fibrosis because of recurrent HCV in liver transplant (LT) recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma...
  32. pmc Radioembolization for primary and metastatic liver cancer
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Semin Radiat Oncol 21:294-302. 2011
    ..This article focuses on both the technical and clinical aspects of radioembolization with emphasis on patient selection, uses and complications...
  33. pmc Quantitative 4D transcatheter intraarterial perfusion MRI for standardizing angiographic chemoembolization endpoints
    Brian Jin
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 197:1237-43. 2011
    ....
  34. pmc Extrahepatic metastases occur in a minority of hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with locoregional therapies: analyzing patterns of progression in 285 patients
    Seanthan Senthilnathan
    Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
    Hepatology 55:1432-42. 2012
    ..Multivariate analyses identified age <65 years (P = 0.038), alpha-fetoprotein >200 ng/mL (P = 0.04), and vascular invasion (P = 0.017) as significant predictors of metastases development...
  35. pmc Radioembolization for neuroendocrine liver metastases: safety, imaging, and long-term outcomes
    Khairuddin Memon
    Department of Radiology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83:887-94. 2012
    ..To present long-term outcomes on the safety and efficacy of Yttrium-90 radioembolization in the treatment of unresectable hepatic neuroendocrine metastases refractory to standard-of-care therapy...
  36. pmc Four-dimensional transcatheter intraarterial perfusion MR imaging for monitoring chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma: preliminary results
    Ron C Gaba
    Department of Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, 676 North St Clair Street, Suite 800, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 19:1589-95. 2008
    ..This study prospectively tested the hypothesis that a new volumetric acquisition over time, four-dimensional TRIP MR imaging, can measure HCC perfusion changes during chemoembolization...