Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality + Cancer Risk
Principal Investigator: Frank Hu
Affiliation: Harvard University
Abstract: DESCRIPTION: We propose to expand our current project by prospectively examining the associations between new dietary indexes and dietary patterns and risk of breast, colon, and prostate cancer in cohort studies of 121,700 women aged 30-55 years at baseline (1976, the Nurses' Health Study), 11,686 women aged 24-44 years at baseline (1989, Nurses' Healthy Study II), and 51,529 men aged 40-75 years at baseline (1986, Health Professionals Follow-up Study). Detailed dietary data have been collected through validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires every 2-4 years in each cohort. This competing renewal has four specific aims: 1). We will construct overall, animal, and vegetable low-carbohydrate scores based on intakes of macronutrients and assess their associations with risk of breast cancer (NHS I, II only), colorectal cancer, and prostate cancer (HPFS only). We will consider tumor subtypes/locations as endpoints. 2). We will examine whether adherence to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans is associated with lower risk of breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers. In addition, we will evaluate the relationship between changes in dietary indices over time and subsequent risk of cancers. The temporal relationship between diet and cancer will be analyzed by using different lag-periods (e.g., 4-12 years). 3). Using a novel statistical approach, Reduced Rank Regression (RRR), we will develop diet patterns that represent the effect of diet on increased insulin resistance (as reflected by increased plasma levels of fasting insulin and C-peptide and decreased adiponectin concentrations), IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, and endogenous sex steroid hormones and examine the relationships between the identified patterns and risk of major cancers. 4). We will examine both pre- and post-diagnostic dietary patterns (including low-carbohydrate scores and the Healthy Eating Index) in relation to survival rates of patients with breast, colon, or prostate cancer. Specifically, we will examine death from any cause, death from the specific cancer, and cancer recurrence, taking into account different tumor stages and treatment. The large size of these cohorts, the prospective design, the repeated and detailed measurements of diet and covariates, the high follow-up rates, and the availability of biochemical measurements provide a unique opportunity to study the relationship between overall diet patterns and risk of the three major cancers and their survivals in an extremely cost-efficient manner. This competing renewal builds on exciting results from the current cycle of our grant and will extend to new cancer sites with tumor subtypes and also address dietary predictors of survival of three major cancers. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The traditional paradigm in epidemiology focuses on cancer risk in relation to a single or a few nutrients or foods. Our currently funded grant has addressed the limitations of traditional nutritional epidemiologic analyses by examining dietary patterns by considering how foods and nutrients are consumed in combinations. In the competing renewal, we propose to examine low carbohydrate diets and adherence to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and risk of breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers in three large cohort studies. We will also examine the impact of these dietary patterns on cancer survival. In addition, we will use a novel statistical approach, Reduced Rank Regression (RRR), to develop diet patterns that represent the effect of diet on cancer biomarkers.
Funding Period: 2002-04-01 - 2013-02-28
more information: NIH RePORT
- Dietary patterns and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in a prospective cohort of womenChristin Heidemann
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Circulation 118:230-7. 2008..The impact of overall dietary patterns that reflect actual eating behaviors on mortality caused by cardiovascular or other chronic diseases is largely unknown...
- Dietary patterns and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancerTeresa T Fung
Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Int J Cancer 116:116-21. 2005..However, a Western-type diet may elevate risk of breast cancer among smokers, and a prudent diet may protect against estrogen receptive-negative tumors...
- Prediagnostic plasma C-peptide and pancreatic cancer risk in men and womenDominique S Michaud
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:2101-9. 2007..An association between serum insulin levels and pancreatic cancer risk was reported in a recent study, but the population was composed of heavy smokers and their findings may not be generalizable to nonsmokers...
- Circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and the risk of pancreatic cancerBrian M Wolpin
Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, MA 02115, USA
Cancer Res 67:7923-8. 2007..30; 95% CI, 1.48-7.35). Among participants in four U.S. prospective cohort studies, low plasma IGFBP-1 levels significantly predicted an increased risk of pancreatic cancer...
- Circulating insulin-like growth factor axis and the risk of pancreatic cancer in four prospective cohortsB M Wolpin
Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Br J Cancer 97:98-104. 2007..In four prospective cohorts, we found no association between the risk of pancreatic cancer and prediagnostic plasma levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, or IGFBP-3...
- Dietary patterns, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index and plasma sex hormone concentrations in postmenopausal womenTeresa T Fung
Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Int J Cancer 121:803-9. 2007..In contrast, the Western pattern was positively associated with estrogen levels and inversely with SHBG. However, these associations appeared to be largely accounted for by BMI...
- A prospective study of periodontal disease and pancreatic cancer in US male health professionalsDominique S Michaud
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Kresge 920, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Natl Cancer Inst 99:171-5. 2007..The association between periodontal disease and increased risk of pancreatic cancer may occur through plausible biologic mechanisms, but confirmation of this association is necessary...
- Meat mutagens and risk of distal colon adenoma in a cohort of U.S. menKana Wu
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Building 2, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:1120-5. 2006..Because mutagens other than heterocyclic amines also contribute to MDM, our results suggest that mutagens other than heterocyclic amines in cooked meats may also play a role in increasing the risk of distal adenoma...
- Diet quality is associated with the risk of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer in postmenopausal womenTeresa T Fung
Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, MA, USA
J Nutr 136:466-72. 2006..01) with the vegetable component of the scores. We conclude that women who scored high in AHEI, RFS, and aMed had a lower risk of ER- breast cancer. The HEI and DQI-R appeared to be of limited value in predicting breast cancer risk...
- Dietary patterns and survival after breast cancer diagnosisCandyce H Kroenke
University of California, Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholars Program, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
J Clin Oncol 23:9295-303. 2005..There is little prior study of major dietary patterns and breast cancer survival...
- Dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk in men and womenDominique S Michaud
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
J Natl Cancer Inst 97:518-24. 2005..Dietary patterns have been associated with fasting insulin levels and risk of diabetes. To determine whether dietary patterns are associated with pancreatic cancer risk, we analyzed data from two large prospective cohort studies...
- A randomized trial on folic acid supplementation and risk of recurrent colorectal adenomaKana Wu
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 90:1623-31. 2009..Evidence from observational studies suggests that inadequate folate status enhances colorectal carcinogenesis, but results from some randomized trials do not support this hypothesis...