RISK FACTORS FOR HIP AND COLLES' FRACTURES

Summary

Principal Investigator: Jane Cauley
Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh
Country: USA
Abstract: Fractures of the hip and wrist are a costly and preventable threat to the health and survival of the elderly. A better understanding of the risk factors for hip and Colles' fractures will add to our knowledge about the etiology of this condition and help focus research and preventive efforts on those who are at greatest risk. We propose to characterize risk factors for hip and Colles' fractures in a multicenter prospective study of 9,600 elderly women followed quarterly for an average of 3.5 years. Our cohort will be a population-based sample of non-black women aged 65 or greater who are screened from 1985 thru 1988 at clinical centers in Pittsburgh, Portland, Maryland and Minneapolis. In Pittsburgh we will recruit 2400 individuals from population listings resulting in as close as possible to a representative sample. At the baseline exam, we will measure a large set of potential historical and clinical predictors of fractures. We will use single-photon absorptiometry of the radius and also x-ray the hand, spine and hips to determine whether simple radiographic measurements can identify those with the greatest risk of fracture. We will also freeze serum from all participants at the outset and test the stability of hormone measurements on a subsample after storage at -196 degrees C for several years; measurements that are shown to be stable will be the subject of a future study of the hormonal differences between women who suffer fractures and those who do not. We conservatively estimate that 165 hip and 150 Colles' fractures will occur, yielding a power of .90 to detect risk ratios of less than 2.0 for common risk factors. Our prospective design will yield more information with fewer biases that the previous (retrospective) studies on this topic, and our nested-case control analyses will minimize the costs of the expensive endocrinologic and radiologic measurements. The study cohort, and its bank of sera, x-rays and clinical data is an excellent resource for future studies of osteoporosis, fractures and other diseases of the elderly. The results of our study will guide future research and rationalize clinical and public health efforts to prevent these fractures.
Funding Period: 1986-02-01 - 1992-01-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. doi Prospective study of endogenous circulating estradiol and risk of stroke in older women
    Jennifer S Lee
    Division of Endocrinology, Clinical Nutrition, and Vascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, 4150 V Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Arch Neurol 67:195-201. 2010
  2. pmc Acid-suppressive medications and risk of bone loss and fracture in older adults
    Elaine W Yu
    Endocrine Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Thier 1101, 50 Blossom Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 83:251-9. 2008
  3. pmc Genetic variation in candidate osteoporosis genes, bone mineral density, and fracture risk: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Gregory J Tranah
    CPMC Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94120, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 83:155-66. 2008
  4. doi Actigraphy-measured sleep characteristics and risk of falls in older women
    Katie L Stone
    Research Institute, California Pacific Medical Center, 185 Berry St, Lobby 4, Fifth Floor, Ste 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107 1762, USA
    Arch Intern Med 168:1768-75. 2008
  5. pmc Successful skeletal aging: a marker of low fracture risk and longevity. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF)
    Jane A Cauley
    University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 24:134-43. 2009
  6. pmc Prediction of incident hip fracture risk by femur geometry variables measured by hip structural analysis in the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Stephen Kaptoge
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Bone Miner Res 23:1892-904. 2008
  7. pmc Sources of binocular suprathreshold visual field loss in a cohort of older women being followed for risk of falls (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis)
    Anne Louise Coleman
    Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 105:312-29. 2007
  8. pmc Relationship of blood lead levels to incident nonspine fractures and falls in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Naila Khalil
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 23:1417-25. 2008
  9. doi Estrogen receptor alpha and matrix metalloproteinase 2 polymorphisms and age-related maculopathy in older women
    Robin L Seitzman
    Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 92122, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 167:1217-25. 2008
  10. doi Glaucoma risk and the consumption of fruits and vegetables among older women in the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Anne L Coleman
    Department of Ophthalmology and Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California Los Angeles, 100 Stein Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 145:1081-9. 2008

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. doi Prospective study of endogenous circulating estradiol and risk of stroke in older women
    Jennifer S Lee
    Division of Endocrinology, Clinical Nutrition, and Vascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, 4150 V Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Arch Neurol 67:195-201. 2010
    ..Stroke incidence increases after menopause, when endogenous estrogen levels fall, yet exogenous estrogen increases strokes in older postmenopausal women. The relation between endogenous estrogen and stroke is unclear...
  2. pmc Acid-suppressive medications and risk of bone loss and fracture in older adults
    Elaine W Yu
    Endocrine Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Thier 1101, 50 Blossom Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 83:251-9. 2008
    ..The use of PPIs in older women, and perhaps older men with low calcium intake, may be associated with a modestly increased risk of nonspine fracture...
  3. pmc Genetic variation in candidate osteoporosis genes, bone mineral density, and fracture risk: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Gregory J Tranah
    CPMC Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94120, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 83:155-66. 2008
    ..In conclusion, polymorphisms in several candidate genes were associated with hip, vertebral, and nonhip/nonvertebral fractures but not with total hip BMD in this large population based cohort study...
  4. doi Actigraphy-measured sleep characteristics and risk of falls in older women
    Katie L Stone
    Research Institute, California Pacific Medical Center, 185 Berry St, Lobby 4, Fifth Floor, Ste 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107 1762, USA
    Arch Intern Med 168:1768-75. 2008
    ..However, no previous study, to our knowledge, has tested the independent associations of objectively estimated characteristics of sleep and risk of falls, accounting for the use of commonly prescribed treatments for insomnia...
  5. pmc Successful skeletal aging: a marker of low fracture risk and longevity. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF)
    Jane A Cauley
    University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 24:134-43. 2009
    ..These women experienced a lower risk of fractures, disability, and mortality, suggesting that this phenotype may be a marker of successful aging...
  6. pmc Prediction of incident hip fracture risk by femur geometry variables measured by hip structural analysis in the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Stephen Kaptoge
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Bone Miner Res 23:1892-904. 2008
    ..Fracture might require initiation (e.g., by localized crushing or buckling of the lateral cortex)...
  7. pmc Sources of binocular suprathreshold visual field loss in a cohort of older women being followed for risk of falls (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis)
    Anne Louise Coleman
    Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 105:312-29. 2007
    ..To determine the sources of binocular visual field loss most strongly associated with falls in a cohort of older women...
  8. pmc Relationship of blood lead levels to incident nonspine fractures and falls in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Naila Khalil
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 23:1417-25. 2008
    ..07, 2.45; p trend = 0.014) compared with women with lowest lead level. Blood lead levels are associated with an increased risk of falls and fractures, extending the negative health consequences of lead to include osteoporotic fractures...
  9. doi Estrogen receptor alpha and matrix metalloproteinase 2 polymorphisms and age-related maculopathy in older women
    Robin L Seitzman
    Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 92122, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 167:1217-25. 2008
    ..02). The MMP2 rs2287074 A allele may be associated with a lower likelihood of ARM in older Caucasian women, particularly those who have never used hormone therapy. The role of MMP2 rs2287074 in ARM should be further elucidated...
  10. doi Glaucoma risk and the consumption of fruits and vegetables among older women in the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Anne L Coleman
    Department of Ophthalmology and Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California Los Angeles, 100 Stein Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 145:1081-9. 2008
    ..To explore the association between the consumption of fruits and vegetables and the presence of glaucoma...
  11. pmc Comparison of sleep parameters from actigraphy and polysomnography in older women: the SOF study
    Terri Blackwell
    California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Sleep 31:283-91. 2008
    ..Each mode was compared to PSG to determine which was more accurate. Associations of the difference in TST measurement with demographics and sleep characteristics were examined...
  12. pmc Clinical performance of osteoporosis risk assessment tools in women aged 67 years and older
    M L Gourlay
    Department of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7595, USA
    Osteoporos Int 19:1175-83. 2008
    ..Weight was as accurate as two of the tools to detect low bone density. Discriminatory ability was slightly better for the OST risk tool, which is based only on age and weight...
  13. ncbi High-trauma fractures and low bone mineral density in older women and men
    Dawn C Mackey
    San Francisco Coordinating Center, California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94107, USA
    JAMA 298:2381-8. 2007
    ..It is widely believed that fractures resulting from high trauma are not osteoporotic; however, this assumption has not been studied prospectively...
  14. pmc Poor sleep is associated with poorer physical performance and greater functional limitations in older women
    Suzanne E Goldman
    Department of Epidemiology, University ofPittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Sleep 30:1317-24. 2007
    ..This study examined the association between disturbed sleep and poorer daytime function in older women...
  15. doi Sleep, insomnia and falls in elderly patients
    Katie L Stone
    California Pacific Medical Center, Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA
    Sleep Med 9:S18-22. 2008
    ..In addition, there is a need to include fall risk factors such as postural sway and reaction time as outcomes for trials of new insomnia treatments...
  16. pmc The association between sleep duration and obesity in older adults
    S R Patel
    Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine and Center for Clinical Investigation, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:1825-34. 2008
    ..In this study, the cross-sectional associations between sleep duration measured objectively and measures of weight and body composition were assessed in two cohorts of older adults...
  17. pmc Estimates of the proportion of older white women who would be recommended for pharmacologic treatment by the new U.S. National Osteoporosis Foundation Guidelines
    Meghan G Donaldson
    San Francisco Coordinating Center, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94107, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 24:675-80. 2009
    ..Application of the new NOF Guidelines would result in recommending a very large proportion of white women in the United States for pharmacologic treatment of osteoporosis...
  18. pmc Association of osteocalcin and abdominal aortic calcification in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Benjamin D Parker
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 86:185-91. 2010
    ..87). In conclusion, among community-living older women, serum OC is not associated with AAC. These findings suggest that serum OC levels may more closely reflect bone formation than vascular calcification in humans...
  19. pmc The association of smoking and alcohol use with age-related macular degeneration in the oldest old: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures
    Anne L Coleman
    Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, School of Public Health, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 149:160-9. 2010
    ..To estimate the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the association of smoking and alcohol in a population of older women...
  20. doi Changes in proximal femoral mineral geometry precede the onset of radiographic hip osteoarthritis: The study of osteoporotic fractures
    M K Javaid
    University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 60:2028-36. 2009
    ..Radiographic hip osteoarthritis (RHOA) is associated with increased hip areal bone mineral density (aBMD). This study was undertaken to examine whether femoral geometry is associated with RHOA independent of aBMD...
  21. pmc Association of common genetic variation in the insulin/IGF1 signaling pathway with human longevity
    Ludmila Pawlikowska
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Aging Cell 8:460-72. 2009
    ..35, 95%CI = 1.15-1.57, adjusted P = 0.0093). These results demonstrate that common variants in several genes in the insulin/IGF1 pathway are associated with human lifespan...
  22. doi Large-scale analysis of association between GDF5 and FRZB variants and osteoarthritis of the hip, knee, and hand
    Evangelos Evangelou
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece
    Arthritis Rheum 60:1710-21. 2009
    ..To examine these associations, we performed a large-scale meta-analysis of individual-level data...
  23. pmc Admixture mapping of 15,280 African Americans identifies obesity susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5 and X
    Ching Yu Cheng
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000490. 2009
    ..27; genome-wide score = 3.46). Further mapping studies with dense sets of markers will be necessary to identify the alleles in these regions of chromosomes X and 5 that may be associated with variation in BMI...
  24. pmc The association of proximal femoral shape and incident radiographic hip OA in elderly women
    J A Lynch
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17:1313-8. 2009
    ..This study evaluated if proximal femur shape at baseline was a risk factor for incident radiographic hip OA (RHOA) after 8.3 years of follow-up in a cohort of elderly Caucasian women...
  25. pmc Loop diuretic use and rates of hip bone loss and risk of falls and fractures in older women
    Lionel S Lim
    Departments of Internal Medicine, Griffin Hospital, 130 Division St, Derby, CT 06418, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 57:855-62. 2009
    ..To determine whether loop diuretic use is associated with hip bone loss and greater risk of falls and fractures in older women...
  26. pmc Association of blood lead concentrations with mortality in older women: a prospective cohort study
    Naila Khalil
    University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Environ Health 8:15. 2009
    ..We aimed to determine the association between blood lead, all cause and cause specific mortality in elderly, community residing women...
  27. pmc Self-reported sleep and nap habits and risk of mortality in a large cohort of older women
    Katie L Stone
    Research Institute, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94107, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 57:604-11. 2009
    ..To determine the association between self-reported sleep and nap habits and mortality in a large cohort of older women...
  28. pmc Anxiety symptoms and objectively measured sleep quality in older women
    Adam P Spira
    Division of Geriatrics and Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 17:136-43. 2009
    ..Few studies have examined the association between anxiety symptoms and objectively measured sleep quality in older adults. The authors determined this association in a large cohort of very old community-dwelling women...
  29. pmc A meta-analysis of candidate gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke in 6 study populations: association of lymphotoxin-alpha in nonhypertensive patients
    Xingyu Wang
    Laboratory of Human Genetics, Beijing Hypertension League Institute, Beijing, China
    Stroke 40:683-95. 2009
    ....
  30. pmc Risk factors for severity and type of the hip fracture
    Jane A Cauley
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 24:943-55. 2009
    ..Little difference was reported in the self-reported circumstances surrounding each type of fracture. In conclusion, the lower the BMD, the greater the likelihood of experiencing a hip fracture that is less displaced and more stable...
  31. pmc Change in serum measurements of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and association with the development and worsening of radiographic hip osteoarthritis
    R K Chaganti
    New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage 16:566-71. 2008
    ..3 years of follow-up...
  32. ncbi Sleep problems in elderly women caregivers depend on the level of depressive symptoms: results of the Caregiver--Study of Osteoporotic Fractures
    Jinesh Kochar
    Division of Aging, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 55:2003-9. 2007
    ..To determine whether depressive symptoms modify the association between caregiving and sleep problems in elderly women...
  33. ncbi Association of phosphodiesterase 4D polymorphisms with ischemic stroke in a US population stratified by hypertension status
    Victoria H Brophy
    Roche Molecular Systems, Alameda, CA 94501, USA
    Stroke 37:1385-90. 2006
    ..We tested association of 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1 microsatellite in a nested case-control sample of elderly white women (>65 years of age) from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) in the United States...
  34. ncbi Association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase genotypes with bone mineral density, bone loss, hip structure, and risk of fracture in older women: the SOF study
    Brent C Taylor
    Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research 152 2E, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, and Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Bone 39:174-80. 2006
    ..Confirmation of these findings is needed in other populations and with additional markers within and flanking the NOS3 gene region...
  35. ncbi Measures of adiposity and risk of breast cancer in older postmenopausal women
    Erin E Krebs
    Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program and Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 54:63-9. 2006
    ..To determine whether higher adiposity is associated with greater breast cancer risk in older postmenopausal women...
  36. ncbi Patterns and determinants of muscle strength change with aging in older men
    Kimberly Y Z Forrest
    Department of Allied Health, Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania, PA 16057, USA
    Aging Male 8:151-6. 2005
    ..Multivariate analyses revealed that besides older age, other risk factors also contributed to the loss of muscle strength in older men, including back pain, use of calcium channel blockers, caffeine intake, and height and weight loss...
  37. ncbi Nuclear receptor coactivator-3 alleles are associated with serum bioavailable testosterone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and vertebral bone mass in men
    Yah Tyng Sheu
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:307-12. 2006
    ..Nuclear receptor coactivator-3 (NCOA3) is a member of the steroid receptor coactivator family that interacts with nuclear hormone receptors to enhance their transcriptional activation function and may play a role in somatic growth...
  38. ncbi Genetic epidemiology of osteoporosis: past, present, and future
    Joseph M Zmuda
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Curr Osteoporos Rep 3:111-5. 2005
    ..The results of this research should facilitate the development of new methods for diagnosing, preventing, and treating the growing clinical and public health problem of osteoporosis...
  39. ncbi Increased mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome in older women with diabetes
    Teresa A Hillier
    Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest Hawaii, 3800 N Interstate Ave, Portland, Oregon 97227, USA
    Diabetes Care 28:2258-60. 2005
  40. ncbi Physical activity and decreased risk of clinical gallstone disease among post-menopausal women
    Kristi L Storti
    Department of Epidemiology, 505 Parran Hall, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Prev Med 41:772-7. 2005
    ..Physical activity may play a role in preventing gallstone disease...
  41. ncbi Pre-existing hypertension and the impact of stroke on cognitive function
    Jacob S Elkins
    University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Ann Neurol 58:68-74. 2005
    ..13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22) (p for interaction = 0.032). Pre-existing hypertension in women is associated with a greater impact of stroke on cognitive function, possibly by influencing the ability to tolerate or recover from brain injury...
  42. ncbi Sex hormones, risk factors, and risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in older women: a long-term prospective study
    Steven R Cummings
    California Pacific Medical Center, Coordinating Center, Suite 600, 74 New Montgomery Street, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:1047-51. 2005
    ..Women at high risk of ER+ cancer would be the most likely to benefit from these treatments, but the best approach to predicting ER+ cancer is uncertain...
  43. ncbi Economic comparison of diagnostic approaches for evaluating osteoporosis in older women
    Dale F Kraemer
    Department of Medical Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence based Practice Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97230, USA
    Osteoporos Int 17:68-76. 2006
    ..Compared to other approaches for diagnosing osteoporosis, sequential use of QUS followed by DXA resulted in fewer women treated and lower total costs...
  44. ncbi Association of estrogen receptor alpha polymorphisms with breast cancer risk in older Caucasian women
    Francesmary Modugno
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Int J Cancer 116:984-91. 2005
    ..60 vs. 1.12 for nulliparous vs. parous women; interaction p = 0.03). ESR1 polymorphisms in combination with lifestyle factors may be associated with breast cancer risk in older Caucasian women...
  45. ncbi Postmenopausal bilateral oophorectomy is not associated with increased fracture risk in older women
    Diana M Antoniucci
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94105, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 20:741-7. 2005
    ..There was no association between postmenopausal oophorectomy and the risk of hip or vertebral fractures...
  46. ncbi The search for human osteoporosis genes
    J M Zmuda
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 6:3-15. 2006
    ..The new insight that will emerge from this ongoing research should lead to new ways of diagnosing, preventing and treating the growing clinical and public health problem of osteoporosis...
  47. ncbi Higher 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations associated with lower fall rates in older community-dwelling women
    K A Faulkner
    University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Parran 509, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Osteoporos Int 17:1318-28. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of vitamin D supplementation and serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and parathyroid hormone (PTH) with neuromuscular function and falls in older community-dwelling women...
  48. ncbi Self-reported sleep and nap habits and risk of falls and fractures in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Katie L Stone
    Research Institute, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, 94107, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 54:1177-83. 2006
    ..To test the association between self-reported sleep and nap habits and risk of falls and fractures in a large cohort of older women...
  49. pmc Executive function, more than global cognition, predicts functional decline and mortality in elderly women
    Julene K Johnson
    UCSF Department of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, 350 Parnassus, Suite 706, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62:1134-41. 2007
    ..Our goal was to compare the contribution of impairment in executive function or global cognitive function to predicting functional decline and mortality...
  50. pmc Behavioral correlates of sleep-disordered breathing in older women
    Eric J Kezirian
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Sleep 30:1181-8. 2007
    ....
  51. ncbi Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and cognitive function in older women
    Jacob S Elkins
    Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:672-8. 2007
    ..035). Although the strength of the observed associations was modest, these results lend some support to the theory that an elevated homocysteine level contributes to cognitive decline...
  52. ncbi Preclinical cognitive decline and subsequent sleep disturbance in older women
    K Yaffe
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, and the San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Neurology 69:237-42. 2007
    ..To determine whether longitudinal cognitive decline is associated with increased risk of sleep disturbance in older, nondemented, community-dwelling women...
  53. ncbi Body mass index and mortality among older breast cancer survivors in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures
    Katherine W Reeves
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 516A Parran Hall, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1468-73. 2007
    ..This study investigated the association between BMI and mortality after breast cancer diagnosis in a cohort of older Caucasian women enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures...
  54. ncbi Bone mineral density and age-related maculopathy in older women
    Robin L Seitzman
    Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 55:740-6. 2007
    ..To determine whether bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with age-related maculopathy (ARM) risk in older women...
  55. ncbi Thyroid hormone use, hyperthyroidism and mortality in older women
    Douglas C Bauer
    Division of General Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA
    Am J Med 120:343-9. 2007
    ..We performed a prospective cohort study to examine the relationship among thyroid hormone use, previous hyperthyroidism, abnormal thyroid function, and mortality...
  56. ncbi Binocular visual-field loss increases the risk of future falls in older white women
    Anne L Coleman
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 55:357-64. 2007
    ..To examine the relationship between binocular visual field loss and the risk of incident frequent falls in older white women...
  57. ncbi Association between aortic calcification and total and cardiovascular mortality in older women
    N Rodondi
    Cardiovascular Prevention Clinic, University Outpatient Clinic, Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Intern Med 261:238-44. 2007
    ..To determine whether older women with abdominal aortic calcification had a greater cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, as such data are limited in older adults...
  58. ncbi Estrogen receptor alpha haplotypes and breast cancer risk in older Caucasian women
    Jun Wang
    Human Genetics Department, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc, 1145 Atlantic Ave, Alameda, CA 94555, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 106:273-80. 2007
    ..001% in cases and controls). No other statistically significant associations were observed between ESR1 haplotypes from the same four SNPs and the risk of breast cancer in older Caucasian women...
  59. ncbi Evaluating the value of repeat bone mineral density measurement and prediction of fractures in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Teresa A Hillier
    Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest Hawaii, Portland, OR 97227, USA
    Arch Intern Med 167:155-60. 2007
    ..Whether repeat bone mineral density (BMD) measurement adds benefit beyond the initial BMD measurement in predicting fractures in older women is unknown...
  60. ncbi Renal function and risk of hip and vertebral fractures in older women
    Kristine E Ensrud
    Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA
    Arch Intern Med 167:133-9. 2007
    ..An increased rate of hip fractures has been reported in patients with end-stage renal disease, but the effect of less severe renal dysfunction on fracture risk is uncertain...
  61. ncbi Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and mortality in older women: Study of osteoporotic fractures
    Kathryn L Pedula
    Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, Oregon 97227, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 54:1871-7. 2006
    ..To determine whether poorer visual acuity and contrast sensitivity are independent risk factors for all-cause and traumatic mortality in older women...
  62. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphism, bone strength phenotypes, and the risk of fracture in older women
    S P Moffett
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3491-7. 2005
    ..The G-308A polymorphism was not associated with a reduced risk of other fractures. These results suggest a potential role of genetic variation in TNFalpha in the etiology of osteoporosis...