RISK FACTORS FOR HIP AND COLLES' FRACTURES

Summary

Principal Investigator: Jane Cauley
Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh
Country: USA
Abstract: Fractures of the hip and wrist are a costly and preventable threat to the health and survival of the elderly. A better understanding of the risk factors for hip and Colles' fractures will add to our knowledge about the etiology of this condition and help focus research and preventive efforts on those who are at greatest risk. We propose to characterize risk factors for hip and Colles' fractures in a multicenter prospective study of 9,600 elderly women followed quarterly for an average of 3.5 years. Our cohort will be a population-based sample of non-black women aged 65 or greater who are screened from 1985 thru 1988 at clinical centers in Pittsburgh, Portland, Maryland and Minneapolis. In Pittsburgh we will recruit 2400 individuals from population listings resulting in as close as possible to a representative sample. At the baseline exam, we will measure a large set of potential historical and clinical predictors of fractures. We will use single-photon absorptiometry of the radius and also x-ray the hand, spine and hips to determine whether simple radiographic measurements can identify those with the greatest risk of fracture. We will also freeze serum from all participants at the outset and test the stability of hormone measurements on a subsample after storage at -196 degrees C for several years; measurements that are shown to be stable will be the subject of a future study of the hormonal differences between women who suffer fractures and those who do not. We conservatively estimate that 165 hip and 150 Colles' fractures will occur, yielding a power of .90 to detect risk ratios of less than 2.0 for common risk factors. Our prospective design will yield more information with fewer biases that the previous (retrospective) studies on this topic, and our nested-case control analyses will minimize the costs of the expensive endocrinologic and radiologic measurements. The study cohort, and its bank of sera, x-rays and clinical data is an excellent resource for future studies of osteoporosis, fractures and other diseases of the elderly. The results of our study will guide future research and rationalize clinical and public health efforts to prevent these fractures.
Funding Period: 1986-02-01 - 1992-01-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Women with hip fracture have a greater rate of decline in bone mineral density than expected: another significant consequence of a common geriatric problem
    J Magaziner
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 660 W Redwood Street, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA
    Osteoporos Int 17:971-7. 2006
  2. pmc Validity of activity-based devices to estimate sleep
    Allison R Weiss
    Center for Clinical Investigation, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106 7291, USA
    J Clin Sleep Med 6:336-42. 2010
  3. pmc Circadian activity rhythms and mortality: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Gregory J Tranah
    California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco Coordinating Center, UCSF, 185 Berry Street, Lobby 4, Suite 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 58:282-91. 2010
  4. pmc Indicators of "healthy aging" in older women (65-69 years of age). A data-mining approach based on prediction of long-term survival
    William R Swindell
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2200, USA
    BMC Geriatr 10:55. 2010
  5. pmc Reliability and validity of abbreviated surveys derived from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Gergana Kodjebacheva
    Jules Stein Eye Institute and the Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, 100 Stein Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7004, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 149:330-40. 2010
  6. pmc Novel methods to evaluate fracture risk models
    Meghan G Donaldson
    San Francisco Coordinating Center, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 26:1767-73. 2011
  7. pmc Hip fracture and increased short-term but not long-term mortality in healthy older women
    Erin S LeBlanc
    Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, 3800 N Interstate Ave, Portland, OR 97227, USA
    Arch Intern Med 171:1831-7. 2011
  8. pmc Self-ratings of health and change in walking speed over 2 years: results from the caregiver-study of osteoporotic fractures
    Jeffrey M Ashburner
    Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:882-9. 2011
  9. pmc Circadian activity rhythms and risk of incident dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older women
    Gregory J Tranah
    California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94107 1728, USA
    Ann Neurol 70:722-32. 2011
  10. pmc Association of BMD and FRAX score with risk of fracture in older adults with type 2 diabetes
    Ann V Schwartz
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry St, Lobby 5, Ste 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107 1762, USA
    JAMA 305:2184-92. 2011

Detail Information

Publications169 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Women with hip fracture have a greater rate of decline in bone mineral density than expected: another significant consequence of a common geriatric problem
    J Magaziner
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 660 W Redwood Street, Suite 200, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA
    Osteoporos Int 17:971-7. 2006
    ..A substantial decline in bone mineral density (BMD) also occurs, yet the magnitude of the decline specifically attributable to hip fracture has not been documented...
  2. pmc Validity of activity-based devices to estimate sleep
    Allison R Weiss
    Center for Clinical Investigation, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106 7291, USA
    J Clin Sleep Med 6:336-42. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of sleep estimation using a device designed and marketed to measure core physical activity...
  3. pmc Circadian activity rhythms and mortality: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Gregory J Tranah
    California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco Coordinating Center, UCSF, 185 Berry Street, Lobby 4, Suite 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 58:282-91. 2010
    ..To determine whether circadian activity rhythms are associated with mortality in community-dwelling older women...
  4. pmc Indicators of "healthy aging" in older women (65-69 years of age). A data-mining approach based on prediction of long-term survival
    William R Swindell
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2200, USA
    BMC Geriatr 10:55. 2010
    ..The aims of this study were to identify predictors of long-term survival in older women and to develop a multivariable model based upon longitudinal data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF)...
  5. pmc Reliability and validity of abbreviated surveys derived from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Gergana Kodjebacheva
    Jules Stein Eye Institute and the Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, 100 Stein Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7004, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 149:330-40. 2010
    ..To test the reliability and validity of questionnaires shortened from the National Eye Institute 25-item Vision Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25)...
  6. pmc Novel methods to evaluate fracture risk models
    Meghan G Donaldson
    San Francisco Coordinating Center, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 26:1767-73. 2011
    ..The Cook method (both models, both fracture outcomes) had similar fracture rates above/below the treatment thresholds. Compared with the AUC, new methods provide more detailed information about how models classify patients...
  7. pmc Hip fracture and increased short-term but not long-term mortality in healthy older women
    Erin S LeBlanc
    Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, 3800 N Interstate Ave, Portland, OR 97227, USA
    Arch Intern Med 171:1831-7. 2011
    ..Fractures have been associated with subsequent increases in mortality, but it is unknown how long that increase persists...
  8. pmc Self-ratings of health and change in walking speed over 2 years: results from the caregiver-study of osteoporotic fractures
    Jeffrey M Ashburner
    Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:882-9. 2011
    ..88%), whereas low-intensity caregivers in excellent/good SRH had no decline (2.61%). In summary, poorer SRH was associated with decline in walking speed in older women, and the stress of caregiving may have exacerbated its impact...
  9. pmc Circadian activity rhythms and risk of incident dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older women
    Gregory J Tranah
    California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94107 1728, USA
    Ann Neurol 70:722-32. 2011
    ..We determined whether circadian activity rhythms measured in community-dwelling older women are prospectively associated with incident dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
  10. pmc Association of BMD and FRAX score with risk of fracture in older adults with type 2 diabetes
    Ann V Schwartz
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry St, Lobby 5, Ste 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107 1762, USA
    JAMA 305:2184-92. 2011
    ..It is not known if low BMD, central to fracture prediction in older adults, identifies fracture risk in patients with DM...
  11. pmc Recommendations for standardization and phenotype definitions in genetic studies of osteoarthritis: the TREAT-OA consortium
    H J M Kerkhof
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage 19:254-64. 2011
    ..To address the need for standardization of osteoarthritis (OA) phenotypes by examining the effect of heterogeneity among symptomatic (SOA) and radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) phenotypes...
  12. pmc Association between insomnia symptoms and weight change in older women: caregiver--study of osteoporotic fractures study
    Craig Ross
    Epidemiology Department, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 59:1697-704. 2011
    ..To determine whether self-reported insomnia symptoms were associated with weight change in older women and whether caregiving, comorbidities, sleep medication, or stress modified this association...
  13. pmc Depressive symptoms and subjective and objective sleep in community-dwelling older women
    Jeanne E Maglione
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 60:635-43. 2012
    ..To examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective and objective sleep in older women...
  14. pmc Mortality associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease in older women
    David Nanchen
    Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 7:e48818. 2012
    ..We aimed to assess whether diabetes was associated with a similar risk of total and cause-specific mortality as a history of CVD in older women...
  15. pmc The association of consumption of fruits/vegetables with decreased risk of glaucoma among older African-American women in the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Joann A Giaconi
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 154:635-44. 2012
    ..To explore the association between consumption of fruits and vegetables and the presence of glaucoma in older African-American women...
  16. pmc Built environment and its influences on walking among older women: use of standardized geographic units to define urban forms
    Vivian W Siu
    Population Research Center and Institute of Metropolitan Studies, Portland State University, P O Box 751, Portland, OR 97207, USA
    J Environ Public Health 2012:203141. 2012
    ..The findings may inform environmental/policy interventions that shape communities and promote active living...
  17. pmc Twenty-year depressive trajectories among older women
    Amy L Byers
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:1073-9. 2012
    ..Despite the frequent occurrence of depressive symptoms among older adults, especially women, little is known about the long-term course of late-life depressive symptoms...
  18. pmc A genome-wide association study identifies an osteoarthritis susceptibility locus on chromosome 7q22
    Hanneke J M Kerkhof
    Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Arthritis Rheum 62:499-510. 2010
    ..To identify novel genes involved in osteoarthritis (OA), by means of a genome-wide association study...
  19. pmc Familial resemblance and shared latent familial variance in recurrent fall risk in older women
    Kimberly A Faulkner
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto St, A 551, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 108:1142-7. 2010
    ..A possible familial component to fracture risk may be mediated through a genetic liability to fall recurrently...
  20. pmc Does using lower limit of normal values enhance the ability of a single bone mineral density measure to predict fractures?
    Q Wu
    Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, 13400 East Shea Blvd, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA
    Osteoporos Int 21:1881-8. 2010
    ....
  21. ncbi Poor sleep is associated with impaired cognitive function in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Terri Blackwell
    San Francisco Coordinating Center and California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, 185 Berry Street, Lobby 4, Suite 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 61:405-10. 2006
    ..The association between objectively measured sleep and cognition among community-dwelling elderly persons remains understudied. This observational, cross-sectional analysis examined this association...
  22. ncbi Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and sleep disturbances in community-dwelling older women
    Kristine E Ensrud
    Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, and Department of Medicine and Division of Epidemiology, University of Minnesota 55417, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 54:1508-15. 2006
    ..To determine the association between use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and objective measures of sleep disturbances in older community-dwelling women, including women without evidence of depression...
  23. ncbi Breast cancer risk factors and mammographic breast density in women over age 70
    Francesmary Modugno
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 97:157-66. 2006
    ..Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but little is known about factors associated with breast density in women over 70...
  24. ncbi Use of antidepressants and rates of hip bone loss in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Susan J Diem
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, and Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 1100 Washington Ave S, Suite 201, Minneapolis, MN 55415, USA
    Arch Intern Med 167:1240-5. 2007
    ..Serotonin transporters have recently been described in bone, raising the possibility that medications that block serotonin reuptake could affect bone metabolism...
  25. ncbi Depressive symptoms and rates of bone loss at the hip in older women
    Susan J Diem
    Department of Medicine, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55415, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 55:824-31. 2007
    ..To ascertain whether depressive symptoms are associated with increased rates of bone loss at the hip...
  26. ncbi Frailty and risk of falls, fracture, and mortality in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Kristine E Ensrud
    Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62:744-51. 2007
    ..However, the predictive validity of this phenotype for fracture outcomes and across risk subgroups is uncertain...
  27. pmc Cognition in older women: the importance of daytime movement
    Deborah E Barnes
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 56:1658-64. 2008
    ..To determine whether an objective measure of daytime movement is associated with better cognitive function in women in their 80s...
  28. doi The association of Parkinson's disease with bone mineral density and fracture in older women
    J L Schneider
    California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Osteoporos Int 19:1093-7. 2008
    ..Among community-dwelling older women, compared to those without Parkinson's disease (PD), women with PD have 7.3% lower BMD and an increased risk for hip fracture (HR = 2.6)...
  29. pmc Differences in site-specific fracture risk among older women with discordant results for osteoporosis at hip and spine: study of osteoporotic fractures
    Howard A Fink
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA
    J Clin Densitom 11:250-9. 2008
    ..Women osteoporotic only at spine would not have been identified from hip BMD measurement alone, and may have a sufficiently high fracture risk to warrant preventive treatment...
  30. ncbi Prevalence and correlates of periodic limb movements in older women
    David M Claman
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Clin Sleep Med 2:438-45. 2006
    ..However, no large polysomnographic study has closely examined the relationship of PLMS to sleep architecture and arousals from sleep. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of PLMS in a community-based sample of older women...
  31. doi Postmenopausal hormone therapy and age-related maculopathy in older women
    Robin L Seitzman
    Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 15:308-16. 2008
    ..To examine the association between postmenopausal hormone therapy and Age-Related Maculopathy (ARM) in older women and to determine if these associations vary by smoking status...
  32. ncbi Sleep-disordered breathing and cognition in older women
    Adam P Spira
    Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 56:45-50. 2008
    ....
  33. pmc Lifestyle predicts falls independent of physical risk factors
    K A Faulkner
    University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Osteoporos Int 20:2025-34. 2009
    ..Not smoking and going outdoors frequently or infrequently were independently associated with more falls, indicating lifestyle-related behavioral and environmental risk factors are important causes of falls in older women...
  34. pmc Defining incident radiographic hip osteoarthritis for epidemiologic studies in women
    Nigel K Arden
    MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, Southampton, UK and University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Arthritis Rheum 60:1052-9. 2009
    ..To evaluate definitions of radiographic hip osteoarthritis (RHOA) for use in longitudinal epidemiologic studies of disease incidence in women...
  35. pmc Caregiving intensity and change in physical functioning over a 2-year period: results of the caregiver-study of osteoporotic fractures
    Lisa Fredman
    Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 170:203-10. 2009
    ..Higher levels of physical performance persisted over 2 years among high-intensity caregivers, which did not support the traditional stress hypothesis...
  36. pmc Visual field loss and risk of fractures in older women
    Anne L Coleman
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 57:1825-32. 2009
    ..To evaluate the associations between visual field loss and nonspine fractures...
  37. pmc Depressive symptoms in oldest-old women: risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia
    Adam P Spira
    Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 20:1006-15. 2012
    ..We determined whether elevated depressive symptoms predicted 5-year incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, and neuropsychological test performance among oldest-old women...
  38. pmc Does change in the neighborhood environment prevent obesity in older women?
    Yvonne L Michael
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA, USA Electronic address
    Soc Sci Med 102:129-37. 2014
    ..Future research should consider the influence of the neighborhood environment on additional relevant health outcomes and should include measures of the social environment in conjunction with built environment measures. ..
  39. pmc Racial/ethnic differences in bone mineral density among older women
    Hae Sung Nam
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea
    J Bone Miner Metab 31:190-8. 2013
    ..These findings show substantial racial/ethnic differences in BMD even within African or Asian origin individuals, and highlight the contributing role of body weight and estrogen use to the geographic and racial/ethnic variation in BMD...
  40. pmc Common genetic variants in ARNTL and NPAS2 and at chromosome 12p13 are associated with objectively measured sleep traits in the elderly
    Daniel S Evans
    California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94107 1728, USA
    Sleep 36:431-46. 2013
    ..To determine the association between common genetic variation in the clock gene pathway and objectively measured acti-graphic sleep and activity rhythm traits...
  41. pmc Sclerostin and bone strength in women in their 10th decade of life
    Sara Thorson
    School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 28:2008-16. 2013
    ..4% to 15.3% greater than the lowest quartile, whereas no trend was found for the T33% site. Our results suggest paradoxical associations between circulating sclerostin and bone size, density, and strength. ..
  42. pmc Built environment and change in body mass index in older women
    Yvonne L Michael
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University School of Public Health, 1505 Race Street, MS 1033, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
    Health Place 22:7-10. 2013
    ..03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05). Walkability was not associated with BMI or risk of obesity. Future research should consider additional neighborhood characteristics relevant to older adults, such as proximity to retail, public transit, or parks...
  43. pmc Kyphosis and decline in physical function over 15 years in older community-dwelling women: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures
    Wendy B Katzman
    Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California, 1500 Owens St, Suite 400, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 68:976-83. 2013
    ..Greater degrees of kyphosis in the thoracic spine are prevalent in older persons and accompanied by reduced physical function in multiple cross-sectional studies. It is unknown whether kyphosis predicts worse physical function over time...
  44. pmc Diabetes and change in bone mineral density at the hip, calcaneus, spine, and radius in older women
    Ann V Schwartz
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 4:62. 2013
    ..Higher rates of bone loss may partially explain higher fracture rates in older women with DM...
  45. pmc Public health impact of osteoporosis
    Jane A Cauley
    DRPH, Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 68:1243-51. 2013
    ..To describe the public health impact of osteoporosis including the magnitude of the problem and important consequences of osteoporotic fractures...
  46. pmc Changes in physical performance in older women according to presence and treatment of diabetes mellitus
    Christine G Lee
    Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, Oregon Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, Oregon
    J Am Geriatr Soc 61:1872-8. 2013
    ..To determine whether older women with diabetes mellitus have a greater longitudinal decline in physical performance than those without and whether any decline differs according to insulin sensitizer use...
  47. pmc Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration does not independently predict incident diabetes in older women
    A L Schafer
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Endocrine Research Unit, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Diabet Med 31:564-9. 2014
    ..To investigate whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was associated with incident diabetes in a large cohort of older women...
  48. pmc Long-term cumulative depressive symptom burden and risk of cognitive decline and dementia among very old women
    Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Lobby 5, Suite 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 69:595-601. 2014
    ..This study examines the association of nearly 20 years of cumulative depressive symptoms with cognitive outcomes in a cohort of older women...
  49. pmc The FNIH sarcopenia project: rationale, study description, conference recommendations, and final estimates
    Stephanie A Studenski
    Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, National Institute on Aging, 3001 S Hanover Street, Fifth Floor, Baltimore MD 21225
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 69:547-58. 2014
    ..Details of the Project and its findings are presented in four accompanying manuscripts...
  50. pmc Change in inflammatory markers and cognitive status in the oldest-old women from the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Andrea L Metti
    Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    J Am Geriatr Soc 62:662-6. 2014
    ..To determine the association between interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 soluble receptor (sR), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNF-R1) and cognitive status in the oldest-old women...
  51. pmc Prediction models of prevalent radiographic vertebral fractures among older women
    John T Schousboe
    Park Nicollet Osteoporosis Center and Institute for Research and Education, Minneapolis, MN, USA and Division of Health Policy and Management, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Electronic address
    J Clin Densitom 17:378-85. 2014
    ..These results suggest that lateral spine imaging is appropriate to consider for all Caucasian women aged 70 y and older with low bone mass to identify those with PVFx. ..
  52. pmc Genetic modifiers of cognitive maintenance among older adults
    Jennifer S Yokoyama
    Department of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, California
    Hum Brain Mapp 35:4556-65. 2014
    ..Identify genetic factors associated with cognitive maintenance in late life and assess their association with gray matter (GM) volume in brain networks affected in aging...
  53. pmc Kyphosis and paraspinal muscle composition in older men: a cross-sectional study for the osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) research group
    Wendy B Katzman
    Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 15:19. 2014
    ..We previously reported that poor paraspinal muscle composition contributes to more severe kyphosis in a cohort of both older men and women...
  54. pmc Magnitude and consequences of misclassification of incident hip fractures in large cohort studies: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures and Medicare claims data
    J T Schousboe
    Park Nicollet Institute, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Osteoporos Int 24:801-10. 2013
    ..5 % of incident hip fractures identified in Medicare Fee-for-Service claims data were not reported to or confirmed by the cohort. Cognitive impairment was a modest risk factor for false-negative hip fracture ascertainment via self-report...
  55. pmc Cost-effectiveness of bone densitometry among Caucasian women and men without a prior fracture according to age and body weight
    J T Schousboe
    Park Nicollet Institute, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Osteoporos Int 24:163-77. 2013
    ..Among women aged 55-65 years and men aged 55-75 years without a prior fracture, body weight can be used to identify those for whom bone densitometry is cost-effective...
  56. pmc Ten-year trajectory of potentially inappropriate medications in very old women: importance of cognitive status
    Alain Koyama
    Northern California Institute for Research and Education, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 61:258-63. 2013
    ..To determine which older adults tend to receive potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs), how this may differ according to cognitive status, and how the trajectories of PIM use change over time...
  57. pmc Height loss in older women: risk of hip fracture and mortality independent of vertebral fractures
    Teresa A Hillier
    Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR 97227, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:153-9. 2012
    ..Height loss >5 cm (2″) in older women was associated with a nearly 50% increased risk of hip fracture, nonspine fracture, and mortality-independent of incident VFx and BMD...
  58. pmc Are women with thicker cortices in the femoral shaft at higher risk of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal fractures? The study of osteoporotic fractures
    Nicola Napoli
    Università Campus Bio Medico di Roma, Roma, Italy
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:2414-22. 2012
    ....
  59. pmc Components of metabolic syndrome and risk of breast cancer by prognostic features in the study of osteoporotic fractures cohort
    Katherine W Reeves
    Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 715 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    Cancer Causes Control 23:1241-51. 2012
    ..Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and most of its components have been previously associated with increased breast cancer risk. We hypothesized that increasing number of MetS components would be positively associated with breast cancer risk...
  60. pmc Impact of calcium intake and intestinal calcium absorption on kidney stones in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Mathew D Sorensen
    Department of Urology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Urol 187:1287-92. 2012
    ..However, to our knowledge no study has directly assessed this association. Therefore, we explored the relationship among intestinal fractional calcium absorption, calcium intake and nephrolithiasis...
  61. pmc Validation of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in older black and white women
    Sherry A Beaudreau
    Sierra Pacific Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Centers, Palo Alto VA Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, United States
    Sleep Med 13:36-42. 2012
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of and to provide normative data for these questionnaires in community-dwelling older women...
  62. pmc Objectively measured sleep quality and nursing home placement in older women
    Adam P Spira
    Department of Mental Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 60:1237-43. 2012
    ..To determine the association between objectively measured sleep and subsequent placement in a nursing home or a personal care home...
  63. pmc Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in older women
    Margaret L Gourlay
    Department of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7595, USA
    N Engl J Med 366:225-33. 2012
    ..Although bone mineral density (BMD) testing to screen for osteoporosis (BMD T score, -2.50 or lower) is recommended for women 65 years of age or older, there are few data to guide decisions about the interval between BMD tests...
  64. pmc Association between serum 25(OH) vitamin D and the risk of cognitive decline in older women
    Yelena Slinin
    Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 67:1092-8. 2012
    ..We tested the hypothesis that lower 25(OH)D levels are associated with a greater likelihood of cognitive impairment and risk of cognitive decline...
  65. pmc Poor sleep quality and functional decline in older women
    Adam P Spira
    Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 60:1092-8. 2012
    ..To determine whether objectively measured sleep quality predicts 5-year incident instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) impairment and decline in grip strength and gait speed in older women...
  66. pmc Serum sclerostin and risk of hip fracture in older Caucasian women
    Aarthi Arasu
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:2027-32. 2012
    ..Sclerostin, a protein secreted by osteocytes, inhibits bone formation. Individuals with genetic mutations that decrease the availability of sclerostin have very high bone mass...
  67. pmc Risk factors for subtrochanteric and diaphyseal fractures: the study of osteoporotic fractures
    Nicola Napoli
    Università Campus Bio Medico di Roma, 83 00155 Rome, Italy
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:659-67. 2013
    ..However, the incidence and risk factors associated with these fractures have not been well defined...
  68. pmc Cystatin C and risk of hip fractures in older women
    Kristine E Ensrud
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 28:1275-82. 2013
    ..These findings suggest that cystatin C may be a promising biomarker for identification of older adults at high risk of hip fracture...
  69. pmc Leptin, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia among elderly women
    Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of California, 185 Berry St, Lobby 5, Suite 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 68:175-80. 2013
    ....
  70. pmc Predictive value of FRAX for fracture in obese older women
    Melissa Premaor
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil
    J Bone Miner Res 28:188-95. 2013
    ..We conclude that FRAX is of value in predicting hip and major osteoporotic fractures in obese postmenopausal women, particularly when used with BMD...
  71. pmc Surgical menopause and nonvertebral fracture risk among older US women
    Kimberly K Vesco
    Science Programs Department, Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, 3800 North Interstate Avenue, Portland, OR 97227, USA
    Menopause 19:510-6. 2012
    ....
  72. pmc Associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and weight gain in elderly women
    Erin S LeBlanc
    Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR 97227, USA
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 21:1066-73. 2012
    ..25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are lower in obese individuals. Determining whether low vitamin D status can predispose weight gain requires a longitudinal study...
  73. pmc Caregiving and cognitive function in older women: evidence for the healthy caregiver hypothesis
    Rosanna M Bertrand
    Domestic Health Division, Health Policy, Abt AssociatesInc, Cambridge, MA, USA
    J Aging Health 24:48-66. 2012
    ..In a cross-sectional study, we tested the HCH on two cognitive domains: verbal memory and processing speed...
  74. pmc Positive affect and incidence of frailty in elderly women caregivers and noncaregivers: results of Caregiver-Study of Osteoporotic Fractures
    Eunice Park-Lee
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 57:627-33. 2009
    ....
  75. ncbi Comparison of 2 frailty indexes for prediction of falls, disability, fractures, and death in older women
    Kristine E Ensrud
    Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, General Internal Medicine, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA
    Arch Intern Med 168:382-9. 2008
    ..Frailty, as defined by the index derived from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS index), predicts risk of adverse outcomes in older adults. Use of this index, however, is impractical in clinical practice...
  76. pmc Mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and their subtypes in oldest old women
    Kristine Yaffe
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Arch Neurol 68:631-6. 2011
    ..The population of oldest old is increasing, but the prevalence of cognitive impairment is not well characterized in this group...
  77. ncbi Longitudinal study of changes in hip bone mineral density in Caucasian and African-American women
    Jane A Cauley
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 53:183-9. 2005
    ..To determine whether changes in hip bone mineral density (BMD) differ in Caucasian and African American women...
  78. ncbi Simple computer model for calculating and reporting 5-year osteoporotic fracture risk in postmenopausal women
    Bruce Ettinger
    Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, Oakland, California, USA
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 14:159-71. 2005
    ..To devise, validate, and test a software model that improves how clinicians calculate individual risk for osteoporotic fracture and expected treatment benefit...
  79. ncbi Association of the VDR translation start site polymorphism and fracture risk in older women
    Susan P Moffett
    Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 22:730-6. 2007
    ..The high frequency of this variant confers a population attributable risk that is similar to several established risk factors for fracture...
  80. pmc Interpreting wrist actigraphic indices of sleep in epidemiologic studies of the elderly: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures
    Reena Mehra
    Department of Medicine and Center of Clinical Investigation, Case School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106 6003, USA
    Sleep 31:1569-76. 2008
    ..Although wrist actigraphy-derived sleep indices correlate with adverse health outcomes, it is unclear whether these indices identify specific sleep disorders...
  81. pmc Prevalent vertebral fractures in black women and white women
    Jane A Cauley
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 23:1458-67. 2008
    ..The prevalence of vertebral fractures is lower in black compared with white women but increases with age, low BMD, and number of risk factors...
  82. pmc Built environment and lower extremity physical performance: prospective findings from the study of osteoporotic fractures in women
    Yvonne L Michael
    Drexel University School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Philadelphia, PA19102, USA
    J Aging Health 23:1246-62. 2011
    ..We examined the association between walkability of the built environment and changes in physical performance among women aged 65 or older (n = 1,671, 253 neighborhoods)...
  83. pmc Women with hip fracture experience greater loss of geometric strength in the contralateral hip during the year following fracture than age-matched controls
    L Reider
    Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Osteoporos Int 21:741-50. 2010
    ..Compared to controls, these women experienced a greater decline in indices of bone structural strength, potentially increasing the risk of a second fracture...
  84. ncbi Ethnic differences in the frequency and circumstances of falling in older community-dwelling women
    Kimberly A Faulkner
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 53:1774-9. 2005
    ..To examine ethnic differences in fall rates and fall circumstances in older community-dwelling Caucasian and African-American women...
  85. pmc Functional decline after incident wrist fractures--Study of Osteoporotic Fractures: prospective cohort study
    Beatrice J Edwards
    Bone Health and Osteoporosis Center, Division of Geriatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 645 N Michigan, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    BMJ 341:c3324. 2010
    ..To study the effect of an incident wrist fracture on functional status in women enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures...
  86. pmc Caregiving, metabolic syndrome indicators, and 1-year decline in walking speed: results of Caregiver-SOF
    Lisa Fredman
    Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 65:565-72. 2010
    ..Chronic stress may lead to health decline through metabolic syndrome. Thus, persons in stressful caregiving situations who also have more indicators of metabolic syndrome may experience more decline than other caregivers or noncaregivers...
  87. pmc Mortality associated with caregiving, general stress, and caregiving-related stress in elderly women: results of caregiver-study of osteoporotic fractures
    Lisa Fredman
    Epidemiology Department, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    J Am Geriatr Soc 58:937-43. 2010
    ..To investigate the separate and combined effects of caregiver status and high stress on mortality risk over 8 years in elderly women...
  88. pmc WHO absolute fracture risk models (FRAX): do clinical risk factors improve fracture prediction in older women without osteoporosis?
    Teresa A Hillier
    Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest Hawaii, Portland, OR 97227, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 26:1774-82. 2011
    ..The FRAX and simpler models predict 10-year risk of incident hip and major osteoporotic fractures in older US women with normal or low bone mass...
  89. pmc Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and frailty status in older women
    Kristine E Ensrud
    Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, VA Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, M P H, One Veterans Drive 111 0, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55417, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:5266-73. 2010
    ..Vitamin D deficiency and frailty are common with aging, but the association between these conditions is uncertain...
  90. pmc Use of antidepressant medications and risk of fracture in older women
    Susan J Diem
    Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55415, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 88:476-84. 2011
    ..TCA use was associated with a higher risk of nonspine fracture, but this association was in part explained by confounding factors...
  91. pmc Impact of age-related macular degeneration on vision-specific quality of life: Follow-up from the 10-year and 15-year visits of the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures
    Anne L Coleman
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 150:683-91. 2010
    ....
  92. pmc Physical activity over the life course and its association with cognitive performance and impairment in old age
    Laura E Middleton
    Heart and Stroke Foundation, Center for Stroke Recovery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Am Geriatr Soc 58:1322-6. 2010
    ..To determine how physical activity at various ages over the life course is associated with cognitive impairment in late life...
  93. pmc Objectively measured physical capability levels and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Rachel Cooper
    MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing and Division of Population Health, University College London, London WC1B 5JU
    BMJ 341:c4467. 2010
    ....
  94. pmc Accuracy of self-reported diagnosis of hip replacement
    Neeta Parimi
    San Francisco Coordinating Center, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94107 1728, USA
    Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 62:719-24. 2010
    ..To examine the accuracy and validity of self-report of hip replacement for osteoarthritis (OA)...
  95. pmc Normative data in women aged 85 and older: verbal fluency, digit span, and the CVLT-II short form
    Eric M Fine
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Clin Neuropsychol 26:18-30. 2012
    ..Findings from the present normative study are discussed within the context of "robust" longitudinal normative data...
  96. pmc Sleep-disordered breathing, hypoxia, and risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in older women
    Kristine Yaffe
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    JAMA 306:613-9. 2011
    ..Cross-sectional studies have linked sleep-disordered breathing to poor cognition; however, it remains unclear whether sleep-disordered breathing precedes cognitive impairment in older adults...
  97. pmc Risk factors for nonvertebral fracture in obese older women
    M O Premaor
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul 97105 900, Brazil
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:2414-21. 2011
    ..A high prevalence of obesity has recently been reported in postmenopausal women with low trauma fracture, suggesting that higher bone mineral density (BMD) in obese individuals may not be protective against fracture...
  98. doi Long-term risk of incident vertebral fractures
    Jane A Cauley
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    JAMA 298:2761-7. 2007
    ..Women with low bone mineral density (BMD) and prevalent vertebral fractures have a greater risk of incident vertebral fractures over the short-term, but their absolute risk of vertebral fracture over the long-term is uncertain...
  99. pmc A comparison of prediction models for fractures in older women: is more better?
    Kristine E Ensrud
    Department of Medicine, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, MN 55417, USA
    Arch Intern Med 169:2087-94. 2009
    ..However, it is uncertain whether prediction with FRAX models is superior to that based on parsimonious models...