RISK FACTORS FOR AGED RELATED BONE LOSS

Summary

Principal Investigator: Douglas Kiel
Affiliation: Harvard University
Country: USA
Abstract: DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from Investigator's Abstract) Osteoporosis and related fractures represent major public health problems that will only increase in importance as the population ages. Several studies have now convincingly demonstrated that aging-related bone loss continues, and may even accelerate, in extreme old age. A better understanding of the factors that may be unique to bone loss in old age may help to refine the types of interventions to preserve bone mass in old age. The present application is a competing continuation proposal from the Framingham osteoporosis study group to examine in detail several risk factors for bone loss in old age using three related cohorts, the original Framingham cohort, The Framingham Offspring cohort and a new Framingham minority cohort. The Original Framingham cohort has been the subject of two previous exams that included measurement of bone density. The Framingham Offspring Cohort was recruited from among the children, and their spouses, of members of the original cohort starting in 1971; 3570 are expected to participate in this osteoporosis study. The Minority cohort is currently being recruited and will consist of 300 subjects (34% black and 66% Hispanic). The proposed studies will extend and expand upon the research group s previous investigations of more traditional risk factors for bone loss by taking advantage of developments in nutritional assessment, as well as findings from cellular and molecular biology of bone, which offer an opportunity to examine risk factors for bone loss that have been less well studied. The primary aim (1) of the proposed studies is to examine the effect of dietary factors on bone health, in particular the effect on bone density and bone loss of consumption choices among common food groups, and the effect on bone loss of specific nutrients that have not been well-studied with regard to bone, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin C, sodium, and vitamin K. The dietary studies will be performed using longitudinal data on bone density from the original Framingham cohort, and using cross-sectional bone density data in the Offspring and Minority Cohorts. Dietary data, in the form of food frequency questionnaires in all three cohorts, and 3 day food records in the Offspring Cohort, have already been collected at previous examinations. For this aim, follow-up for bone loss in the Original Framingham Cohort will be extended from 4-5 years to 8 years by adding an assessment of bone density at a planned future Framingham biennial examination (Exam 24). A special call back visit will be required to obtain bone density in all of the approximately 3,600 members of the Offspring Cohort. Both dietary data and bone density are already being measured in an ongoing examination of the Minority Cohort. There are also several other Aims of the study, as follow: (2) to examine the cross-sectional association of IGF-1 and IGF-BP4 with bone density in a subset of 100 men and 100 women in the Framingham Offspring cohort using blood specimens obtained 5 years prior to the measurement of bone density; (3) to examine the cross-sectional association with bone density of two new measures of weight-bearing physical activity, a validated questionnaire and an automated weight-bearing activity monitor, in subsets of 200 men and 200 women in each of the Original and Offspring Cohorts; physical activity will also be examined in relation to a new measurement of QUS of the heel in this subset from the Original cohort; the physical activity measures will be obtained in a special callback or regular visit in the Offspring Cohort and at Exam 24 in the original cohort; and (4) to compare measures of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus between members of the Original Cohort who attend Exam 24 and those who are unable to attend the exam to determine if bone loss may be underestimated by studying subjects who attend clinic examinations. QUS will be assessed with a new dry system device in all those in the original cohort who attend Exam 24 as well as those who receive the standard Framingham home visit.
Funding Period: 1991-09-30 - 2002-08-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Large-scale analysis of association between LRP5 and LRP6 variants and osteoporosis
    Joyce B J van Meurs
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    JAMA 299:1277-90. 2008
  2. pmc Genetics of the musculoskeletal system: a pleiotropic approach
    David Karasik
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02131, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 23:788-802. 2008
  3. pmc Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study
    Thomas J Wang
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Lancet 376:180-8. 2010
  4. pmc Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hip bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study
    Emily K Farina
    Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:1222-30. 2012
  5. pmc Protective effect of high protein and calcium intake on the risk of hip fracture in the Framingham offspring cohort
    Shivani Sahni
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 25:2770-6. 2010
  6. pmc Heritability of prevalent vertebral fracture and volumetric bone mineral density and geometry at the lumbar spine in three generations of the Framingham study
    Ching Ti Liu
    Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:954-8. 2012
  7. pmc QCT measures of bone strength at the thoracic and lumbar spine: the Framingham Study
    Elizabeth J Samelson
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA 02131, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:654-63. 2012
  8. pmc Height loss predicts subsequent hip fracture in men and women of the Framingham Study
    Marian T Hannan
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA 02131 1097, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:146-52. 2012
  9. pmc Regressions for estimating muscle parameters in the thoracic and lumbar trunk for use in musculoskeletal modeling
    Dennis E Anderson
    Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Biomech 45:66-75. 2012
  10. pmc Association between inflammatory biomarkers and bone mineral density in a community-based cohort of men and women
    Todd R Sponholtz
    Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
    Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 66:1233-40. 2014

Scientific Experts

  • Zaldy S Tan
  • Sarah D Berry
  • Kelly Cho
  • Laurel B Yates
  • D Karasik
  • Douglas P Kiel
  • G H Lo
  • Susan L Edmond
  • Katherine Tucker
  • Peter W F Wilson
  • L Adrienne Cupples
  • Albert Hofman
  • Fernando Rivadeneira
  • Andre G Uitterlinden
  • Marian T Hannan
  • Tamara B Harris
  • Shivani Sahni
  • Nicole Soranzo
  • M Carola Zillikens
  • Unnur Thorsteinsdottir
  • Kari Stefansson
  • Karol Estrada
  • J Brent Richards
  • Cornelia M van Duijn
  • Ching Ti Liu
  • Bruce M Psaty
  • Ben A Oostra
  • Claes Ohlsson
  • Unnur Styrkarsdottir
  • Mattias Lorentzon
  • Tim D Spector
  • Elizabeth A Streeten
  • Yanhua Zhou
  • Vilmundur Gudnason
  • Najaf Amin
  • Serkalem Demissie
  • Daniel L Koller
  • Liesbeth Vandenput
  • Yongmei Liu
  • Dan Mellstrom
  • Lisette Stolk
  • Osten Ljunggren
  • Massimo Mangino
  • Joanne M Murabito
  • Luigi Ferrucci
  • Kathryn L Lunetta
  • Yi Hsiang Hsu
  • Melissa Garcia
  • Stefania Bandinelli
  • Albert V Smith
  • Guangju Zhai
  • Gudmar Thorleifsson
  • Gunnar Sigurdsson
  • John R B Perry
  • Stuart H Ralston
  • Braxton D Mitchell
  • David Goltzman
  • Jerome I Rotter
  • Kerry E Broe
  • Andrea D Coviello
  • Michael J Econs
  • James F Wilson
  • Francois Rousseau
  • H Erich Wichmann
  • Munro Peacock
  • Thor Aspelund
  • Anna Murray
  • Nora Franceschini
  • Alan R Shuldiner
  • Eric Boerwinkle
  • Gudny Eiriksdottir
  • Ellen W Demerath
  • Lenore J Launer
  • Elin Grundberg
  • Yurii S Aulchenko
  • Kay Tee Khaw
  • Scott G Wilson
  • Joyce B J van Meurs
  • John P A Ioannidis
  • Huibert A P Pols
  • Hou Feng Zheng
  • Sylvie Giroux
  • Magnus Karlsson
  • Mary L Bouxsein
  • Elizabeth J Samelson
  • Laura M Yerges-Armstrong
  • Joel Eriksson
  • Stephen J Chanock
  • Jane A Cauley
  • Peter Kraft

Detail Information

Publications47

  1. pmc Large-scale analysis of association between LRP5 and LRP6 variants and osteoporosis
    Joyce B J van Meurs
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    JAMA 299:1277-90. 2008
    ..Mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene cause rare syndromes characterized by altered bone mineral density (BMD). More common LRP5 variants may affect osteoporosis risk in the general population...
  2. pmc Genetics of the musculoskeletal system: a pleiotropic approach
    David Karasik
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02131, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 23:788-802. 2008
    ....
  3. pmc Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study
    Thomas J Wang
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Lancet 376:180-8. 2010
    ..We aimed to identify common genetic variants affecting vitamin D concentrations and risk of insufficiency...
  4. pmc Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hip bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study
    Emily K Farina
    Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:1222-30. 2012
    ..00). Opposing effects of PC DHA on FN-BMD loss observed in women and men need further clarification. Bone loss associated with PC LA may be confounded by BMI. High PC AA concentrations may be associated with reduced hip fracture risk...
  5. pmc Protective effect of high protein and calcium intake on the risk of hip fracture in the Framingham offspring cohort
    Shivani Sahni
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 25:2770-6. 2010
    ..Calcium intake modifies the association of protein intake and the risk of hip fracture in this cohort and may explain the lack of concordance seen in previous studies...
  6. pmc Heritability of prevalent vertebral fracture and volumetric bone mineral density and geometry at the lumbar spine in three generations of the Framingham study
    Ching Ti Liu
    Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:954-8. 2012
    ....
  7. pmc QCT measures of bone strength at the thoracic and lumbar spine: the Framingham Study
    Elizabeth J Samelson
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA 02131, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:654-63. 2012
    ..Our study confirms the importance of evaluating determinants of vertebral strength in both the thoracic and lumbar spine and in both women and men to understand mechanisms underlying the structural failure of vertebral bodies with aging...
  8. pmc Height loss predicts subsequent hip fracture in men and women of the Framingham Study
    Marian T Hannan
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA 02131 1097, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:146-52. 2012
    ..14, 2.09; 1.03, 1.42, respectively). Adult height loss predicted hip fracture risk in men in our study. Recent height loss in elderly men and women predicted risk of hip fracture...
  9. pmc Regressions for estimating muscle parameters in the thoracic and lumbar trunk for use in musculoskeletal modeling
    Dennis E Anderson
    Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Biomech 45:66-75. 2012
    ..This work thus provides a resource for estimating muscle parameters in the general population for musculoskeletal modeling of the thoraco-lumbar trunk...
  10. pmc Association between inflammatory biomarkers and bone mineral density in a community-based cohort of men and women
    Todd R Sponholtz
    Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
    Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 66:1233-40. 2014
    ....
  11. pmc Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density
    Ching Ti Liu
    Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, 801 Massachusetts Avenue CT3, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 27:2051-64. 2012
    ..If they exist, gene-by-sex interactions for BMD probably have weak effects, accounting for less than 0.08% of the variation in these traits per implicated SNP. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research...
  12. pmc Repeat bone mineral density screening and prediction of hip and major osteoporotic fracture
    Sarah D Berry
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, Massachusetts 02131, USA
    JAMA 310:1256-62. 2013
    ..Screening for osteoporosis with bone mineral density (BMD) is recommended for older adults. It is unclear whether repeating a BMD screening test improves fracture risk assessment...
  13. pmc The associations between QCT-based vertebral bone measurements and prevalent vertebral fractures depend on the spinal locations of both bone measurement and fracture
    D E Anderson
    Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, RN115, Boston, MA, 02215, USA
    Osteoporos Int 25:559-66. 2014
    ..Upper spine (T4-T10) fractures appear to be more strongly related to bone measures than lower spine (T11-L4) fractures, while lower spine measurements are at least as strongly related to fractures as upper spine measurements...
  14. pmc Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their relation with bone and muscle health in adults
    Kelsey M Mangano
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, 1200 Centre St, Boston, MA, 02131, USA
    Curr Osteoporos Rep 11:203-12. 2013
    ..As data are sparse, future clinical trials and prospective studies are important to determine the long term benefits of PUFA supplementation upon bone and muscle outcomes. ..
  15. pmc The heritability of circulating testosterone, oestradiol, oestrone and sex hormone binding globulin concentrations in men: the Framingham Heart Study
    T G Travison
    Research Program on Men s Health, Aging and Metabolism, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 80:277-82. 2014
    ....
  16. pmc Milk and yogurt consumption are linked with higher bone mineral density but not with hip fracture: the Framingham Offspring Study
    Shivani Sahni
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02131, USA
    Arch Osteoporos 8:119. 2013
    ....
  17. pmc Meta-analysis of genome-wide studies identifies WNT16 and ESR1 SNPs associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women
    Daniel L Koller
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 28:547-58. 2013
    ..These data support the hypothesis that variants in these genes of known skeletal function also affect BMD during the premenopausal period...
  18. pmc A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation
    Andrea D Coviello
    Section of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 8:e1002805. 2012
    ..The evidence for sex-differentiated effects and allelic heterogeneity highlight the importance of considering these features when estimating complex trait variance...
  19. pmc Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies
    Cathy E Elks
    Medical Research Council MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Genet 42:1077-85. 2010
    ..Ingenuity and gene-set enrichment pathway analyses identified coenzyme A and fatty acid biosynthesis as biological processes related to menarche timing...
  20. pmc A genome-wide association study of aging
    Stefan Walter
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurobiol Aging 32:2109.e15-28. 2011
    ..These findings indicate that variation in genes involved in neurological processes may be an important factor in regulating aging free of major disease and achieving longevity...
  21. pmc Meta-analyses identify 13 loci associated with age at menopause and highlight DNA repair and immune pathways
    Lisette Stolk
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Genet 44:260-8. 2012
    ..Gene-set enrichment pathway analyses using the full GWAS data set identified exoDNase, NF-κB signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction as biological processes related to timing of menopause...
  22. pmc Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture
    Karol Estrada
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Genet 44:491-501. 2012
    ..3 (SLC25A13), 11q13.2 (LRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility...
  23. pmc Cross-calibration and comparison of variability in 2 bone densitometers in a research setting: the framingham experience
    David R Gagnon
    Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    J Clin Densitom 13:210-8. 2010
    ....
  24. pmc Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile
    Tuomas O Kilpeläinen
    Medical Research Council MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Genet 43:753-60. 2011
    ..Our findings provide new insights into adiposity and insulin resistance...
  25. pmc Protective effect of total and supplemental vitamin C intake on the risk of hip fracture--a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study
    S Sahni
    Dietary Assessment and Epidemiology Research Program, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging HNRCA and Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy FSNSP, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA
    Osteoporos Int 20:1853-61. 2009
    ..Therefore, vitamin C may have a protective effect on bone health in older adults...
  26. pmc Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data identifies two loci influencing age at menarche
    John R B Perry
    Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, UK
    Nat Genet 41:648-50. 2009
    ..The next best signal was near the LIN28B gene (rs7759938; P = 7.0 × 10(-9)), which also influences adult height. We provide the first evidence for common genetic variants influencing female sexual maturation...
  27. pmc Twenty bone-mineral-density loci identified by large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies
    Fernando Rivadeneira
    Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Genet 41:1199-206. 2009
    ..The many SNPs associated with BMD map to genes in signaling pathways with relevance to bone metabolism and highlight the complex genetic architecture that underlies osteoporosis and variation in BMD...
  28. pmc Collaborative meta-analysis: associations of 150 candidate genes with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture
    J Brent Richards
    McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Ann Intern Med 151:528-37. 2009
    ..Osteoporosis is a highly heritable trait. Many candidate genes have been proposed as being involved in regulating bone mineral density (BMD). Few of these findings have been replicated in independent studies...
  29. pmc Application of the National Osteoporosis Foundation Guidelines to postmenopausal women and men: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study
    S D Berry
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA 02131, USA
    Osteoporos Int 21:53-60. 2010
    ..Given the high proportion of persons recommended for treatment, NOF Guidelines may need to be re-evaluated with respect to budget impact...
  30. pmc Inverse association of carotenoid intakes with 4-y change in bone mineral density in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study
    Shivani Sahni
    Dietary Assessment and Epidemiology Research Program and the Antioxidants Research Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture, HNRCA, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 1524, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:416-24. 2009
    ..Few studies have examined the association between carotenoid intake (other than beta-carotene) and bone mineral density (BMD)...
  31. pmc Hip structural geometry in old and old-old age: similarities and differences between men and women
    Laurel B Yates
    Division of Aging, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Bone 41:722-32. 2007
    ....
  32. pmc Genetic variation at the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) locus modulates Wnt signaling and the relationship of physical activity with bone mineral density in men
    Douglas P Kiel
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02131, USA
    Bone 40:587-96. 2007
    ..These observations suggest that Wnt-LRP5 may play a role in the adaptation of bone to mechanical load in humans, and may explain some gender-related differences in bone mass...
  33. ncbi Abdominal aortic calcification and exostoses at the hand and lumbar spine: the Framingham Study
    D Karasik
    Hebrew SeniorLife and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 78:1-8. 2006
    ..In conclusion, in this cross-sectional study, anterior lumbar osteophytes and AAC occurred in the same individuals after adjustment for age and other covariates. In general, hand exostoses were not associated with aortic calcification...
  34. ncbi Metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Peter W F Wilson
    The NHLBI s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts, USA
    Circulation 112:3066-72. 2005
    ..The objective was to investigate risk for CVD, CHD, and T2DM according to metabolic syndrome traits...
  35. ncbi Vertebral deformity, back symptoms, and functional limitations among older women: the Framingham Study
    Susan L Edmond
    University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey, SHRP PT, 65 Bergen Street, Newark, NJ 07101 1709, USA
    Osteoporos Int 16:1086-95. 2005
    ..Efforts to prevent and treat back pain, independent of vertebral deformity status, might help to reduce functional limitations in older women...
  36. ncbi Bone mineral density and the risk of Alzheimer disease
    Zaldy Sy Tan
    Division on Aging, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 110 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Arch Neurol 62:107-11. 2005
    ..Bone mineral density (BMD) is a potential surrogate marker for cumulative estrogen exposure and has been associated with cognitive performance and risk of cognitive deterioration...
  37. pmc Bivariate linkage study of proximal hip geometry and body size indices: the Framingham study
    D Karasik
    Hebrew SeniorLife Institute for Aging Research and Harvard Medical School, 1200 Centre Street, Boston, MA 02131, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 81:162-73. 2007
    ....
  38. pmc Meniscal damage associated with increased local subchondral bone mineral density: a Framingham study
    G H Lo
    Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage 16:261-7. 2008
    ..We hypothesized that knees with higher M:L BMD, consistent with increased medial subchondral BMD, would be associated with medial meniscal damage, and lower ratios with lateral meniscal damage...
  39. pmc Genome-wide association with bone mass and geometry in the Framingham Heart Study
    Douglas P Kiel
    Hebrew SeniorLife Institute for Aging Research and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    BMC Med Genet 8:S14. 2007
    ..There have been no genome-wide association and linkage studies for these traits using high-density genotyping platforms...
  40. pmc Polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and bone density/ultrasound and geometry in humans
    K Cho
    Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Bone 42:53-60. 2008
    ..Thus, NOS3 genetic variation does not appear to be a major contributor to adult bone density/ultrasound and geometry in our sample...
  41. pmc Thyroid function and the risk of Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Study
    Zaldy S Tan
    Department of Medicine, Gerontology Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 110 Francis St, LMOB 1A, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Arch Intern Med 168:1514-20. 2008
    ..Clinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are recognized causes of reversible dementia, but previous studies relating thyrotropin levels to cognitive performance in clinically euthyroid persons have yielded inconsistent results...
  42. pmc High vitamin C intake is associated with lower 4-year bone loss in elderly men
    Shivani Sahni
    Dietary Assessment and Epidemiology Research Program, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Nutr 138:1931-8. 2008
    ..Null associations were observed among women. These results suggest a possible protective role of vitamin C for bone health in older men...
  43. pmc Bivariate genome-wide linkage analysis of femoral bone traits and leg lean mass: Framingham study
    David Karasik
    Hebrew SeniorLife Institute for Aging Research and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 24:710-8. 2009
    ..Identification and subsequent characterization of these shared loci may further elucidate the genetic contributions to both osteoporosis and sarcopenia...
  44. pmc Effects of beer, wine, and liquor intakes on bone mineral density in older men and women
    Katherine L Tucker
    Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:1188-96. 2009
    ..Moderate intake of alcohol has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. However, different classes of alcoholic beverages have not been investigated...
  45. pmc 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, dementia, and cerebrovascular pathology in elders receiving home services
    J S Buell
    Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Neurology 74:18-26. 2010
    ..However, no studies have examined the association between vitamin D status, dementia, and cranial MRI indicators of cerebrovascular disease (CVD)...
  46. ncbi Low plasma vitamin B12 is associated with lower BMD: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study
    Katherine L Tucker
    Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 20:152-8. 2005
    ..Men with plasma B12 < 148 pM had significantly lower BMD at the hip, and women at the spine, relative to those with higher B12, and trends were similar for both at all sites. Low vitamin B12 may be a risk factor for low BMD...