Emory Conte Center for the Neuroscience of Mental Disorders

Summary

Principal Investigator: Charles B Nemeroff CB
Abstract: This is the competitive renewal application for the Emory Conte Center for the Neurobiology of Mental Disorders (CCNMD) in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (DPBS) at the Emory University School of Medicine. The goal of this research plan is to utilize state of the art methods ranging from molecular biology to cognitive neuroscience and functional brain imaging to characterize the neurobiological mechanisms by which adverse early life stress (ELS, eg., childhood sexual or physical abuse), increases an individuals' vulnerability to depression and related disorders. Our data suggests that the pathophysiology of major depression in patients with a history of ELS is distinct from that observed in patients with major depression without ELS. Such findings have major implications for nosology, neurochemical pathology and treatment of patients with these disorders. Supported by 4 cores (Administrative, Rat, Assay and Primate), nine projects seek to further characterize the long term neurobiological consequences of ELS in rodents, non-human primates and humans. Using rat and rhesus monkey models of ELS and patients with major depression or social anxiety disorder (SAD) with or without ELS, we focus on alterations in CNS neuroregulators 0001, Paul Plotsky, PhD, PI and immune system dysfunction 0009, Andrew Miller, MD, PI. Michael Davis, PhD, PI utilizes a novel model of learned safety to scrutinize our non-human primate and human patients to further elucidate the long-term behavioral consequences of ELS. The role of ELS in cognitive dysfunction of depression is the focus of 0010, in non-human primates (Stuart Zola, PhD, PI) and also an important component of 0007 (Clinical Psychobiology, Charles Nemeroff, MD, PhD, PI). The latter project also will determine whether men with depression and ELS exhibit the same neuroendocrine and autonomic alterations observed in women, whether patients with SAD and ELS exhibit similar or different neurobiological alterations as patients with major depression and ELS, and will better define the vulnerable periods in development and type of early ELS that contribute to the observed CNS alterations. 0012 (Helen Mayberg, MD and Gregory Berns, MD, PhD, PI) and 0013 (Clinton Kilts, PhD and Xiaoping Hu, PhD) use state-of-the-art functional imaging modalities (PET, fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging to determine the contribution of ELS to the depression-associated alterations in regional CNS activity, as well as to assess alterations in structural and anatomical connectivity. Finally, 0011 (Zachary Stowe, MD, PI) utilizes a unique clinical population, maternal depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, as a novel paradigm to study the consequences of ELS in their offspring. The results of these studies will provide novel data that will likely impact upon pathophysiological subtyping of depression, understanding the neurobiology of risk factors, as well as translating into predictors of treatment response and novel treatment strategies.
Funding Period: 1999-09-30 - 2010-08-31
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Differences in neural activation for object-directed grasping in chimpanzees and humans
    Erin E Hecht
    Department of Anthropology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Neurosci 33:14117-34. 2013
  2. pmc Adverse early life experience and social stress during adulthood interact to increase serotonin transporter mRNA expression
    Katherine L Gardner
    Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Brain Res 1305:47-63. 2009
  3. pmc The neurobiology of anxiety disorders: brain imaging, genetics, and psychoneuroendocrinology
    Elizabeth I Martin
    Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Psychiatr Clin North Am 32:549-75. 2009
  4. ncbi The neurobiological toll of child abuse and neglect
    Gretchen N Neigh
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Trauma Violence Abuse 10:389-410. 2009
  5. pmc Adverse experience during early life and adulthood interact to elevate tph2 mRNA expression in serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus
    K L Gardner
    Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Neuroscience 163:991-1001. 2009
  6. pmc Social defeat stress produces prolonged alterations in acoustic startle and body weight gain in male Long Evans rats
    John V K Pulliam
    Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310, United States
    J Psychiatr Res 44:106-11. 2010
  7. pmc Serotonin transporter gene variation, infant abuse, and responsiveness to stress in rhesus macaque mothers and infants
    K McCormack
    Department of Psychology, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Horm Behav 55:538-47. 2009
  8. ncbi Cape Town consensus on posttraumatic stress disorder
    Dan J Stein
    CNS Spectr 14:52-8. 2009
  9. ncbi Recurrence of depression during pregnancy: psychosocial and personal functioning correlates
    Sherryl H Goodman
    Department of Psychology, Emory University, 532 Kilgo Circle, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Depress Anxiety 26:557-67. 2009
  10. ncbi Novel targets for antidepressant therapies
    Paul E Holtzheimer
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle Northeast, Suite 4000, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 10:465-73. 2008

Detail Information

Publications70

  1. pmc Differences in neural activation for object-directed grasping in chimpanzees and humans
    Erin E Hecht
    Department of Anthropology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Neurosci 33:14117-34. 2013
    ..This indicates a more "bottom-up" representation of observed action in the human brain and suggests that the evolution of tool use, social learning, and cumulative culture may have involved modifications of frontoparietal interactions. ..
  2. pmc Adverse early life experience and social stress during adulthood interact to increase serotonin transporter mRNA expression
    Katherine L Gardner
    Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Brain Res 1305:47-63. 2009
    ..These data support the hypothesis that early life experience and major stressful life events contribute to dysregulation of serotonergic systems in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders...
  3. pmc The neurobiology of anxiety disorders: brain imaging, genetics, and psychoneuroendocrinology
    Elizabeth I Martin
    Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Psychiatr Clin North Am 32:549-75. 2009
    ..The goal of this article is to describe the key biological similarities and differences between anxiety disorders...
  4. ncbi The neurobiological toll of child abuse and neglect
    Gretchen N Neigh
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Trauma Violence Abuse 10:389-410. 2009
    ..Recognition of the biological consequences and transgenerational impact of violence and abuse has critical importance for both disease research and public health policy...
  5. pmc Adverse experience during early life and adulthood interact to elevate tph2 mRNA expression in serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus
    K L Gardner
    Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Neuroscience 163:991-1001. 2009
    ..These changes in tph2 mRNA expression represent a potential mechanism through which adverse ELEs and stressful life experiences during adulthood may interact to increase vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disease...
  6. pmc Social defeat stress produces prolonged alterations in acoustic startle and body weight gain in male Long Evans rats
    John V K Pulliam
    Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310, United States
    J Psychiatr Res 44:106-11. 2010
    ..These data indicate that the severe stress of social defeat can produce physiologic and behavioral outcomes which may reflect aspects of traumatic psychosocial stress...
  7. pmc Serotonin transporter gene variation, infant abuse, and responsiveness to stress in rhesus macaque mothers and infants
    K McCormack
    Department of Psychology, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Horm Behav 55:538-47. 2009
    ....
  8. ncbi Cape Town consensus on posttraumatic stress disorder
    Dan J Stein
    CNS Spectr 14:52-8. 2009
    ..We consider, in turn, the diagnosis and evaluation, psychobiology, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and prevention of PTSD...
  9. ncbi Recurrence of depression during pregnancy: psychosocial and personal functioning correlates
    Sherryl H Goodman
    Department of Psychology, Emory University, 532 Kilgo Circle, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Depress Anxiety 26:557-67. 2009
    ..This study examined psychosocial and personal functioning during pregnancy in women at risk for depression recurrence based on having had at least one major depressive episode (MDE) preceding the pregnancy...
  10. ncbi Novel targets for antidepressant therapies
    Paul E Holtzheimer
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle Northeast, Suite 4000, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 10:465-73. 2008
    ..Developments in therapeutic focal brain stimulation include vagus nerve stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation...
  11. ncbi Lower CSF oxytocin concentrations in women with a history of childhood abuse
    C Heim
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, WMRB, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 14:954-8. 2009
    ..If replicated, the association of lower adult CSF OT levels with childhood trauma might indicate that alterations in central OT function may be involved in the adverse outcomes of childhood adversity...
  12. pmc The nonhuman primate amygdala is necessary for the acquisition but not the retention of fear-potentiated startle
    Elena A Antoniadis
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 65:241-8. 2009
    ..However, a second group of monkeys, which received the lesion after training, successfully demonstrated fear-potentiated startle learned prior to the lesion...
  13. pmc Timing of extinction relative to acquisition: a parametric analysis of fear extinction in humans
    Seth D Norrholm
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Behav Neurosci 122:1016-30. 2008
    ..Thus, the results remain inconclusive regarding spontaneous recovery and the timing of extinction and are discussed in terms of performing translational studies of fear in humans...
  14. pmc Norman Cousins Lecture. Mechanisms of cytokine-induced behavioral changes: psychoneuroimmunology at the translational interface
    Andrew H Miller
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, 1701 Uppergate Drive, WCI Building C, 5th Floor, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 23:149-58. 2009
    ..Depending on the relative balance between these behavioral accoutrements of an activated innate immune response, clinical presentations may be distinct and warrant individualized therapeutic approaches...
  15. ncbi Acoustic startle reflex in rhesus monkeys: a review
    Michael Davis
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Rev Neurosci 19:171-85. 2008
    ..The opportunity now emerges to link concepts developed in rodents to the more complex neuroanatomical and cognitive processes common to monkeys and humans...
  16. pmc The impact of maternal childhood abuse on maternal and infant HPA axis function in the postpartum period
    Sarah R Brand
    Department of Psychology, Emory University, United States
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:686-93. 2010
    ..The majority of previous studies in this area focus on adult offspring, and the degree to which the effects of parental child abuse can be detected earlier in the development of the offspring remains obscure...
  17. pmc The CRF system, stress, depression and anxiety-insights from human genetic studies
    E B Binder
    Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
    Mol Psychiatry 15:574-88. 2010
    ..In-depth characterization of these variants will likely be important in furthering our understanding of the long-term consequences of adverse experience...
  18. pmc Impact of early life stress on the reinforcing and behavioral-stimulant effects of psychostimulants in rhesus monkeys
    Sarah B Ewing Corcoran
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center bDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 21:69-76. 2010
    ..Taken together, the results of this study do not provide support for early life stress leading to enhanced vulnerability to stimulant use in the nonhuman primate model employed...
  19. pmc Physiological regulation in infants of women with a mood disorder: examining associations with maternal symptoms and stress
    Katrina C Johnson
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 55:191-8. 2014
    ..Elucidating psychobiological mechanisms of risk early in development is critical to inform prevention and early intervention efforts...
  20. ncbi Decreased cortical representation of genital somatosensory field after childhood sexual abuse
    Christine M Heim
    Institute of Medical Psychology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Germany
    Am J Psychiatry 170:616-23. 2013
    ..The authors evaluated the relationship between the experience of childhood abuse and neuroplastic thinning of cortical fields, depending on the nature of the abusive experience...
  21. pmc Robust tract skeleton extraction of cingulum based on active contour model from diffusion tensor MR imaging
    Wu Li
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Tech and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    PLoS ONE 8:e56113. 2013
    ..Our proposed method provides an approach to localize cingulum robustly, which is a very important feature for tract-based analysis and can be of important practical utility...
  22. pmc Maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganized attachment at 12 months
    Lisa J Hayes
    Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Attach Hum Dev 15:133-53. 2013
    ....
  23. pmc Allele-specific FKBP5 DNA demethylation mediates gene-childhood trauma interactions
    Torsten Klengel
    Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 16:33-41. 2013
    ..This identification of molecular mechanisms of genotype-directed long-term environmental reactivity will be useful for designing more effective treatment strategies for stress-related disorders...
  24. pmc Early life stress affects cerebral glucose metabolism in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
    Lisa A Parr
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30329, United States
    Dev Cogn Neurosci 2:181-93. 2012
    ..Together, these data suggest hypervigilance in the ELS monkeys in the absence of immediate danger...
  25. pmc Process versus product in social learning: comparative diffusion tensor imaging of neural systems for action execution-observation matching in macaques, chimpanzees, and humans
    Erin E Hecht
    Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Cereb Cortex 23:1014-24. 2013
    ..We suggest a model linking species differences in mirror system connectivity and responsivity with species differences in behavior, including adaptations for imitation and social learning of tool use...
  26. ncbi Prenatal antipsychotic exposure and neuromotor performance during infancy
    Katrina C Johnson
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:787-94. 2012
    ....
  27. pmc The effects of child abuse and neglect on cognitive functioning in adulthood
    Felicia Gould
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Leonard M Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    J Psychiatr Res 46:500-6. 2012
    ..Additionally, we hypothesized that the nature and magnitude of cognitive deficits would differ according to the subtype of ELS experienced...
  28. pmc Chronic overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor from the central amygdala produces HPA axis hyperactivity and behavioral anxiety associated with gene-expression changes in the hippocampus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus
    Elizabeth I Flandreau
    Peptide Biology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 37:27-38. 2012
    ..Experiment-2 focused on HPA axis disruptions; the dexamethasone-suppression and CRF-stimulation tests as well as the Dex/CRF test were used. In both experiments, expression of HPA-axis related transcripts were assessed...
  29. ncbi The neurobiology of anxiety disorders: brain imaging, genetics, and psychoneuroendocrinology
    Elizabeth I Martin
    Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Clin Lab Med 30:865-91. 2010
    ..The goal of this article is to describe the key biological similarities and differences between anxiety disorders...
  30. pmc Tolerability of the dexamethasone-corticotropin releasing hormone test in major depressive disorder
    Boadie W Dunlop
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1256 Briarcliff Road NE, Building A, 3rd Floor, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Psychiatr Res 45:24-8. 2011
    ..However, a comprehensive analysis of the safety of this test in psychiatric patients has not previously been performed...
  31. ncbi Association of polymorphisms in genes regulating the corticotropin-releasing factor system with antidepressant treatment response
    Elisabeth B Binder
    Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstr 2 10, 80804 Munich, Germany
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:369-79. 2010
    ..The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, or corticotropin-releasing hormone) and arginine vasopressin systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depressive disorders and response to antidepressant treatment...
  32. pmc A novel transgenic mouse for gene-targeting within cells that express corticotropin-releasing factor
    Elizabeth I Martin
    Peptide Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 67:1212-6. 2010
    ..Furthermore, the CRFp3.0Cre transgenic can be combined with other available mouse strains containing a "floxed" gene of interest to allow unparalleled detailed analysis of the CRF system...
  33. pmc Fear potentiation is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in PTSD
    Tanja Jovanovic
    Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Atlanta, GA 30303, United States
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:846-57. 2010
    ..These results suggest that impaired fear inhibition and associated alterations in HPA feedback may reflect amygdala hyperactivity in subjects with PTSD...
  34. ncbi Behavioral effects of the CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 in rats selectively bred for high and low activity in the swim test
    David A Gutman
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4000 WMRB, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 33:1093-101. 2008
    ..This effect was observed in both male and female rats. No differences between strains or the effects of R121919 were observed for spontaneous ambulation or in the elevated plus maze test...
  35. pmc Inflammation versus glucocorticoids as purveyors of pathology during stress: have we reached the tipping point?
    Andrew H Miller
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 64:263-5. 2008
  36. ncbi Involvement of neuropeptide systems in schizophrenia: human studies
    Ricardo Caceda
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Int Rev Neurobiol 78:327-76. 2007
    ..Clearly, additional investigation into the role of neuropeptide systems in the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of schizophrenia is warranted...
  37. ncbi Defining the neural circuitry of depression: toward a new nosology with therapeutic implications
    Helen S Mayberg
    Biol Psychiatry 61:729-30. 2007
  38. ncbi The CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 attenuates the neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of precipitated lorazepam withdrawal
    Kelly H Skelton
    Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 192:385-96. 2007
    ....
  39. ncbi Emerging treatments for depression
    Paul E Holtzheimer
    Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, 1841 Clifton Rd NE, 4th Floor, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 7:2323-39. 2006
    ..A major goal that remains to be achieved is the identification of predictors of response to the various antidepressant treatments that have diverse mechanisms of action...
  40. ncbi Emotion, motivation, and the brain: reflex foundations in animal and human research
    Peter J Lang
    NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, FL 32610 0165, USA
    Prog Brain Res 156:3-29. 2006
    ..Parallel results are described from experiments with humans, showing similar activation patterns in brain and body in response to emotion cues, co-varying with participants' reports of affective valence and increasing emotional arousal...
  41. pmc Maternal separation alters drug intake patterns in adulthood in rats
    M C Moffett
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 73:321-30. 2007
    ..Studying the MS/H model can provide important clues into the vulnerability to drug abuse and perhaps identify a crucial window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention...
  42. ncbi The impact of early adverse care on HPA axis development: nonhuman primate models
    Mar M Sanchez
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Horm Behav 50:623-31. 2006
    ....
  43. ncbi The effect of gonadal hormones and gender on anxiety and emotional learning
    Donna J Toufexis
    Emory University, Department of Psychiatry, Yerkes National Primate Center, 954 Gatewood Drive NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Horm Behav 50:539-49. 2006
    ....
  44. pmc Future prospects in depression research
    Paul E Holtzheimer
    Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Dialogues Clin Neurosci 8:175-89. 2006
    ..This review highlights these future prospects for depression research with a specific focus on lines of investigation likely to generate novel, more effective treatment options...
  45. ncbi Upregulation of striatal dopamine-2 receptors in Brattleboro rats with prepulse inhibition deficits
    Paul D Shilling
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, California 92103 8218, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:1278-81. 2006
    ..We sought to determine whether they also have increases in striatal dopamine-2 (D2) receptors found in some studies examining the brains of schizophrenia patients...
  46. ncbi Modulation of fear-potentiated startle and vocalizations in juvenile rhesus monkeys by morphine, diazepam, and buspirone
    James T Winslow
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 61:389-95. 2007
    ....
  47. ncbi Ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine anesthesia and postoperative recovery in rats
    Leonie Am Welberg
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 45:13-20. 2006
    ..This finding suggests that postsurgical BW loss after use of this anesthetic mixture is due to distress unrelated to pain; this nonpain distress may have masked potential beneficial effects of ketorolac...
  48. ncbi The neural correlates of social anxiety disorder and response to pharmacotherapy
    Clinton D Kilts
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:2243-53. 2006
    ....
  49. ncbi Anatomically discrete functional effects of adenoviral clostridial light chain gene-based synaptic inhibition in the midbrain
    Z Zhao
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Center for Behavioral Neurosciences, Yerkes National Primate Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Gene Ther 13:942-52. 2006
    ..Thus, vector-driven LC expression inhibits the function of deep brain nuclei without altering the function of surrounding structures supporting its application to therapeutic neuromodulation...
  50. pmc Advances in the treatment of depression
    Paul E Holtzheimer
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    NeuroRx 3:42-56. 2006
    ..However, it is clear that further study of the neurobiology of depression will continue to provide a rationale for developing innovative targets for antidepressant therapies...
  51. pmc Adverse childhood experiences and prescribed psychotropic medications in adults
    Robert F Anda
    ACE Study Group, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3717, USA
    Am J Prev Med 32:389-94. 2007
    ..These ACEs included: abuse (emotional, physical, or sexual), witnessing domestic violence, growing up with substance abusing, mentally ill, or criminal household members, and parental separation/divorce...
  52. ncbi Region- and sex-specific modulation of anxiety behaviours in the rat
    D Toufexis
    Emory University, Department of Psychiatry, Yerkes National Primate Centre, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Neuroendocrinol 19:461-73. 2007
    ....
  53. ncbi Long-term behavioural and molecular alterations associated with maternal separation in rats
    Melanie Lippmann
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas South Western Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390 9070, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 25:3091-8. 2007
    ..Recognition of these adaptations begins to define the brain regions, and neural circuitry, associated with persistent alterations induced by early life stressors and the development of mood disorders...
  54. pmc Differences in startle reflex and prepulse inhibition in European-Americans and African-Americans
    Wendy Hasenkamp
    Atlanta Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Psychophysiology 45:876-82. 2008
    ..These findings support the idea of racial differences in startle response. Implications for study design are highlighted, and possible environmental and genetic influences are considered...
  55. ncbi The link between childhood trauma and depression: insights from HPA axis studies in humans
    Christine Heim
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, WMRB, Suite 4311, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 33:693-710. 2008
    ..Taken together, this line of evidence demonstrates that psychoneuroendocrine research may ultimately promote optimized clinical care and help prevent the adverse outcomes of childhood trauma...
  56. doi Fostering foster care outcomes: quality of intervention matters in overcoming early adversity
    Charles B Nemeroff
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Cir, Ste 4000, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:623-4. 2008
  57. pmc Maternal depression and infant cortisol: influences of timing, comorbidity and treatment
    Patricia A Brennan
    Psychology Department, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 49:1099-107. 2008
    ..The potential roles of comorbid maternal anxiety disorders, timing of maternal depression, and maternal treatment with psychotropic medications during pregnancy are addressed...
  58. ncbi Estimates of serotonin and norepinephrine transporter inhibition in depressed patients treated with paroxetine or venlafaxine
    Michael J Owens
    Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:3201-12. 2008
    ..NET antagonism has been posited to contribute to the antidepressant effects of these compounds. The clinical significance of the magnitude of NET antagonism by both medications remains unclear at present...
  59. ncbi Maternal depression and medication exposure during pregnancy: comparison of maternal retrospective recall to prospective documentation
    D J Newport
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
    BJOG 115:681-8. 2008
    ..Outcome investigations of prenatal maternal depression and psychotropic exposure rely extensively on maternal retrospective recall. This study compared postnatal recall to prospective documentation of illness and medication exposures...
  60. pmc Association of FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood abuse with risk of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults
    Elisabeth B Binder
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    JAMA 299:1291-305. 2008
    ..Both genetic and environmental factors are contributory, with child abuse providing significant risk liability...
  61. pmc Influence of child abuse on adult depression: moderation by the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene
    Rebekah G Bradley
    Atlanta VA Medical Center, Georgia, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:190-200. 2008
    ..Child abuse and trauma alter the endogenous stress response, principally corticotropin-releasing hormone and its downstream effectors, suggesting that a gene x environment interaction at this locus may be important in depression...
  62. ncbi AX+/BX- discrimination learning in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm in monkeys
    James T Winslow
    National Institute of Mental Health, Intramural Research Program, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Learn Mem 15:63-6. 2008
    ..The present experiment adapted this procedure to the fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rhesus monkeys...
  63. pmc Identification and treatment of symptoms associated with inflammation in medically ill patients
    Robert Dantzer
    Integrative Immunology and Behavior Program, 212 ERML, 1201 W Gregory Drive, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 33:18-29. 2008
    ..This resulted in a number of recommendations that should improve the recognition and management of inflammation-associated symptoms in medically ill patients...
  64. ncbi Stress, menopause and vulnerability for psychiatric illness
    Charles B Nemeroff
    Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Expert Rev Neurother 7:S11-3. 2007
  65. ncbi The dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing factor test in men with major depression: role of childhood trauma
    Christine Heim
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 63:398-405. 2008
    ..We determined the impact of childhood trauma on dexamethasone/CRF test results in patients with MDD...
  66. ncbi Estrogen disrupts the inhibition of fear in female rats, possibly through the antagonistic effects of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta
    Donna J Toufexis
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, and The Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    J Neurosci 27:9729-35. 2007
    ..In contrast, neither E nor ERalpha and ERbeta agonists affected single-cue fear conditioning in either sex. These data suggest that E does not enhance fear in emotional learning but acts to disrupt the inhibition of fear in females only...
  67. pmc Targeting abnormal neural circuits in mood and anxiety disorders: from the laboratory to the clinic
    Kerry J Ressler
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 954 Gatewood Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:1116-24. 2007
    ..Although many of these approaches are experimental, the rapidly developing understanding of emotional circuit regulation is likely to provide exciting and powerful future treatments for debilitating mood and anxiety disorders...
  68. ncbi Role of the primate amygdala in fear-potentiated startle: effects of chronic lesions in the rhesus monkey
    Elena A Antoniadis
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Neurosci 27:7386-96. 2007
    ..These findings are discussed in relation to the role of the amygdala in emotional learning and in cross-species comparisons of emotional behavior...
  69. ncbi Combined pre- and postnatal environmental enrichment programs the HPA axis differentially in male and female rats
    L Welberg
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, WMB Suite 4000, 101 Woodruff Circle, Atlanta, GA 3022, USA
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 31:553-64. 2006
    ....