Gene Symbol: vsx2
Description: visual system homeobox 2
Alias: Vsx-2, alx, chx10, visual system homeobox 2, ceh-10 homeodomain containing homolog, homeobox protein ALX, homeobox protein CHX10, transcription factor VSX2
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Barabino S, Spada F, Cotelli F, Boncinelli E. Inactivation of the zebrafish homologue of Chx10 by antisense oligonucleotides causes eye malformations similar to the ocular retardation phenotype. Mech Dev. 1997;63:133-43 pubmed
    We report the cloning of a zebrafish paired-type homeobox gene, Alx, closely related to the murine Chx10 and the gold fish Vsx-I homeodomain proteins...
  2. Passini M, Kurtzman A, Canger A, Asch W, Wray G, Raymond P, et al. Cloning of zebrafish vsx1: expression of a paired-like homeobox gene during CNS development. Dev Genet. 1998;23:128-41 pubmed
    ..Other related genes encoding a CVC domain, such as vsx2 (alx) and chx10, are expressed both within and outside the retina during development...
  3. Stephens W, Senecal M, Nguyen M, Piotrowski T. Loss of adenomatous polyposis coli (apc) results in an expanded ciliary marginal zone in the zebrafish eye. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2066-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinal identity genes rx1 and vsx2, as well as meis1 and pax6a act upstream of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activation...
  4. Vitorino M, Jusuf P, Maurus D, Kimura Y, Higashijima S, Harris W. Vsx2 in the zebrafish retina: restricted lineages through derepression. Neural Dev. 2009;4:14 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we show that the homeodomain transcription factor Vsx2 is initially expressed throughout the retinal epithelium, but later it is downregulated in all but a ..
  5. Batista M, Jacobstein J, Lewis K. Zebrafish V2 cells develop into excitatory CiD and Notch signalling dependent inhibitory VeLD interneurons. Dev Biol. 2008;322:263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that Notch signalling is required for V2 cells to develop into V2b cells. In the absence of Notch signalling, all V2b cells develop as V2a cells. ..
  6. Passini M, Levine E, Canger A, Raymond P, Schechter N. Vsx-1 and Vsx-2: differential expression of two paired-like homeobox genes during zebrafish and goldfish retinogenesis. J Comp Neurol. 1997;388:495-505 pubmed
    ..phenotypes in mice with the ocular retardation mutation (orJ), further supporting the notion that Vsx-2 and Chx10 are homologues...
  7. Bielen H, Houart C. BMP signaling protects telencephalic fate by repressing eye identity and its Cxcr4-dependent morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2012;23:812-22 pubmed publisher
  8. Kimura Y, Satou C, Higashijima S. V2a and V2b neurons are generated by the final divisions of pair-producing progenitors in the zebrafish spinal cord. Development. 2008;135:3001-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that the terminal division of pair-producing progenitor cells in vertebrate neurogenesis can reproducibly produce two distinct neurons through a mechanism that may not depend on the orientation of the division axis. ..
  9. Kimura Y, Okamura Y, Higashijima S. alx, a zebrafish homolog of Chx10, marks ipsilateral descending excitatory interneurons that participate in the regulation of spinal locomotor circuits. J Neurosci. 2006;26:5684-97 pubmed
    ..zebrafish preparation, we have examined the properties of neurons marked by alx, a zebrafish homolog of mammalian Chx10. We performed morphological and physiological studies using transgenic zebrafish expressing fluorescent reporter ..

More Information


  1. Loosli F, Staub W, Finger Baier K, Ober E, Verkade H, Wittbrodt J, et al. Loss of eyes in zebrafish caused by mutation of chokh/rx3. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:894-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, these mutations in orthologous genes allow us to study the evolution of vertebrate eye development at the molecular level. ..
  2. Hutchinson S, Cheesman S, Hale L, Boone J, Eisen J. Nkx6 proteins specify one zebrafish primary motoneuron subtype by regulating late islet1 expression. Development. 2007;134:1671-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Nkx6 proteins regulate MiP development at least in part by maintaining the islet1 expression that is required both to promote the MiP subtype and to suppress interneuron development. ..
  3. Link B, Fadool J, Malicki J, Dowling J. The zebrafish young mutation acts non-cell-autonomously to uncouple differentiation from specification for all retinal cells. Development. 2000;127:2177-88 pubmed
    ..Mosaic experiments also suggest that young functions at or near the cell surface and is not freely diffusible. We conclude that the young mutation disrupts the post-specification development of all retinal neurons and glia cells. ..
  4. Kimura Y, Satou C, Fujioka S, Shoji W, Umeda K, Ishizuka T, et al. Hindbrain V2a neurons in the excitation of spinal locomotor circuits during zebrafish swimming. Curr Biol. 2013;23:843-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Chx10-expressing neurons (V2a neurons) are ipsilaterally projecting glutamatergic neurons in the spinal cord and the ..
  5. Williams A, Eason J, Chawla B, Bohnsack B. Cyp1b1 Regulates Ocular Fissure Closure Through a Retinoic Acid-Independent Pathway. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:1084-1097 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyp1b1 overexpression also inhibited the ocular expression of vsx2, pax6a, and pax6b and increased the extraocular expression of shha...
  6. Okigawa S, Mizoguchi T, Okano M, Tanaka H, Isoda M, Jiang Y, et al. Different combinations of Notch ligands and receptors regulate V2 interneuron progenitor proliferation and V2a/V2b cell fate determination. Dev Biol. 2014;391:196-206 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, V2-IN cell progenitor proliferation and V2a/V2b cell fate determination involve signaling through different sets of Notch ligand-receptor combinations that occur concurrently during development in zebrafish. ..
  7. Wong L, Power N, Miles A, Tropepe V. Mutual antagonism of the paired-type homeobox genes, vsx2 and dmbx1, regulates retinal progenitor cell cycle exit upstream of ccnd1 expression. Dev Biol. 2015;402:216-28 pubmed publisher
    ..present study we determined that during zebrafish embryonic retinal neurogenesis, two paired-type homeobox genes - vsx2 and dmbx1 - function in a mutually antagonistic manner...
  8. Gonzalez Nunez V, Nocco V, Budd A. Characterization of drCol 15a1b: a novel component of the stem cell niche in the zebrafish retina. Stem Cells. 2010;28:1399-411 pubmed publisher
  9. Meyers J, Hu L, Moses A, Kaboli K, Papandrea A, Raymond P. ?-catenin/Wnt signaling controls progenitor fate in the developing and regenerating zebrafish retina. Neural Dev. 2012;7:30 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the ?-catenin/Wnt cascade is part of the shared molecular circuitry that maintains retinal stem cells for both homeostatic growth and epimorphic regeneration. ..
  10. Miesfeld J, Link B. Establishment of transgenic lines to monitor and manipulate Yap/Taz-Tead activity in zebrafish reveals both evolutionarily conserved and divergent functions of the Hippo pathway. Mech Dev. 2014;133:177-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies highlight the utility of this transgenic tool-suite for ongoing analysis into the mechanisms of Hippo pathway regulation and the consequences of signaling output. ..
  11. Seredick S, Van Ryswyk L, Hutchinson S, Eisen J. Zebrafish Mnx proteins specify one motoneuron subtype and suppress acquisition of interneuron characteristics. Neural Dev. 2012;7:35 pubmed publisher
    ..This is, to our knowledge, the first report of transcription factors that act to distinguish CaP and MiP subtype identities. Our results also suggest that MiP motoneurons are more similar to V2 interneurons than are CaP motoneurons. ..
  12. Zhong Z, Ohnmacht J, Reimer M, Bach I, Becker T, Becker C. Chondrolectin mediates growth cone interactions of motor axons with an intermediate target. J Neurosci. 2012;32:4426-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, these results identify upstream regulators and downstream functions of chodl during motor axon growth. ..
  13. D Autilia S, Decembrini S, Casarosa S, He R, Barsacchi G, Cremisi F, et al. Cloning and developmental expression of the Xenopus homeobox gene Xvsx1. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:829-34 pubmed publisher
    In contrast to the high degree of evolutionary conservation of the Vsx2/Chx10 gene family, vertebrate orthologues of Vsx1 display more divergent sequences and spatio-temporal expression patterns...
  14. Link B, Kainz P, Ryou T, Dowling J. The perplexed and confused mutations affect distinct stages during the transition from proliferating to post-mitotic cells within the zebrafish retina. Dev Biol. 2001;236:436-53 pubmed
    ..From these studies, we conclude that the perplexed and confused genes are essential at distinct stages during the transition from proliferating to postmitotic cells within the zebrafish retina. ..
  15. Stil A, Drapeau P. Neuronal labeling patterns in the spinal cord of adult transgenic Zebrafish. Dev Neurobiol. 2016;76:642-60 pubmed publisher
    ..in which expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) is driven by promoters to hb9 and isl1 in motoneurons, alx/chx10 and evx1 interneurons, ngn1 in sensory neurons and olig2 in oligodendrocytes, as well as antibodies for neurons (..
  16. Wong L, Weadick C, Kuo C, Chang B, Tropepe V. Duplicate dmbx1 genes regulate progenitor cell cycle and differentiation during zebrafish midbrain and retinal development. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:100 pubmed publisher
  17. Tiso N, Filippi A, Benato F, Negrisolo E, Modena N, Vaccari E, et al. Differential expression and regulation of olig genes in zebrafish. J Comp Neurol. 2009;515:378-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a role for olig genes in CNS patterning as well as in multiple cell fate decisions during neural differentiation. ..
  18. Carlisle T, Ribera A. Connexin 35b expression in the spinal cord of Danio rerio embryos and larvae. J Comp Neurol. 2014;522:861-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, cx35b is present in other ventral interneurons of unknown subtype(s). This early expression of cx35b in SMNs and CiDs suggests a possible role in motor network function during embryonic and larval stages...
  19. Rai K, Chidester S, Zavala C, Manos E, James S, Karpf A, et al. Dnmt2 functions in the cytoplasm to promote liver, brain, and retina development in zebrafish. Genes Dev. 2007;21:261-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, zebrafish Dnmt2 methylates an RNA species of approximately 80 bases, consistent with tRNA methylation. Thus, Dnmt2 promotes zebrafish development, likely through cytoplasmic RNA methylation. ..
  20. Hutchinson S, Tooke Locke E, Wang J, Tsai S, Katz T, Trede N. Tbl3 regulates cell cycle length during zebrafish development. Dev Biol. 2012;368:261-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that tbl3 plays a tissue-specific role regulating cell cycle rate during development. ..
  21. Yin J, Morrissey M, Shine L, Kennedy C, Higgins D, Kennedy B. Genes and signaling networks regulated during zebrafish optic vesicle morphogenesis. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:825 pubmed publisher
  22. Clark B, Winter M, Cohen A, Link B. Generation of Rab-based transgenic lines for in vivo studies of endosome biology in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2452-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have established a toolset for in vivo analyses of endosome dynamics and functions. ..
  23. Zannino D, Downes G, SAGERSTROM C. prdm12b specifies the p1 progenitor domain and reveals a role for V1 interneurons in swim movements. Dev Biol. 2014;390:247-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that prdm12b is required for V1 interneuron specification and that these neurons control swimming movements in zebrafish. ..
  24. Olsen J, Wong L, Deimling S, Miles A, Guo H, Li Y, et al. G9a and ZNF644 Physically Associate to Suppress Progenitor Gene Expression during Neurogenesis. Stem Cell Reports. 2016;7:454-470 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data point to ZNF644 as a critical co-regulator of G9a/H3K9me2-mediated gene silencing during neuronal differentiation. ..
  25. Seritrakul P, Gross J. Tet-mediated DNA hydroxymethylation regulates retinal neurogenesis by modulating cell-extrinsic signaling pathways. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006987 pubmed publisher
  26. Gago Rodrigues I, Fernández Miñán A, Letelier J, Naranjo S, Tena J, Gómez Skarmeta J, et al. Analysis of opo cis-regulatory landscape uncovers Vsx2 requirement in early eye morphogenesis. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7054 pubmed publisher
    ..retina-specific element (H6_10137) and show that its activity depends on binding sites for the retinal determinant Vsx2. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments and ChIP analyses reveal that Vsx2 regulates opo expression through direct ..
  27. Kinkhabwala A, Riley M, Koyama M, Monen J, Satou C, Kimura Y, et al. A structural and functional ground plan for neurons in the hindbrain of zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This simple organization probably forms a foundation for the construction of the networks underlying the many behaviors produced by the hindbrain. ..
  28. Muto A, Arai K, Watanabe S. Rab11-FIP4 is predominantly expressed in neural tissues and involved in proliferation as well as in differentiation during zebrafish retinal development. Dev Biol. 2006;292:90-102 pubmed
  29. May M, Hwang K, MILES J, Williams C, Niranjan T, Kahler S, et al. ZC4H2, an XLID gene, is required for the generation of a specific subset of CNS interneurons. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:4848-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings clearly support ZC4H2 as a novel XLID gene with a required function in interneuron development. Loss of function of ZC4H2 thus likely results in altered connectivity of many brain and spinal circuits. ..
  30. Zhang Y, Yang Y, Trujillo C, Zhong W, Leung Y. The expression of irx7 in the inner nuclear layer of zebrafish retina is essential for a proper retinal development and lamination. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36145 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the expression of known TFs that can specify specific retinal cell type was also altered in Irx7-deficient retinas, thus the irx7 gene network is possibly a novel regulatory circuit for retinal development and lamination. ..
  31. Seredick S, Hutchinson S, Van Ryswyk L, Talbot J, Eisen J. Lhx3 and Lhx4 suppress Kolmer-Agduhr interneuron characteristics within zebrafish axial motoneurons. Development. 2014;141:3900-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conjunction with our previous work, these data reveal that distinct transcription factor families are deployed in post-mitotic MNs to unequivocally assign MN fate and suppress the development of alternative pMN-derived IN fates. ..