Gene Symbol: vsx1
Description: visual system homeobox 1 homolog, chx10-like
Alias: visual system homeobox 1, etID309864.17, paired-like homeobox protein, transcription factor VSX1, visual system homeobox 1 protein
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Vitorino M, Jusuf P, Maurus D, Kimura Y, Higashijima S, Harris W. Vsx2 in the zebrafish retina: restricted lineages through derepression. Neural Dev. 2009;4:14 pubmed publisher
    ..Vsx2 is a repressor whose targets include transcription factors such as Vsx1, which is expressed in the progenitors of distinct non-Vsx2 bipolars, and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription ..
  2. Shen Y, Raymond P. Zebrafish cone-rod (crx) homeobox gene promotes retinogenesis. Dev Biol. 2004;269:237-51 pubmed
    ..These results suggest novel functions for zebrafish crx during retinal specification and differentiation. ..
  3. Clark A, Yun S, Veien E, Wu Y, Chow R, Dorsky R, et al. Negative regulation of Vsx1 by its paralog Chx10/Vsx2 is conserved in the vertebrate retina. Brain Res. 2008;1192:99-113 pubmed
    Chx10/Vsx2 and Vsx1 are the only Paired-like CVC (Prd-L:CVC) homeobox genes in the mouse genome. Both are expressed in the retina and have important but distinct roles in retinal development...
  4. Randlett O, MacDonald R, Yoshimatsu T, Almeida A, Suzuki S, WONG R, et al. Cellular requirements for building a retinal neuropil. Cell Rep. 2013;3:282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that an IPL can form in the complete absence of BCs; therefore, we conclude that neither presynaptic nor postsynaptic processes are individually essential for the formation of this synaptic neuropil. ..
  5. Kimura Y, Satou C, Higashijima S. V2a and V2b neurons are generated by the final divisions of pair-producing progenitors in the zebrafish spinal cord. Development. 2008;135:3001-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, lineage relationships between V2a and V2b neurons have not been reported. We address this issue using Tg[vsx1:GFP] zebrafish, a model system in which high GFP expression is initiated near the final stage of p2 progenitors...
  6. Engerer P, Suzuki S, Yoshimatsu T, Chapouton P, Obeng N, Odermatt B, et al. Uncoupling of neurogenesis and differentiation during retinal development. EMBO J. 2017;36:1134-1146 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the uncoupling of neurogenesis and differentiation could provide neurogenic programs with flexibility, while allowing for synchronous neuronal development within a continuously expanding cell pool. ..
  7. D Orazi F, Zhao X, WONG R, Yoshimatsu T. Mismatch of Synaptic Patterns between Neurons Produced in Regeneration and during Development of the Vertebrate Retina. Curr Biol. 2016;26:2268-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, we find that regenerated BCs reinstate some, but not all, major features of their stereotypic wiring, suggesting that circuit patterns may be unable to regenerate with the same fidelity as in development. ..
  8. Peng C, Yajima H, Burns C, Zon L, Sisodia S, Pfaff S, et al. Notch and MAML signaling drives Scl-dependent interneuron diversity in the spinal cord. Neuron. 2007;53:813-27 pubmed
    ..Thus, our study provides insight into the cell-extrinsic signaling that controls combinatorial transcription factor profiles involved in regulating the process of interneuron subtype diversification. ..
  9. Lien H, Yuan R, Chou C, Chen Y, Hung C, Hu C, et al. Zebrafish cyclin Dx is required for development of motor neuron progenitors, and its expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 2?. Sci Rep. 2016;6:28297 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of cyclin Dx mRNA in Hif2? morphants partially rescued zccndx expression. Taken together, our data indicate that zebrafish cyclin Dx plays a role in maintaining the precursors of motor neurons. ..

More Information


  1. Kurtzman A, Gregori L, Haas A, Schechter N. Ubiquitination and degradation of the zebrafish paired-like homeobox protein VSX-1. J Neurochem. 2000;75:48-55 pubmed
    ..In addition, our findings suggest that ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis regulates Vsx-1 during zebrafish retinal development. ..
  2. Tong Y, Zheng K, Zhao S, Xiao G, Luo C. Sequence divergence in the 3'-untranslated region has an effect on the subfunctionalization of duplicate genes. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2012;318:531-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified two diverging duplicate vsx1 (visual system homeobox-1) loci in goldfish, named vsx1A1 and vsx1A2...
  3. Batista M, Jacobstein J, Lewis K. Zebrafish V2 cells develop into excitatory CiD and Notch signalling dependent inhibitory VeLD interneurons. Dev Biol. 2008;322:263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that Notch signalling is required for V2 cells to develop into V2b cells. In the absence of Notch signalling, all V2b cells develop as V2a cells. ..
  4. Cerda G, Hargrave M, Lewis K. RNA profiling of FAC-sorted neurons from the developing zebrafish spinal cord. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:150-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This protocol for dissociating, sorting and RNA-profiling neurons from organogenesis-stage zebrafish embryos should also be applicable to other developing organs and tissues and potentially other model organisms. ..
  5. May M, Hwang K, MILES J, Williams C, Niranjan T, Kahler S, et al. ZC4H2, an XLID gene, is required for the generation of a specific subset of CNS interneurons. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:4848-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings clearly support ZC4H2 as a novel XLID gene with a required function in interneuron development. Loss of function of ZC4H2 thus likely results in altered connectivity of many brain and spinal circuits. ..
  6. Li W, Zhou L, Li Z, Wang Y, Shi J, Yang Y, et al. Zebrafish Lbh-like Is Required for Otx2-mediated Photoreceptor Differentiation. Int J Biol Sci. 2015;11:688-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, knockdown of lbh-like increases the activity of Notch pathway and perturbs the balance among proliferation, differentiation and survival of photoreceptor precursors. ..
  7. Yokoi H, Yan Y, Miller M, Bremiller R, Catchen J, Johnson E, et al. Expression profiling of zebrafish sox9 mutants reveals that Sox9 is required for retinal differentiation. Dev Biol. 2009;329:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..identified genes expressed in cartilage (col2a1a and col11a2), retina (calb2a, calb2b, crx, neurod, rs1, sox4a and vsx1) and pectoral fin bud (klf2b and EST AI722369) as candidate targets for Sox9...
  8. Xu X, He Y, Sun L, Ma S, Luo C. Maternal Vsx1 plays an essential role in regulating prechordal mesendoderm and forebrain formation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2014;394:264-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that in zebrafish a maternal transcription repressor Vsx1 is essential for this early developmental regulation...
  9. He Y, Xu X, Zhao S, Ma S, Sun L, Liu Z, et al. Maternal control of axial-paraxial mesoderm patterning via direct transcriptional repression in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2014;386:96-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss- and gain-of-function experiments showed that a maternal transcription factor Vsx1 is essential for restricting flh expression within the dorsal margin and preserving spt expression and ..
  10. Sun L, Li H, Xu X, Xiao G, Luo C. MicroRNA-20a is essential for normal embryogenesis by targeting vsx1 mRNA in fish. RNA Biol. 2015;12:615-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that miR-20a can target the mRNA of vsx1, a multiple functional gene, at the 3'-UTR and inhibit protein expression in both goldfish and zebrafish...
  11. Kurtzman A, Schechter N. Ubc9 interacts with a nuclear localization signal and mediates nuclear localization of the paired-like homeobox protein Vsx-1 independent of SUMO-1 modification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:5602-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Ubc9 mediates the nuclear localization of Vsx-1, and possibly other proteins, through a nonenzymatic mechanism that is independent of SUMO-1 conjugation. ..
  12. Almeida A, Boije H, Chow R, He J, Tham J, Suzuki S, et al. Spectrum of Fates: a new approach to the study of the developing zebrafish retina. Development. 2014;141:1971-80 pubmed publisher
  13. Wan L, Almers W, Chen W. Two ribeye genes in teleosts: the role of Ribeye in ribbon formation and bipolar cell development. J Neurosci. 2005;25:941-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Their bipolar cells still target Syntaxin-3 proteins to the inner plexiform layer and have abundant vsx1 mRNA. However, they lack large synaptic terminals and show increased apoptosis...
  14. Zhang Y, Yang Y, Trujillo C, Zhong W, Leung Y. The expression of irx7 in the inner nuclear layer of zebrafish retina is essential for a proper retinal development and lamination. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36145 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the expression of known TFs that can specify specific retinal cell type was also altered in Irx7-deficient retinas, thus the irx7 gene network is possibly a novel regulatory circuit for retinal development and lamination. ..
  15. D Autilia S, Decembrini S, Casarosa S, He R, Barsacchi G, Cremisi F, et al. Cloning and developmental expression of the Xenopus homeobox gene Xvsx1. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:829-34 pubmed publisher
    In contrast to the high degree of evolutionary conservation of the Vsx2/Chx10 gene family, vertebrate orthologues of Vsx1 display more divergent sequences and spatio-temporal expression patterns...