Gene Symbol: vegfc
Description: vascular endothelial growth factor c
Alias: vascular endothelial growth factor C
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Hogan B, Bos F, Bussmann J, Witte M, Chi N, Duckers H, et al. Ccbe1 is required for embryonic lymphangiogenesis and venous sprouting. Nat Genet. 2009;41:396-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ccbe1 acts at the same stage of development as Vegfc and is required for lymphangioblast budding and angiogenic sprouting from venous endothelium.
  2. Covassin L, Villefranc J, Kacergis M, Weinstein B, Lawson N. Distinct genetic interactions between multiple Vegf receptors are required for development of different blood vessel types in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6554-9 pubmed
    ..We further find that Flt4, a receptor for Vegfc, cooperates with Kdr during artery morphogenesis, but not differentiation...
  3. Villefranc J, Nicoli S, Bentley K, Jeltsch M, Zarkada G, Moore J, et al. A truncation allele in vascular endothelial growth factor c reveals distinct modes of signaling during lymphatic and vascular development. Development. 2013;140:1497-506 pubmed publisher
    b>Vascular endothelial growth factor C (Vegfc) is a secreted protein that guides lymphatic development in vertebrate embryos. However, its role during developmental angiogenesis is not well characterized...
  4. Lien C, Schebesta M, Makino S, Weber G, Keating M. Gene expression analysis of zebrafish heart regeneration. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e260 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that zebrafish heart regeneration is associated with sequentially upregulated wound healing genes and growth factors and suggest that PDGF signaling is required. ..
  5. Ober E, Olofsson B, Makinen T, Jin S, Shoji W, Koh G, et al. Vegfc is required for vascular development and endoderm morphogenesis in zebrafish. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:78-84 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor C (Vegfc), an angiogenic as well as a lymphangiogenic factor, is unexpectedly involved in this ..
  6. van Rooijen E, Voest E, Logister I, Bussmann J, Korving J, van Eeden F, et al. von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor mutants faithfully model pathological hypoxia-driven angiogenesis and vascular retinopathies in zebrafish. Dis Model Mech. 2010;3:343-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, they will allow for a cost-effective, non-invasive and efficient way to screen for novel pharmacological agents and combinatorial treatments. ..
  7. Herbert S, Huisken J, Kim T, Feldman M, Houseman B, Wang R, et al. Arterial-venous segregation by selective cell sprouting: an alternative mode of blood vessel formation. Science. 2009;326:294-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, directional control of progenitor migration drives arterial-venous segregation and generation of separate parallel vessels from a single precursor vessel, a process essential for vascular development. ..
  8. Hogan B, Herpers R, Witte M, Helotera H, Alitalo K, Duckers H, et al. Vegfc/Flt4 signalling is suppressed by Dll4 in developing zebrafish intersegmental arteries. Development. 2009;136:4001-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that the Flt4 ligand Vegfc drives arterial hyperbranching in the absence of dll4...
  9. Gordon K, Schulte D, Brice G, Simpson M, Roukens M, van Impel A, et al. Mutation in vascular endothelial growth factor-C, a ligand for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, is associated with autosomal dominant milroy-like primary lymphedema. Circ Res. 2013;112:956-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Exome sequencing of 5 such patients was performed, and a novel frameshift variant, c.571_572insTT in VEGFC, a ligand for VEGFR3, was identified in 1 proband. The variant cosegregated with the affected status in the family...

More Information


  1. Küchler A, Gjini E, Peterson Maduro J, Cancilla B, Wolburg H, Schulte Merker S. Development of the zebrafish lymphatic system requires VEGFC signaling. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1244-8 pubmed
    ..from embryonic veins, and their development appears to be critically dependent on the function of PROX1 and VEGFC signaling . The existence of a lymphatic system in teleosts has been a matter of debate for decades...
  2. Yaniv K, Isogai S, Castranova D, Dye L, Hitomi J, Weinstein B. Live imaging of lymphatic development in the zebrafish. Nat Med. 2006;12:711-6 pubmed
    ..Our results show lymphatic endothelial cells of the thoracic duct arise from primitive veins through a novel and unexpected pathway. ..
  3. Okuda K, Astin J, Misa J, Flores M, Crosier K, Crosier P. lyve1 expression reveals novel lymphatic vessels and new mechanisms for lymphatic vessel development in zebrafish. Development. 2012;139:2381-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work highlights the additional complexity of lymphatic vessel development in the zebrafish that may increase its versatility as a model of lymphangiogenesis. ..
  4. Gore A, Swift M, Cha Y, Lo B, McKinney M, Li W, et al. Rspo1/Wnt signaling promotes angiogenesis via Vegfc/Vegfr3. Development. 2011;138:4875-86 pubmed publisher
    Here, we show that a novel Rspo1-Wnt-Vegfc-Vegfr3 signaling pathway plays an essential role in developmental angiogenesis...
  5. Koenig A, Baltrunaite K, Bower N, Rossi A, Stainier D, Hogan B, et al. Vegfa signaling promotes zebrafish intestinal vasculature development through endothelial cell migration from the posterior cardinal vein. Dev Biol. 2016;411:115-27 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vegfc and Vegfr3 function, however, are dispensable for intestinal vascularization...
  6. Bower N, Vogrin A, Le Guen L, Chen H, Stacker S, Achen M, et al. Vegfd modulates both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development. Development. 2017;144:507-518 pubmed publisher
    ..In the zebrafish trunk, Vegfa controls the formation of intersegmental arteries by primary angiogenesis and Vegfc is essential for secondary angiogenesis, giving rise to veins and lymphatics...
  7. Matsuoka R, Rossi A, Stone O, Stainier D. CNS-resident progenitors direct the vascularization of neighboring tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:10137-10142 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings identify a critical function for CNS-resident progenitors in the regulation of vascularization outside the CNS, serving as a paradigm for cross-tissue coordination of vascular morphogenesis and growth. ..
  8. Bayat N, Lopes V, Schölermann J, Jensen L, Cristobal S. Vascular toxicity of ultra-small TiO2 nanoparticles and single walled carbon nanotubes in vitro and in vivo. Biomaterials. 2015;63:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge this is the first study evaluating the effects of TiO2-USNPs on vascular toxicity in vitro and in vivo and this strategy could unravel USNPs potential applications. ..
  9. Shin M, Beane T, Quillien A, Male I, Zhu L, Lawson N. Vegfa signals through ERK to promote angiogenesis, but not artery differentiation. Development. 2016;143:3796-3805 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies implicate ERK as a specific effector of Vegfa signaling in the induction of angiogenic genes during sprouting. ..
  10. Zygmunt T, Gay C, Blondelle J, Singh M, Flaherty K, Means P, et al. Semaphorin-PlexinD1 signaling limits angiogenic potential via the VEGF decoy receptor sFlt1. Dev Cell. 2011;21:301-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, Sema-PlxnD1 signaling regulates distinct but related aspects of angiogenesis: the spatial allocation of angiogenic capacity within a primary vessel and sprout guidance. ..
  11. Crippa S, Nemir M, Ounzain S, Ibberson M, Berthonneche C, Sarre A, et al. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the injured zebrafish and mouse hearts identifies miRNA-dependent repair pathways. Cardiovasc Res. 2016;110:73-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel strategy identifies a series of miRNAs and associated pathways, in particular miR-26a, which represent attractive therapeutic targets for inducing repair in the injured heart. ..
  12. Kartopawiro J, Bower N, Karnezis T, Kazenwadel J, Betterman K, Lesieur E, et al. Arap3 is dysregulated in a mouse model of hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia and regulates lymphatic vascular development. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:1286-97 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in SOX18, VEGFC and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor 3 underlie the hereditary lymphatic disorders hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia (HLT), Milroy-like lymphedema and Milroy disease, respectively...
  13. Chou C, Hsu H, You M, Lin J, Liu Y. The endoderm indirectly influences morphogenetic movements of the zebrafish head kidney through the posterior cardinal vein and VegfC. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30677 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, knockdown of either vegfC or its receptor vegfr3 suppressed the head kidney convergence defect in endodermless embryos and perturbed the ..
  14. Lai J, Tsai S, Tu H, Chen W, Kou F, Lu J, et al. Zebrafish WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1 (wnk1) affects angiogenesis associated with VEGF signaling. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e106129 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the Vegf/Vegfr signaling pathway controls angiogenesis in zebrafish via Akt kinase-mediated phosphorylation and activation of Wnk1 as well as transcriptional regulation of wnk1 expression. ..
  15. Merrigan S, Kennedy B. Vitamin D receptor agonists regulate ocular developmental angiogenesis and modulate expression of dre-miR-21 and VEGF. Br J Pharmacol. 2017;174:2636-2651 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, zebrafish ocular vegfaa and vegfab expression was significantly increased while, vegfc, flt1 and kdrl expression was unchanged by calcitriol...
  16. Valcarce D, Vuelta E, Robles V, Herraez M. Paternal exposure to environmental 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol concentrations modifies testicular transcription, affecting the sperm transcript content and the offspring performance in zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;193:18-29 pubmed publisher
    ..incidence of lymphedemas within larvae, we performed qPCR analysis of genes involved in lymphatic development (vegfc and vegfr3) and endothelial cell migration guidance (cxcr4a and cxcl12b)...
  17. Watson O, Novodvorsky P, Gray C, Rothman A, Lawrie A, Crossman D, et al. Blood flow suppresses vascular Notch signalling via dll4 and is required for angiogenesis in response to hypoxic signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;100:252-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate important differences in hypoxia-driven vs. developmental angiogenesis. ..
  18. Kwon H, Fukuhara S, Asakawa K, Ando K, Kashiwada T, Kawakami K, et al. The parallel growth of motoneuron axons with the dorsal aorta depends on Vegfc/Vegfr3 signaling in zebrafish. Development. 2013;140:4081-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We tried to clarify the mechanism by which these motoneuron axons grow beneath the DA and found that Vegfc in the DA and Vegfr3 in the motoneurons were essential for the axon growth...
  19. Huang C, Huang C, Cheng Y, Yu J. Histamine metabolism influences blood vessel branching in zebrafish reg6 mutants. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:31 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that blood vessel branching is influenced by histamine metabolism, possibly through regulating the expression of the egr-1 transcription factor. ..
  20. van Impel A, Schulte Merker S. A fisheye view on lymphangiogenesis. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. 2014;214:153-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Not surprisingly, a number of known players were identified (such as vegfc and flt4), but work on zebrafish has also distinguished genes and proteins that had not previously been connected ..
  21. Astin J, Haggerty M, Okuda K, Le Guen L, Misa J, Tromp A, et al. Vegfd can compensate for loss of Vegfc in zebrafish facial lymphatic sprouting. Development. 2014;141:2680-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Vegfr3 signalling, through its ligand Vegfc and the extracellular protein Ccbe1, is essential for the sprouting of LECs to form the trunk lymphatic network...
  22. Weijts B, Bakker W, Cornelissen P, Liang K, Schaftenaar F, Westendorp B, et al. E2F7 and E2F8 promote angiogenesis through transcriptional activation of VEGFA in cooperation with HIF1. EMBO J. 2012;31:3871-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results uncover an unexpected link between E2F7/8 and the HIF1-VEGFA pathway providing a molecular mechanism by which E2F7/8 control angiogenesis. ..
  23. Koltowska K, Paterson S, Bower N, Baillie G, Lagendijk A, Astin J, et al. mafba is a downstream transcriptional effector of Vegfc signaling essential for embryonic lymphangiogenesis in zebrafish. Genes Dev. 2015;29:1618-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The apical signaling pathway in lymphangiogenesis is the VEGFC/VEGFR3 pathway, yet how signaling controls cellular transcriptional output remains unknown...
  24. Ernens I, Lumley A, Zhang L, Devaux Y, Wagner D. Hypoxia inhibits lymphatic thoracic duct formation in zebrafish. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;482:1129-1134 pubmed publisher
    ..While vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is critical for angiogenesis, VEGFC and its receptor VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) are essential for the initial sprouting and directed migration as well ..
  25. Wild R, Klems A, Takamiya M, Hayashi Y, Strahle U, Ando K, et al. Neuronal sFlt1 and Vegfaa determine venous sprouting and spinal cord vascularization. Nat Commun. 2017;8:13991 pubmed publisher
    ..Conceptually, our data suggest that spinal cord vascularization proceeds from veins involving two-tiered regulation of neuronal sFlt1 and Vegfaa via a novel sprouting mode. ..
  26. Roukens M, Peterson Maduro J, Padberg Y, Jeltsch M, Leppänen V, Bos F, et al. Functional Dissection of the CCBE1 Protein: A Crucial Requirement for the Collagen Repeat Domain. Circ Res. 2015;116:1660-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, CCBE1 has emerged as a crucial regulator of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGFC) signaling. CCBE1 is a secreted protein characterized by 2 EGF domains and 2 collagen repeats...
  27. Okuda K, Misa J, Oehlers S, Hall C, Ellett F, Alasmari S, et al. A zebrafish model of inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. Biol Open. 2015;4:1270-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Zebrafish macrophages express vascular growth factors vegfaa, vegfc and vegfd and chemical ablation of these cells inhibits intestinal lymphatic expansion, suggesting that the ..
  28. Lamont R, Wu C, Ryu J, Vu W, Davari P, Sobering R, et al. The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Islet2a promotes angioblast migration. Dev Biol. 2016;414:181-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus Isl2a may act as an intermediate between Notch signaling and genetic programs controlling angioblast number and migration, placing it as a novel transcriptional regulator of early angiogenesis. ..
  29. Le Guen L, Karpanen T, Schulte D, Harris N, Koltowska K, Roukens G, et al. Ccbe1 regulates Vegfc-mediated induction of Vegfr3 signaling during embryonic lymphangiogenesis. Development. 2014;141:1239-49 pubmed publisher
    The VEGFC/VEGFR3 signaling pathway is essential for lymphangiogenesis (the formation of lymphatic vessels from pre-existing vasculature) during embryonic development, tissue regeneration and tumor progression...
  30. Khatib A, Lahlil R, Scamuffa N, Akimenko M, Ernest S, Lomri A, et al. Zebrafish ProVEGF-C expression, proteolytic processing and inhibitory effect of unprocessed ProVEGF-C during fin regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11438 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that zebrafish fin regeneration is associated with up-regulation of VEGF-C and the convertases Furin and PC5 and highlight the inhibitory effect of unprocessed proVEGF-C on fin regeneration. ..
  31. Nicenboim J, Malkinson G, Lupo T, Asaf L, Sela Y, Mayseless O, et al. Lymphatic vessels arise from specialized angioblasts within a venous niche. Nature. 2015;522:56-61 pubmed
    ..More broadly, our findings highlight the cardinal vein as a heterogeneous structure, analogous to the haematopoietic niche in the aortic floor. ..
  32. Renz M, Otten C, Faurobert E, Rudolph F, Zhu Y, Boulday G, et al. Regulation of β1 integrin-Klf2-mediated angiogenesis by CCM proteins. Dev Cell. 2015;32:181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work reveals a β1 integrin-Klf2-Egfl7-signaling pathway that is tightly regulated by CCM proteins. This regulation prevents angiogenic overgrowth and ensures the quiescence of endothelial cells. ..
  33. Song M, Yang H, Yao S, Ma F, Li Z, Deng Y, et al. A critical role of vascular endothelial growth factor D in zebrafish embryonic vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:924-30 pubmed
  34. Cermenati S, Moleri S, Neyt C, Bresciani E, Carra S, Grassini D, et al. Sox18 genetically interacts with VegfC to regulate lymphangiogenesis in zebrafish. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:1238-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the transcription factor-coding gene SOX18 and in VEGFR3 cause lymphedema, and the VEGFR3/Flt4 ligand VEGFC plays an evolutionarily conserved role in lymphangiogenesis...
  35. Helker C, Schuermann A, Pollmann C, Chng S, Kiefer F, Reversade B, et al. The hormonal peptide Elabela guides angioblasts to the midline during vasculogenesis. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
  36. Kim J, Kang Y, Kim J, Papangeli I, Kang H, Wu J, et al. Essential role of Apelin signaling during lymphatic development in zebrafish. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34:338-45 pubmed publisher
  37. De Angelis J, Lagendijk A, Chen H, Tromp A, Bower N, Tunny K, et al. Tmem2 Regulates Embryonic Vegf Signaling by Controlling Hyaluronic Acid Turnover. Dev Cell. 2017;40:123-136 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, oligomerized HA or overexpression of Vegfc rescued angiogenesis in tmem2 mutants...
  38. Helker C, Schuermann A, Karpanen T, Zeuschner D, Belting H, Affolter M, et al. The zebrafish common cardinal veins develop by a novel mechanism: lumen ensheathment. Development. 2013;140:2776-86 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, EC proliferation within the growing CCV is controlled by Vascular endothelial growth factor C, which is provided by circulating erythrocytes...
  39. Priyadarshini M, Tuimala J, Chen Y, Panula P. A zebrafish model of PINK1 deficiency reveals key pathway dysfunction including HIF signaling. Neurobiol Dis. 2013;54:127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that a lack of pink1 in zebrafish alters many vital and critical pathways in addition to the HIF signaling pathway. ..
  40. Lagendijk A, Gomez G, Baek S, Hesselson D, Hughes W, Paterson S, et al. Live imaging molecular changes in junctional tension upon VE-cadherin in zebrafish. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1402 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we apply the TS to reveal biologically relevant changes in VE-cadherin tension that occur as the dorsal aorta matures and upon genetic and chemical perturbations during embryonic development. ..
  41. Ma J, Evrard S, Badiola I, Siegfried G, Khatib A. Regulation of the proprotein convertases expression and activity during regenerative angiogenesis: Role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Eur J Cell Biol. 2017;96:457-468 pubmed publisher
  42. Nicoli S, Knyphausen C, Zhu L, Lakshmanan A, Lawson N. miR-221 is required for endothelial tip cell behaviors during vascular development. Dev Cell. 2012;22:418-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify miR-221 as an important regulatory node through which tip cell migration and proliferation are controlled during angiogenesis. ..
  43. Chen J, Zhu R, Li F, Liang Y, Wang C, Qin Y, et al. MicroRNA-126a Directs Lymphangiogenesis Through Interacting With Chemokine and Flt4 Signaling in Zebrafish. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:2381-2393 pubmed
    ..lymphatic endothelial cell sprouting and extension by interacting with Cxcl12a-mediated chemokine signaling and Vegfc-Flt4 signal axis...
  44. Feng G, Long Y, Peng J, Li Q, Cui Z. Transcriptomic characterization of the dorsal lobes after hepatectomy of the ventral lobe in zebrafish. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:979 pubmed publisher
  45. Shin M, Male I, Beane T, Villefranc J, Kok F, Zhu L, et al. Vegfc acts through ERK to induce sprouting and differentiation of trunk lymphatic progenitors. Development. 2016;143:3785-3795 pubmed
    b>Vascular endothelial growth factor C (Vegfc) activates its receptor, Flt4, to induce lymphatic development. However, the signals that act downstream of Flt4 in this context in vivo remain unclear...
  46. Wiley D, Kim J, Hao J, Hong C, Bautch V, Jin S. Distinct signalling pathways regulate sprouting angiogenesis from the dorsal aorta and the axial vein. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:686-92 pubmed publisher
  47. Koltowska K, Lagendijk A, Pichol Thievend C, Fischer J, Francois M, Ober E, et al. Vegfc Regulates Bipotential Precursor Division and Prox1 Expression to Promote Lymphatic Identity in Zebrafish. Cell Rep. 2015;13:1828-41 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vegfc drives cell division and Prox1 expression in lymphatic daughter cells, coupling signaling dynamics with daughter ..
  48. Chen X, Gays D, Milia C, Santoro M. Cilia Control Vascular Mural Cell Recruitment in Vertebrates. Cell Rep. 2017;18:1033-1047 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have identified a hemodynamic-dependent mechanism in the developing vasculature that controls vMC recruitment. ..
  49. Kuroyanagi J, Shimada Y, Zhang B, Ariyoshi M, Umemoto N, Nishimura Y, et al. Zinc finger MYND-type containing 8 promotes tumour angiogenesis via induction of vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:3409-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Integrated analysis of human and zebrafish transcriptomes, which identified ZMYND8, might be a powerful strategy to determine also other molecular targets for inhibiting prostate cancer progression. ..
  50. Coxam B, Neyt C, Grassini D, Le Guen L, Smith K, Schulte Merker S, et al. carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase (cad) regulates Notch signaling and vascular development in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2015;244:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, genetic epistasis showed that increased endothelial cell responsiveness to Vegfc/Vegfr3 signaling drives excessive artery branching...
  51. Marín Juez R, Marass M, Gauvrit S, Rossi A, Lai S, Materna S, et al. Fast revascularization of the injured area is essential to support zebrafish heart regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:11237-11242 pubmed
    ..Our work also paves the way for future studies designed to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate fast revascularization. ..
  52. Hoffman S, Psaltis P, Clark K, Spoon D, Chue C, Ekker S, et al. An in vivo method to quantify lymphangiogenesis in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45240 pubmed publisher
    ..cell transplantation resulted in increased lymphatic capillary growth, while morpholino-based knockdown of vegfc and chemical inhibitors of lymphangiogenesis added to the aqueous environment resulted in decreased lymphatic ..
  53. Bonventre J, Kung T, White L, Cooper K. Manipulation of the HIF-Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;273:623-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. ..
  54. Flores M, Hall C, Crosier K, Crosier P. Visualization of embryonic lymphangiogenesis advances the use of the zebrafish model for research in cancer and lymphatic pathologies. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2128-35 pubmed publisher
    ..pattern during embryogenesis, and under conditions where key regulators of lymphangiogenesis such as Prox1 and VegfC were depleted...
  55. Goi M, Childs S. Patterning mechanisms of the sub-intestinal venous plexus in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2016;409:114-128 pubmed publisher
    ..However Vegf promotes sprouting of the predominantly venous plexus and Bmp promotes outgrowth of the structure. We propose that the SIVP is a unique model to understand novel mechanisms utilized in organ-specific angiogenesis. ..
  56. Yaniv K, Isogai S, Castranova D, Dye L, Hitomi J, Weinstein B. Imaging the developing lymphatic system using the zebrafish. Novartis Found Symp. 2007;283:139-48; discussion 148-51, 238-41 pubmed
    ..Our data provide conclusive new evidence supporting a venous origin for primitive lymphatic endothelial cells. ..