Gene Symbol: tyr
Description: tyrosinase
Alias: sandy, zgc:109705, tyrosinase, oca1, sdy, tyra
Species: zebrafish
Products:     tyr

Top Publications

  1. Kelsh R, Brand M, Jiang Y, Heisenberg C, Lin S, Haffter P, et al. Zebrafish pigmentation mutations and the processes of neural crest development. Development. 1996;123:369-89 pubmed
    ..In combination with the embryological advantages of zebrafish, these mutations should permit cellular and molecular dissection of many aspects of neural crest development...
  2. Mellgren E, Johnson S. A requirement for kit in embryonic zebrafish melanocyte differentiation is revealed by melanoblast delay. Dev Genes Evol. 2004;214:493-502 pubmed
    ..Finally, we suggest there is a heterochronic shift in the onset of melanocyte differentiation between fish and mouse, and developmental delay of melanoblast development in zebrafish removes this heterochronic difference. ..
  3. Burgoyne T, O Connor M, Seabra M, Cutler D, Futter C. Regulation of melanosome number, shape and movement in the zebrafish retinal pigment epithelium by OA1 and PMEL. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:1400-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings indicate that melanosome number and shape are independently regulated and that melanosome shape controls a function in the RPE that depends on localisation in the apical processes. ..
  4. Guillot R, Muriach B, Rocha A, Rotllant J, Kelsh R, Cerdá Reverter J. Thyroid Hormones Regulate Zebrafish Melanogenesis in a Gender-Specific Manner. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0166152 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, treatment down-regulated expression of tyrosinase-related protein 1 in both sexes...
  5. Liu C, Yan W, Zhou B, Guo Y, Liu H, Yu H, et al. Characterization of a bystander effect induced by the endocrine-disrupting chemical 6-propyl-2-thiouracil in zebrafish embryos. Aquat Toxicol. 2012;118-119:108-115 pubmed publisher
    ..to PTU decreased the melanin content, up-regulated mRNA expressions of oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2), tyrosinase (TYR), dopachrometautomerase (DCT), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) and silver (SILV), and increased the ..
  6. Kotani H, Taimatsu K, Ohga R, Ota S, Kawahara A. Efficient Multiple Genome Modifications Induced by the crRNAs, tracrRNA and Cas9 Protein Complex in Zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0128319 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that the disruption of tyrosinase (tyr) by tyr-gRNA/Cas9 mRNA causes a retinal pigment defect, whereas the disruption of spns2 by spns2-gRNA1/Cas9 ..
  7. Van Otterloo E, Li W, Bonde G, Day K, Hsu M, Cornell R. Differentiation of zebrafish melanophores depends on transcription factors AP2 alpha and AP2 epsilon. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001122 pubmed publisher
    ..Microphthalmia (Mitf), which promotes differentiation and survival of melanocytes by activating expression of Tyrosinase family members, Bcl2, and other genes...
  8. Paksa A, Bandemer J, Hoeckendorf B, Razin N, Tarbashevich K, Minina S, et al. Repulsive cues combined with physical barriers and cell-cell adhesion determine progenitor cell positioning during organogenesis. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11288 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of these developmental and cellular mechanisms prevents organ fusion, controls organ positioning and is thus critical for its proper function. ..
  9. Yin L, Maddison L, Li M, Kara N, LaFave M, Varshney G, et al. Multiplex Conditional Mutagenesis Using Transgenic Expression of Cas9 and sgRNAs. Genetics. 2015;200:431-41 pubmed publisher
    ..zebrafish U6 promoters for sgRNA expression and demonstrate efficient multiplex biallelic inactivation of tyrosinase and insulin receptor a and b, resulting in defects in pigmentation and glucose homeostasis...

More Information


  1. Di Donato V, De Santis F, Auer T, Testa N, Sánchez Iranzo H, Mercader N, et al. 2C-Cas9: a versatile tool for clonal analysis of gene function. Genome Res. 2016;26:681-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our technique has the potential to be applied to diverse model organisms, enabling tissue-specific loss-of-function and phenotypic characterization of live and fixed tissues. ..
  2. Yang C, Johnson S. Small molecule-induced ablation and subsequent regeneration of larval zebrafish melanocytes. Development. 2006;133:3563-73 pubmed
    ..ablates zebrafish larval melanocytes or melanoblasts, and that this melanocytotoxicity is dependent on tyrosinase activity, which presumably converts MoTP to cytotoxic quinone species...
  3. Feng Y, Chen C, Han Y, Chen Z, Lu X, Liang F, et al. Expanding CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Capacity in Zebrafish Using SaCas9. G3 (Bethesda). 2016;6:2517-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the expanded target repertoire of Cas9 in zebrafish should further facilitate the utility of this organism for genetic studies of vertebrate biology. ..
  4. Grainger S, Lonquich B, Oon C, Nguyen N, Willert K, Traver D. CRISPR Guide RNA Validation In Vitro. Zebrafish. 2017;14:383-386 pubmed publisher
    ..When combined with endonucleases with alternative protospacer adjacent motif site specificities and alternative sgRNAs, this method will streamline genome editing at almost any locus. ..
  5. Haffter P, Odenthal J, Mullins M, Lin S, Farrell M, Vogelsang E, et al. Mutations affecting pigmentation and shape of the adult zebrafish. Dev Genes Evol. 1996;206:260-76 pubmed publisher
    ..visible phenotypes in the homozygous adult, a group of mutations that failed to produce melanin was assayed for tyrosinase activity. Mutations in sandy produced embryos that failed to express tyrosinase activity...
  6. Baek S, Lee S. Sesamol decreases melanin biosynthesis in melanocyte cells and zebrafish: Possible involvement of MITF via the intracellular cAMP and p38/JNK signalling pathways. Exp Dermatol. 2015;24:761-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Sesamol strongly inhibited melanin biosynthesis and the activity of intracellular tyrosinase by decreasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation...
  7. Mouti M, Dee C, Coupland S, Hurlstone A. Minimal contribution of ERK1/2-MAPK signalling towards the maintenance of oncogenic GNAQQ209P-driven uveal melanomas in zebrafish. Oncotarget. 2016;7:39654-39670 pubmed publisher
  8. Hisano Y, Sakuma T, Nakade S, Ohga R, Ota S, Okamoto H, et al. Precise in-frame integration of exogenous DNA mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 system in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2015;5:8841 pubmed publisher
    ..We succeeded in integrating with high efficiency an exogenous mCherry or eGFP gene into targeted genes (tyrosinase and krtt1c19e) in frame...
  9. Thang N, Diep P, Lien P, Lien L. Polygonum multiflorum root extract as a potential candidate for treatment of early graying hair. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2017;8:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..melanoma cells and also in zebrafish embryos/larvae at 4-day postfertilization through activation of MC1R/MITF/tyrosinase-signaling pathway...
  10. Hwang K, Yang J, Lee J, Lee Y, Kim S, Kim G, et al. A novel anti-melanogenic agent, KDZ-001, inhibits tyrosinase enzymatic activity. J Dermatol Sci. 2018;89:165-171 pubmed publisher
    ..Pigmentation production was assessed by tyrosinase (TYR) enzymatic activity and melanin contents...
  11. Tryon R, Pisat N, Johnson S, Dougherty J. Development of translating ribosome affinity purification for zebrafish. Genesis. 2013;51:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also generated a generic EGFP-rpl10a Tol2 plasmid construct (Tol2-zTRAP) that can be readily modified to target any additional cell populations with characterized promoters in zebrafish. ..
  12. Neuhauss S. Behavioral genetic approaches to visual system development and function in zebrafish. J Neurobiol. 2003;54:148-60 pubmed
    ..Here, I summarize visually mediated behaviors of both larval and adult zebrafish and their applicability for genetic screens, and present, the approaches and results of visual behavior carried out to date. ..
  13. Bohnsack B, Kahana A. Thyroid hormone and retinoic acid interact to regulate zebrafish craniofacial neural crest development. Dev Biol. 2013;373:300-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that TH regulates both rostral and caudal cranial neural crest. Further, coordinated interactions of TH and RA are required for proper craniofacial and ocular development...
  14. Zhou S, Dong Q, Li S, Guo J, Wang X, Zhu G. Developmental toxicity of cartap on zebrafish embryos. Aquat Toxicol. 2009;95:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We also revealed that cartap inhibited the activity of melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase and matrix enzyme lysyl oxidase and induced expression of their genes...
  15. Nornes S, Newman M, Wells S, Verdile G, Martins R, Lardelli M. Independent and cooperative action of Psen2 with Psen1 in zebrafish embryos. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:2791-801 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of changes in Psen2 activity on DoLA interneurons and other cells in zebrafish embryos provide bioassays for more detailed dissection of Psen2 function. ..
  16. Tamme R, Camp E, Kortschak R, Lardelli M. Nonspecific, nested suppression PCR method for isolation of unknown flanking DNA. Biotechniques. 2000;28:895-9, 902 pubmed
    ..These fragments are subsequently identified by hybridization with the 100 bp of known sequence or simply by cloning and sequencing. The method is widely applicable and allows isolation of novel cDNA from very low abundance transcripts. ..
  17. Li M, Cheng R, Liang J, Yan H, Zhang H, Yang L, et al. Mutations in POFUT1, encoding protein O-fucosyltransferase 1, cause generalized Dowling-Degos disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;92:895-903 pubmed publisher
    ..At 48 and 72 hpf, tyrosinase activities decreased by 33% and 45%, respectively, and melanin protein contents decreased by 20% and 25%, ..
  18. Seberg H, Van Otterloo E, Loftus S, Liu H, Bonde G, Sompallae R, et al. TFAP2 paralogs regulate melanocyte differentiation in parallel with MITF. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006636 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, they suggest that TFAP2A activity, like MITF activity, has the potential to modulate the phenotype of melanoma cells. ..
  19. Walpita C, Crawford A, Janssens E, Van der Geyten S, Darras V. Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase is essential for thyroid hormone-dependent embryonic development and pigmentation in zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2009;150:530-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tyrosinase expression was also down-regulated in D2 knockdown embryos to a greater degree than could be predicted by the ..
  20. Wang Z, Nishimura Y, Shimada Y, Umemoto N, Hirano M, Zang L, et al. Zebrafish beta-adrenergic receptor mRNA expression and control of pigmentation. Gene. 2009;446:18-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that adrb2a may regulate pigmentation, partly by modulating F1F0-ATPase. ..
  21. Mu X, Chai T, Wang K, Zhu L, Huang Y, Shen G, et al. The developmental effect of difenoconazole on zebrafish embryos: A mechanism research. Environ Pollut. 2016;212:18-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes related to hatching, retinoic acid metabolism and lipid homeostasis were up-regulated by difenoconazole. ..
  22. Michel M, Page McCaw P, Chen W, Cone R. Leptin signaling regulates glucose homeostasis, but not adipostasis, in the zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:3084-9 pubmed publisher
  23. Zhang Y, Qin W, Lu X, Xu J, Huang H, Bai H, et al. Programmable base editing of zebrafish genome using a modified CRISPR-Cas9 system. Nat Commun. 2017;8:118 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of base editing enables precise genetic modifications in model animals. Here the authors show high efficient single-base editing in zebrafish using modified Cas9 and its VQR variant with an altered PAM specificity. ..
  24. Hoegg S, Brinkmann H, Taylor J, Meyer A. Phylogenetic timing of the fish-specific genome duplication correlates with the diversification of teleost fish. J Mol Evol. 2004;59:190-203 pubmed
    ..In this study, three nuclear genes ( fzd8, sox11, tyrosinase) were sequenced from sturgeons (Acipenseriformes), gars (Semionotiformes), bony tongues (Osteoglossomorpha), and ..
  25. Liu L, Li Y, Coelhan M, Chan H, Ma W, Liu L. Relative developmental toxicity of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Environ Pollut. 2016;219:1122-1130 pubmed publisher
    ..Only C10H18Cl4 significantly decreased the mRNA expression of tyr, ttr, dio2 and dio3 at a dose-dependent manner suggesting that the specific mode of actions differ with different ..
  26. Dooley C, Schwarz H, Mueller K, Mongera A, Konantz M, Neuhauss S, et al. Slc45a2 and V-ATPase are regulators of melanosomal pH homeostasis in zebrafish, providing a mechanism for human pigment evolution and disease. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013;26:205-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Through ultrastructural analysis of the melanosomes in albino alleles as well as the tyrosinase-deficient mutant sandy, we add new insights into the role of Slc45a2 in the production of melanin...
  27. Kim M, Lee H, Im M, Lee Y, Kim C, Lee J, et al. Effect of adenosine on melanogenesis in b16 cells and zebrafish. Ann Dermatol. 2014;26:209-13 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand the mechanism of the effect of adenosine on melanogenesis in B16 cells, melanin content and tyrosinase activity were measured...
  28. Noonin C, Watthanasurorot A, Winberg S, Söderhäll I. Circadian regulation of melanization and prokineticin homologues is conserved in the brain of freshwater crayfish and zebrafish. Dev Comp Immunol. 2013;40:218-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the expression of tyrosinase, an enzyme which expression is regulated by E-box elements like in Prok2, was also examined in zebrafish brain ..
  29. Tsetskhladze Z, Canfield V, Ang K, Wentzel S, Reid K, Berg A, et al. Functional assessment of human coding mutations affecting skin pigmentation using zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47398 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed approach may be extended to other model systems and may potentially contribute to our understanding the functional relationships between DNA sequence variation, human biology, and disease. ..
  30. Quigley I, Manuel J, Roberts R, Nuckels R, Herrington E, MacDonald E, et al. Evolutionary diversification of pigment pattern in Danio fishes: differential fms dependence and stripe loss in D. albolineatus. Development. 2005;132:89-104 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest evolutionary changes in the fms pathway or fms requirements, and identify changes in cellular interactions as a likely mechanism of evolutionary change in Danio pigment patterns...
  31. Park J, Ryu J, Choi T, Bae Y, Lee S, Kang H, et al. Innate Color Preference of Zebrafish and Its Use in Behavioral Analyses. Mol Cells. 2016;39:750-755 pubmed
    ..To study innate color recognition further, tyrosinase mutants were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 system...
  32. Beirl A, Linbo T, Cobb M, Cooper C. oca2 Regulation of chromatophore differentiation and number is cell type specific in zebrafish. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014;27:178-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest distinct mechanisms for oca2 in establishing differentiated chromatophore number in developing zebrafish. ..
  33. Rees H, Komor A, Yeh W, Caetano Lopes J, Warman M, Edge A, et al. Improving the DNA specificity and applicability of base editing through protein engineering and protein delivery. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15790 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we apply these advances to deliver BE3 RNPs into both zebrafish embryos and the inner ear of live mice to achieve specific, DNA-free base editing in vivo. ..
  34. Baek S, Lee S. Omeprazole inhibits melanin biosynthesis in melan-a cells and zebrafish. Exp Dermatol. 2016;25:239-41 pubmed publisher
  35. Greenhill E, Rocco A, Vibert L, Nikaido M, Kelsh R. An iterative genetic and dynamical modelling approach identifies novel features of the gene regulatory network underlying melanocyte development. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002265 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, this novel approach to understanding melanocyte differentiation provides a basis for systematic modelling of differentiation in this and other cell-types. ..
  36. Page McCaw P, Chung S, Muto A, Roeser T, Staub W, Finger Baier K, et al. Retinal network adaptation to bright light requires tyrosinase. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:1329-36 pubmed
    ..We report here that mutation of the zebrafish sdy gene, which encodes tyrosinase, slows down the onset of adaptation to bright light...
  37. Jao L, Wente S, Chen W. Efficient multiplex biallelic zebrafish genome editing using a CRISPR nuclease system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:13904-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1mnx1:egfp) and four endogenous loci (tyr, golden, mitfa, and ddx19)...
  38. Lister J, Capper A, Zeng Z, Mathers M, Richardson J, Paranthaman K, et al. A conditional zebrafish MITF mutation reveals MITF levels are critical for melanoma promotion vs. regression in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:133-140 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies are significant because they show that targeting MITF activity is a potent antitumor mechanism, but also show that caution is required because low levels of wild-type MITF activity are oncogenic. ..
  39. Kim K, Zaikova T, Hutchison J, Tanguay R. Gold nanoparticles disrupt zebrafish eye development and pigmentation. Toxicol Sci. 2013;133:275-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results demonstrated that TMAT-AuNPs disrupt the progression of eye development and pigmentation that continues to behavioral and neuronal damage in the developing zebrafish...
  40. Clements T, Tandon B, Lintel H, McCarty J, Wagner D. RICE CRISPR: Rapidly increased cut ends by an exonuclease Cas9 fusion in zebrafish. Genesis. 2017;55: pubmed publisher